Product Cover Image

IT Essentials, 5th Edition

By Cisco Networking Academy

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Jun 14, 2013

Description

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Companion Guide, Fifth Edition

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Companion Guide, Fifth Edition, supports the Cisco Networking Academy IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software version 5 course. The course is designed for Cisco Networking Academy students who want to pursue careers in IT and learn how computers work, how to assemble computers, and how to safely and securely troubleshoot hardware and software issues.

 

As CompTIA Approved Quality Content, the course also helps you prepare for the CompTIA A+ certification exams 220-801 and 220-802. CompTIA A+ 220-801 covers the fundamentals of computer technology, installation and configuration of PCs, laptops, related hardware, and basic networking. CompTIA A+ 220-802 covers the skills required to install and configure PC operating systems and configure common features, such as network connectivity and email for Android and Apple iOS mobile operating systems. Students must pass both exams to earn the CompTIA A+ certification.

 

The features of the Companion Guide are designed to help you study and succeed in this course:

 

--  Chapter objectives—Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

--  Key terms—Refer to the updated lists of networking vocabulary introduced, and turn to the highlighted terms in context. 

--  Course section numbering—Follow along with the course heading numbers to easily jump online to complete labs, activities, and quizzes referred to within the text. 

--  Check Your Understanding Questions and Answer Key—Evaluate your readiness with the updated end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see on the online course quizzes.

--  Glossary in the back of the book to define Key Terms

 

The lab icon in the Companion Guide indicates when there is a hands-on Lab or Worksheet to do. The Labs and Worksheets are compiled and published in the separate book, IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Lab Manual, Fifth Edition. With more than 1300 pages of activities, including Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP variations covered in the CompTIA A+ exam objectives, practicing and performing these tasks will reinforce the concepts and help you become a successful PC technician.

 

Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Personal Computer 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1) 4

