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IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Rick Graziani

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Oct 8, 2012

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This book will help a wide audience of networking students and professionals build the solid foundation of IPv6 knowledge they will need to succeed. With the guidance of a world-class networking instructor, readers journey from the absolute basics of IPv6 to real-world implementation and operation. Drawing on his extensive experience teaching these topics, Rick Graziani addresses everything students need to know, leaving no unexplained gaps that would leave readers confused or unable to apply what they've learned. One easy step at a time, Graziani covers all this, and more: * Why IPv6 is necessary, how it was created, and how it works * A high-level look at the IPv6 protocol * IPv6 addressing in depth (and how it differs from IPv4) * IPv6 configuration options for Cisco routers and hosts * IPv6 routing protocols, including RIPng, EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3 * Defining static IPv6 routes * Leading strategies for IPv6 integration and coexistence By the time students complete this book, they will be prepared to take on more complex IPv6 topics, including mobility, MPLS, and enterprise migration.

Table of Contents

    Introduction xvi

Part I: Background Justification and Perspective for IPv6

Chapter 1 Introduction to IPv6 1

    IPv4 1

    Early Years of the Internet 2

    IPv5 5

    History of IPv6 5

    Benefits of IPv6 7

    IPv6: When? 8

    IPv4 Address Depletion 9

        CIDR 10

        NAT and Private Addresses 12

        Exhaustion of IPv4 Address Space 15

    Migrating to IPv6 17

Chapter 2 The IPv6 Protocol 23

    IPv4 Header 23

    IPv6 Header 27

    Packet Analysis Using Wireshark 31

    Extension Headers 33

        Hop-by-Hop Options Extension Header 36

        Routing Extension Header 38

        Fragment Extension Header 39

        IPsec: AH and ESP Extension Headers 40

        IPsec 40

        Transport and Tunnel Modes 41

        Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Extension Header 42

        Authentication Header (AH) Extension Header 43

        Destination Options Extension Header 45

        No Next Header 46

    Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 46

        IPv4 and IPv6 Header Comparisons 46

        Other Differences 47

        Larger Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 47

        User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 48

        Fragmentation 48

Part II: IPv6: The Protocol

Chapter 3 IPv6 Addressing 51

    Hexadecimal Number System 51

    Representation of IPv6 Addresses 54

        Rule 1: Omission of Leading 0s 55

        Rule 2: Omission of all-0s hextets 57

        Combining Rule 1 and Rule 2 58

    Prefix Notation 60

    Brief Look at IPv6 Address Types 63

        Unicast Addresses 63

        Anycast Addresses 64

        Multicast Addresses 64

    Structure of a Global Unicast Address 64

        Global Routing Prefix 65

        Subnet ID 65

        Interface ID 65

        3-1-4 Rule 65

    Putting It Together 67

    Subnetting 71

        Extending the Subnet Prefix 73

        Subnetting on a Nibble Boundary 75

        Subnetting Within a Nibble 76

        Limiting the Interface ID Space 77

Chapter 4 IPv6 Address Types 81

    IPv6 Address Space 82

    Unicast Address 84

        Global Unicast Address 85

        Manual Global Unicast Configuration 87

        Dynamic Configuration 99

        Link-local Unicast 107

        Dynamic Link-local Address: EUI-64 109

        Randomly Generated Interface IDs 110

        Static Link-local Address 111

        Link-local Addresses and Duplicate Address Detection 114

        Link-local Addresses and Default Gateways 115

        Isolated Link-local Address 116

        Loopback Address 116

        Unspecified Address 118

        Unique Local Address 119

        IPv4 Embedded Address 121

        IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses 122

        IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Addresses 123

    Multicast 124

        Assigned Multicast Addresses 127

    Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 130

    Anycast Address 132

Chapter 5 ICMPv6 and Neighbor Discovery Protocol 139

    General Message Format 140

    ICMP Error Messages 144

        Destination Unreachable 145

        Packet Too Big 146

        Path MTU Discovery 147

        Time Exceeded 148

        Parameter Problem 149

    ICMP Informational Messages 149

        Echo Request and Echo Reply 150

        Pinging a Global Unicast Address 151

        Pinging a Link-local Address 153

        Multicast Listener Discovery 155

    Neighbor Discovery Protocol 159

        Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages 160

        Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement Messages 169

        Neighbor Cache and Destination Cache 172

        Address Resolution 174

        Duplicate Address Detection 180

        Neighbor Unreachability Detection 182

        Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 182

        Redirect Messages 184

Chapter 6 IPv6 Configuration 191

    Configuring Global Unicast Addresses 193

    Configuring Link-local Addresses 195

    The ipv6 enable Command 199

    Configuring a Global Unicast Address with the EUI-64 Option 200

    Removing an IPv6 Address 202

    Enabling IPv6 Packet Forwarding and ND Router Advertisements 203

    Neighbor Cache 205

    Tuning Neighbor Discovery Parameters 207

    Final Configurations 213

    IPv6 Access Control Lists 216

        Denying Access from FACE:C0DE to CAFE 217

        Permitting Local Telnet Access 221

Part III: Routing IPv6

Chapter 7 Introduction to Routing IPv6 227

    IPv6 Routing Table 228

        Code: Connected 231

        Code: Local 233

        Comparing IPv6 and IPv4 Routing Tables 234

    Configuring IPv6 Static Routes 237

        Changing the Administrative Distance 247

        Final Configurations and Verification 249

    CEF for IPv6 251

Chapter 8 IPv6 IGP Routing Protocols 255

    RIPng for IPv6 257

        Comparing RIPng for IPv6 and RIPv2 257

        Configuring RIPng on Cisco Routers 259

        Verifying RIPng 264

    EIGRP for IPv6 272

        Comparing EIGRP for IPv4 and EIGRP for IPv6 272

        Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 273

        Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 278

    OSPFv3 286

        Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 287

        Configuring OSPFv3 289

        Verifying OSPFv3 293

Chapter 9 DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6) 303

    DHCPv6 Services 303

        DHCPv6 Terminology, Multicast Addresses, and Message Types 306

        DHCPv6 Communications 309

        Configuring Stateless DHCPv6 313

        Rapid Commit Option 318

        Configuring the Rapid Commit Option 319

        Relay Agent Communications 320

        Configuring the Relay Agent 322

    Other Upper-Layer Protocols 323

        DNS 323

        DNS Query and Response 326

        TCP and UDP 328

Chapter 10 Dual-Stack and Tunneling 333

    Dual-Stack 334

        IPv6 Address Format in URL Syntax 336

        Configuring a Dual-Stack Network 337

    Tunneling 344

        Manual Tunnels 349

        6to4 Tunnels 356

        6to4 Tunnels and Loopback Interfaces 364

        ISATAP 365

        Other Tunneling Technologies 373

Chapter 11 Network Address Translation IPv6 to IPv4 (NAT64) 377

    NAT64 378

        Traffic Initiated from IPv6-only Clients to IPv4-only Servers 379

        Configuration 383

        Traffic Initiated from IPv4-only Clients to IPv6-only Servers 387

    NAT-PT: Network Address Translation – Protocol Translation 389

        Application Level Gateway 390

        Using NAT-PT 391

        Static NAT-PT 394

        Dynamic NAT-PT 399

    Other Translation Techniques 402

9781587143137, TOC, 9/18/2012


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