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Introduction to Wireless Systems

By Frederick C. Berry, Bruce A. Black, Philip S. DiPiazza, Bruce A. Ferguson, David R. Voltmer

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: May 18, 2008

Description

This is the eBook version of the printed book.

A Coherent Systems View of Wireless and Cellular Network Design and Implementation

Written for senior-level undergraduates, first-year graduate students, and junior technical professionals, Introduction to Wireless Systems offers a coherent systems view of the crucial lower layers of today’s cellular systems. The authors introduce today’s most important propagation issues, modulation techniques, and access schemes, illuminating theory with real-world examples from modern cellular systems. They demonstrate how elements within today’s wireless systems interrelate, clarify the trade-offs associated with delivering high-quality service at acceptable cost, and demonstrate how systems are designed and implemented by teams of complementary specialists.

Coverage includes
  • Understanding the challenge of moving information wirelessly between two points
  • Explaining how system and subsystem designers work together to analyze, plan, and implement optimized wireless systems
  • Designing for quality reception: using the free-space range equation, and accounting for thermal noise
  • Understanding terrestrial channels and their impairments, including shadowing and multipath reception
  • Reusing frequencies to provide service over wide areas to large subscriber bases
  • Using modulation: frequency efficiency, power efficiency, BER, bandwidth, adjacent-channel interference, and spread-spectrum modulation
  • Implementing multiple access methods, including FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA
  • Designing systems for today’s most common forms of traffic—both “bursty” and “streaming”
  • Maximizing capacity via linear predictive coding and other speech compression techniques
  • Setting up connections that support reliable communication among users

Introduction to Wireless Systems
brings together the theoretical and practical knowledge readers need to participate effectively in the planning, design, or implementation of virtually any wireless system.

Table of Contents

Preface        xiii
Acknowledgments        xv
About the Authors      xvii

Chapter 1: Introduction        1
Overview 1
System Description 4
Historical Perspective 10
Systems Engineering and the Role of the Systems Engineer 12

Chapter 2: The Radio Link        17
Introduction 17
Transmitting and Receiving Electromagnetic Waves 18
Isotropic Radiation 20
Antenna Radiation Patterns 22
The Range Equation 28
Thermal Noise and Receiver Analysis 34
Optimizing the Energy Transmission System 61
Conclusions 70
Problems 70

Chapter 3: Channel Characteristics        77
Introduction 77
Macroscopic Models 1: Reflection from the Earth’s Surface 79
Macroscopic Models 2: Empirical Models 86
Macroscopic Models 3: Log-Normal Shadowing 95
Microscopic Models 1: Multipath Propagation and Fading 100
Microscopic Models 2: Statistical Models for Multipath Propagation 106
Microscopic Models 3: A Two-Ray Model with a Moving Receiver 121
Microscopic Models 4: A Statistical Model with a Moving Receiver 129
Area Coverage 132
The Link Budget 137
Conclusions 139
Problems 141

Chapter 4: Radio Frequency Coverage: Systems Engineering and Design        149
Motivation 149
Requirements Assessment and System Architecture 150
Cellular Concepts 153
Estimation of Interference Levels 167
Cellular System Planning and Engineering 173
Operational Considerations 183
Traffic Engineering, Trunking, and Grade of Service 187
Conclusions 194
Problems 196

Chapter 5: Digital Signaling Principles        203
Introduction 203
Carrier-Based Signaling 226
Spread-Spectrum Signaling 267
Conclusions 278
Problems 280

Chapter 6: Access Methods        287
Introduction 287
Channel Access in Cellular Systems 290
Frequency-Division Multiple Access 295
Time-Division Multiple Access 300
Code-Division Multiple Access 306
Contention-Based Multiple Access 325
Conclusions 335
Problems 337

Chapter 7: Information Sources        343
Introduction 343
Information Sources and Their Characterization 346
Digitization of Speech Signals 355
Coding for Error Correction 376
Conclusions 389
Problems 392

Chapter 8: Putting It All Together        397
Introduction 397
Looking Backward 399
Contemporary Systems and 3G Evolution 411
OFDM: An Architecture for the Fourth Generation 432
Conclusions 442

Appendix A: Statistical Functions and Tables        443
The Normal Distribution 443
Function Tables 446

Appendix B: Traffic Engineering       453
Grade of Service and the State of the Switch 453
A Model for Call Arrivals 454
A Model for Holding Time 456
The Switch State Probabilities 457
Blocking Probability, Offered Load, and Erlang B 460
Computational Techniques for the Erlang B Formula 462
Erlang B Table 465

Acronyms 477
Index 483


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ISBN-10: 0-13-279939-1

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-279939-3

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