Cases and Power Supplies (1.1.1) 4

    Computer Cases (1.1.1.1) 4

    Power Supplies (1.1.1.2) 6

        Connectors 7

    Electricity and Ohm’s Law (1.1.1.3) 8

Internal PC Components (1.1.2) 11

    Motherboards (1.1.2.1) 11

    CPUs (1.1.2.2) 13

    Cooling Systems (1.1.2.3) 16

ROM and RAM 18

    ROM (1.1.2.4) 18

    RAM (1.1.2.5) 19

    Memory Modules (1.1.2.6) 20

        Cache Memory 22

        Error Checking 22

    Adapter Cards and Expansion Slots (1.1.2.7) 22

    Storage Devices and RAID (1.1.2.8) 25

        Floppy Drive 26

        Hard Drive 26

        Tape Drive 27

        Optical Drive 27

        External Flash Drive 28

        Types of Drive Interfaces 28

    Internal Cables (1.1.2.9) 30

External Ports and Cables (1.1.3) 31

    Video Ports and Cables (1.1.3.1) 31

    Other Ports and Cables (1.1.3.2) 35

        Serial Ports and Cables 35

        Modem Ports and Cables 36

        USB Ports and Cables 36

        FireWire Ports and Cables 37

        Parallel Ports and Cables 38

        eSATA Data Cables 38

        SCSI Ports and Cables 38

        Network Ports and Cables 39

        PS/2 Ports 40

        Audio Ports 40

Input and Output Devices (1.1.4) 41

    Input Devices (1.1.4.1) 41

        Mice and Keyboards 41

        Gamepads and Joysticks 42

        Digital Cameras and Digital Video Cameras 42

        Biometric Identification Devices 43

        Touchscreens 43

        Digitizers 43

        Scanners 44

    Output Devices (1.1.4.2) 44

        Monitors and Projectors 44

        All-in-One Printers 46

        Speakers and Headphones 46

    Monitor Characteristics (1.1.4.3) 46

        Connecting Multiple Monitors to a Single Computer 48

Selecting PC Components (1.2.1) 49

    Case and Power Supply (1.2.1.1) 49

    Selecting Motherboards (1.2.1.2) 50

    Selecting the CPU and Heat Sink and Fan Assembly (1.2.1.3) 51

    Selecting RAM (1.2.1.4) 53

    Selecting Adapter Cards (1.2.1.5) 54

        Graphics Cards 54

        Sound Cards 55

        Storage Controllers 55

        I/O Cards 56

        NICs 56

        Capture Cards 57

    Selecting Hard Drives and Floppy Drives (1.2.1.6) 57

        Floppy Disk Drive 57

        Hard Drives 57

    Selecting Solid State Drives and Media Readers (1.2.1.7) 60

        Solid State Drives 60

        Media Readers 61

    Selecting Optical Drives (1.2.1.8) 62

    Selecting External Storage (1.2.1.9) 62

    Selecting Input and Output Devices (1.2.1.10) 63

Specialized Computer Systems (1.3.1) 64

    CAx Workstations (1.3.1.1) 65

    Audio and Video Editing Workstations (1.3.1.2) 65

    Virtualization Workstations (1.3.1.3) 67

    Gaming PCs (1.3.1.4) 68

    Home Theater PCs (1.3.1.5) 69

Summary (1.4.1) 71

Summary of Exercises 71

    Worksheets 71

Check Your Understanding 72

Chapter 2 Lab Procedures and Tool Use 75

Objectives 75

Key Terms 75

Introduction (2.0.1) 77

Safe Lab Procedures (2.1) 77

    General Safety (2.1.1.1) 77

    Electrical Safety (2.1.1.2) 78

    Fire Safety (2.1.1.3) 78

Procedures to Protect Equipment and Data (2.1.2) 79

    ESD and EMI (2.1.2.1) 79

        Climate 80

    Power Fluctuation Types (2.1.2.2) 80

    Power Protection Devices (2.1.2.3) 81

Procedures to Protect the Environment (2.1.3) 82

    Material Safety and Data Sheet (2.1.3.1) 82

    Equipment Disposal (2.1.3.2) 83

        Batteries 83

        Monitors 84

        Toner Kits, Cartridges, and Developers 84

        Chemical Solvents and Aerosol Cans 84

Proper Use of Tools (2.2) 84

    Hardware Tools (2.2.1) 84

        ESD Tools (2.2.1.2) 85

        Hand Tools (2.2.1.3) 85

        Cleaning Tools (2.2.1.4) 86

        Diagnostic Tools (2.2.1.5) 86

    Software Tools (2.2.2) 88

        Disk Management Tools (2.2.2.1) 88

        Protection Software Tools (2.2.2.2) 89

    Organizational Tools (2.2.3) 89

        Reference Tools (2.2.3.1) 89

        Miscellaneous Tools (2.2.3.2) 91

    Demonstrate Proper Tool Use (2.2.4) 92

        Antistatic Wrist Strap (2.2.4.1) 92

        Antistatic Mat (2.2.4.2) 93

