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Introduction to Occupation: The Art and Science of Living, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Charles Christiansen, Elizabeth Townsend

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Jan 28, 2009

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Taking a global look at human occupation, this groundbreaking text comprehensively explores people’s participation in their respective lives’ endeavors within their environments, their societies, and with each other.  A renowned team of authors takes the view that occupations include all meaningful acts that collectively define and give meaning to daily life.  This resource communicates a breadth of new information on the study of occupation–the defining experiences that reflect how culture, values, and opportunities shape and improve life.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1     An Introduction to Occupation by Charles Christiansen & Elizabeth Townsend 

Chapter Profile  


Understanding the Complexity of Occupation  

How Do You Occupy Your Time?  

What Occupies You?  

Occupations Create Meaning

What Is Your Occupation?     

How Does Context Determine What People Do (And When)?

            Biological Factors

            Psychological Factors

            Contextual Factors

Occupations, Health, Well-Being and Participation in Society

Chapter Summary  



Chapter 2   Cultural Perspectives on Occupations by Michael Iwama

Chapter Profile


Relativism and the Consequences of Culture

            Culture in Time and Place

            Culture as Shared Experience and Meanings

            Science as Culture and Context for Occupational Knowledge

Situated Constructions of Occupation: A Cultural Example

Particular World Views: East Asian Views of the Cosmos

            An Examination of the East Asian Version of the Cosmological Myth

            Vertifical and Horizontal Social Indexing

                        Vertical Social Indexing

                        Horizontal Social Indexing

Inter-dependence and “Amae”



Chapter 3     The Study of Occupation by Helene Polatajko

Chapter Profile  


Ways of Knowing

Understanding the Who, What, When, Where, How and Why of Occupation

            Disciplinary Ways of Knowing

            Paradigms for Inquiry

            Paradigms for the Study of Occupation

Methods of Inquiry for the Study of Occupation

            The Question

            Design and Data Collection Methods

Understanding Who  

Understanding What  

Understanding When  

Understanding Where  

Understanding How  

Understanding Why  

Chapter Summary  




Chapter 4   What Is Occupation? Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Defining and Classifying Human Activity by Jennifer Jarman

Chapter Profile  


Occupation in Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science  

Occupation in the Social Sciences  

Occupation in Government Statistics  

Chapter Summary  




Chapter 5   What Do People Do?  By Andrew Harvey & Wendy Pentland

Chapter Profile  


The Structure of Daily Occupations  

Conceptualizing What People Do

Four Types of Occupations: Necessary, Contracted, Committed, Free Time

Occupational Roles

Life Projects

Meaning of Activities and Occupations

Factors Influencing What People Do: Intrinsic, Extrinsic

Dimensions of Occupational Behavior

Contextual Constraints Influencing Occupational Behavour  

Why Study What People Do?  

How Do We Find Out What People Do?  

What Do People Do?  

            Time Use Across Countries Over Time

            Time Use Across Sub-populations

            The Context of Doing

            Secondary Activity and Occupation

Chapter Summary



Chapter 6   Occupational Development by Jane Davis & Helene Polatajko

Chapter Profile  


An Occupational Perspective on Development

            An Occupational Perspective

            A Perspective on Development

Interactionism as a Framework for Occupational Development

            An Interactionist Definition of Occupational Development

            An Interactional Model of Occupational Development

Chapter Summary  




Chapter 7   The Occupational Nature of Social Groups by Charles Christiansen & Elizabeth Townsend

Chapter Profile  


What Makes Communities Inherently Social and Occupational? Experiencing Shared Occupations  

How and Why Did Group Living Develop? Evolutionary Highlights in Developing the Occupational Nature of Social Groups  

How and Why Do Occupations Determine a Social Group’s Potential to Flounder or Flourish?  

Chapter Summary  



Chapter 8   Occupational Transitions: Work to Retirement by Hans Jonsson

Chapter Profile


Retirement as an Occupational Transition

Attitudes to Retirement

Leaving Work for Retirement — Why are you Leaving?

Different Directions in Retirement Narratives

Going into Retirement — Why are you Entering?

The Paradox of Freedom

Gliding Into a Slower Rhythm of Life

Change in Meaning

Two Types of Retirement Narratives — To Get Time or To Kill Time

Engaging Occupation For a Good Life as Retiree

Cultural Images of Retirement



Chapter 9   Occupational Balance and Well-Being by Catherine Backman

Chapter Profile


Occupational Balance

            Origins in Occupational Therapy

            Occupational Imbalance

Work — Life Balance

            Work — Life Conflict and Role Overload

Lifestyle Balance

Is Occupational Balance Achievable?

Occupational Balance, Health and Well-Being

Chapter Summary



Chapter 10          Occupations and Places by Tobi Ballou Hamilton

Chapter Profile  


Understanding Place

Occupations as Experiences in Places  

How Places Influence Occupation  

Places as Environments for Learning, Play and Safety  

How Occupations Influence Places  

Place, Occupations, and Well-Being

Chapter Summary  



Chapter 11 Work, Occupation and Leisure by Jiri Zuzanek

Chapter Profile


Empirical Support for the Work-Leisure Relationship Scenarios

Leisure and Occupation

Long Hours of Work, Time Crunch, and Leisure

Chapter Summary  



Chapter 12   Occupational Deprivation: Understanding Limited Participation by Gail Whiteford

Chapter Profile  


Defining Occupational Deprivation  

Identifying Barriers to Participation: Five Illustrations of Occupational Deprivation

            Geographic Isolation

            Problem Conditions of Employment


            Sex-Role Stereotyping


Disability and Occupational Deprivation

Using an Occupational Justice Framework to Address Occupational Deprivation

Chapter Summary  


Suggested Readings


Chapter 13 Occupational Justice by Robin Stadnyk, Elizabeth Townsend & Ann Wilcock 

Chapter Profile  


Defining Occupational Justice

Ideas About Justice

An Evolving Theory of Occupational Justice  

Distinctions Between Occupational and Social Justice  

Using Stories to Consider an Exploratory Theory of Occupational Justice

Chapter Summary  




Chapter 14          Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy: Occupation at Centre Stage by Matthew Molineux

Chapter Profile

Occupational Therapy

           A Brief Historical Overview

           Occupation in Practice

Occupational Science

           What is Occupational Science?

           Occupational Science Research

The Relationship Between the Science and Therapy




Chapter 15          Globalization and Occupation: Perspectives from Japan, South Africa, and Japan by Eric Asaba, Alfred Ramukumba, Annah Lesunyani, & Simon Kam Man Wong

Chapter Profile


An Occupational Perspective from Japan


           Observations from Japanese Psychiatry

            Activity, Time Use, and Technological Trends

            Reflections on Past, Present, and Future


An Occupational Perspective from South Africa

            Diverse Cultural Contexts

            Occupational Choices

            Common Occupations Among South Africans

            Occupations Creating Communities

            Community Development Occupations

            Current and Future Possible Occupations in the South African Context

An Occupational Perspective from Hong Kong, China


            Typical Occupations in Hong Kong

            Technology and Occupation

             Globalization and Occupation

             Political, Socioeconomic Environment and Occupation


Chapter Summary



Answers to Study Guide Questions




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Introduction to Occupation: The Art and Science of Living, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition
Format: Safari Book

$30.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-507415-2