        Hand Tools (2.2.4.3) 94

        Cleaning Materials (2.2.4.6) 98

Summary (2.3.1) 101

Summary of Exercises 101

    Labs 101

    Worksheets 102

Check Your Understanding 102

Chapter 3 Computer Assembly 105

Objectives 105

Key Terms 105

Introduction (3.0.1) 106

Open the Case and Install the Power Supply (3.1.1) 106

    Open the Case (3.1.1.1) 106

    Install the Power Supply (3.1.1.2) 107

Install the Motherboard (3.1.2) 108

    Install the CPU, Heat Sink, and Fan Assembly (3.1.2.1) 108

        CPU 108

        Heat Sink and Fan Assembly 110

    Install RAM (3.1.2.2) 111

    Install the Motherboard (3.1.2.3) 112

Install the Drives (3.1.3) 113

    Install the Internal Drive (3.1.3.1) 113

    Install the Optical Drive (3.1.3.2) 113

    Install the Floppy Drive (3.1.3.3) 114

Install the Adapter Cards (3.1.4) 115

    Types of Adapter Cards (3.1.4.1) 115

    Install a NIC (3.1.4.2) 116

    Install a Wireless NIC (3.1.4.3) 116

    Install a Video Adapter Card (3.1.4.4) 117

Install the Cables (3.1.5) 118

    Install the Internal Power Cables (3.1.5.1) 118

        Motherboard Power Connections 118

        SATA Power Connectors 119

        Molex Power Connectors 119

        Berg Power Connectors 119

    Install the Internal Data Cables (3.1.5.2) 120

        PATA Data Cables 120

        SATA Data Cables 121

        Floppy Data Cables 121

    Install the Front Panel Cables (3.1.5.4) 122

        Power and Reset Buttons 123

        Power and Drive Activity LEDs 124

        System Speaker 124

        USB 124

        Audio 125

    Install the Case Assembly (3.1.5.6) 126

    Install the External Cables (3.1.5.7) 126

POST and BIOS (3.2.1) 128

    BIOS Beep Codes and Setup (3.2.1.1) 128

        POST Card 129

    BIOS Setup (3.2.1.2) 129

BIOS Configuration (3.2.2) 131

    BIOS Component Information (3.2.2.1) 131

    BIOS Configurations (3.2.2.2) 131

        Time and Date 131

        Disabling Devices 132

        Boot Order 132

        Clock Speed 132

        Virtualization 133

    BIOS Security Configurations (3.2.2.3) 133

    BIOS Hardware Diagnostics and Monitoring (3.2.2.4) 134

        Temperatures 134

        Fan Speeds 135

        Voltages 135

        Clock and Bus Speeds 135

        Intrusion Detection 136

        Built-In Diagnostics 136

Motherboard and Related Components (3.3.1) 137

    Motherboard Component Upgrades (3.3.1.1) 137

        CPU Installation 138

        Jumper Settings 138

        CMOS Battery Installation 139

    Upgrade the Motherboard (3.3.1.2) 139

        BIOS Updates 140

    Upgrade CPU and Heat Sink and Fan Assembly (3.3.1.3) 141

    Upgrade the RAM (3.3.1.4) 142

    Upgrade the BIOS (3.3.1.5) 143

Storage Devices (3.3.2) 144

    Upgrade Hard Drives and RAID (3.3.2.1) 144

Input and Output Devices (3.3.3) 147

    Upgrade Input and Output Devices (3.3.3.1) 147

Summary (3.4.1.1) 149

Summary of Exercises 149

    Virtual Desktop Activities 150

    Labs 150

    Worksheets 150

Check Your Understanding 151

Chapter 4 Overview of Preventive Maintenance 155

Objectives 155

Key Terms 155

Introduction (4.0.1) 156

Preventive Maintenance (4.1) 156

    Benefits of Preventive Maintenance (4.1.1.1) 156

    Preventive Maintenance Tasks (4.1.1.2) 157

        Hardware 157

        Software 157

    Clean the Case and Internal Components (4.1.1.3) 158

    Inspect Internal Components (4.1.1.4) 159

    Environmental Concerns (4.1.1.5) 160

Troubleshooting Process Steps (4.2.1) 160

    Introduction to Troubleshooting (4.2.1.1) 161

        Data Backup 161

    Identify the Problem (4.2.1.2) 162

        Conversation Etiquette 162

        Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions 163

        Documenting Responses 163

        Beep Codes 163

        BIOS Information 164

        Event Viewer 164

        Device Manager 164

        Task Manager 165

        Diagnostic Tools 165

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (4.2.1.3) 166

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (4.2.1.4) 166

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and

    Implement the Solution (4.2.1.5) 167

    Verify Full System Functionality and, If Applicable, Implement

    Preventive Measures (4.2.1.6) 168

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (4.2.1.7) 168

    PC Common Problems and Solutions (4.2.2.1) 169

Summary (4.3.1) 175

Summary of Exercises 175

Check Your Understanding 175

Chapter 5 Operating Systems 179

Objectives 179

Key Terms 179

Introduction 5.0.1.1 181

Modern Operating Systems (5.1) 181

    Terms (5.1.1.1) 181

    Basic Functions of an Operating System (5.1.1.2) 181

        Hardware Access 182

        File and Folder Management 182

        User Interface 182

        Application Management 183

    Processor Architecture (5.1.1.3) 183

Types of Operating Systems (5.1.2) 184

    Desktop Operating Systems (5.1.2.1) 185

        Microsoft Windows 185

        Apple OS X 186

        Linux 186

    Network Operating Systems (5.1.2.2) 186

Customer Requirements for an Operating System (5.1.3) 187

    OS-Compatible Applications and Environments (5.1.3.1) 187

    Minimum Hardware Requirements and Compatibility with the OS Platform (5.1.3.2) 188

        Microsoft Compatibility Center 188

    Comparing OS Requirements (5.1.3.3) 189

Operating System Upgrades (5.1.4) 192

    Checking OS Compatibility (5.1.4.1) 192

        Upgrade Advisor 192

    Windows OS Upgrades (5.1.4.2) 193

    Data Migration (5.1.4.3) 195

        User State Migration Tool 195

        Windows Easy Transfer 195

        File and Settings Transfer Wizard for Windows XP 196

Operating System Installation (5.2) 196

    Hard Drive Partitioning (5.2.1.1) 196

        Partitioning 197

    Hard Drive Formatting (5.2.1.2) 198

        Quick Format Versus Full Format 200

    OS Installation with Default Settings (5.2.1.4) 200

        Network Settings 202

    Account Creation (5.2.1.8) 203

    Complete the Installation (5.2.1.12) 204

        Windows Update 205

        Device Manager 206

Custom Installation Options (5.2.2) 207

    Disk Cloning (5.2.2.1) 207

    Other Installation Methods (5.2.2.2) 207

        Network Installation 208

        PXE Installation 209

        Unattended Installation in Windows 7 and Vista 209

        Image-Based Installation 210

        Remote Installation 210

    System Recovery Options (5.2.2.6) 211

        System Recovery Options 211

        System Image Recovery 213

        Automated System Recovery in Windows XP Professional 214

        Factory Recovery Partition 214

Boot Sequence and Registry Files (5.2.3) 214

    Windows Boot Process (5.2.3.1) 214

        Windows Boot Process 215

        Windows Boot Loader and Windows Boot Manager in Windows 7 and Windows Vista 216

        NTLDR and the Windows Boot Menu in Windows XP 216

        NT Kernel 216

    Startup Modes (5.2.3.2) 217

    Windows Registry (5.2.3.3) 217

Multiboot (5.2.4) 218

    Multiboot Procedures (5.2.4.1) 219

        BOOTMGR File 219

    Disk Management Utility (5.2.4.2) 220

        Drive Status 221

        Extending Partitions 222

        Splitting Partitions 222

        Assigning Drive Letters 222

        Adding Drives 222

        Adding Arrays 223

Directory Structure and File Attributes (5.2) 224

    Directory Structures (5.2.5.1) 224

        Drive Mapping 224

        Mounting a Volume 224

    User and System File Locations (5.2.5.2) 225

        User File Locations 225

        System Folder 225

        Fonts 225

    Temporary Files 226

        Program Files 227

    File Extensions and Attributes (5.2.5.3) 227

    Application, File, and Folder Properties (5.2.5.4) 228

        Application and File Properties 229

        Folder Properties 229

        Shadow Copy 230

The Windows GUI and Control Panel (5.3) 230

    Windows Desktop (5.3.1.1) 230

        Gadgets 231

    Desktop Properties (5.3.1.2) 232

    Start Menu and Taskbar (5.3.1.3) 233

        Start Menu 233

        Taskbar 234

    Task Manager (5.3.1.4) 234

    Computer and Windows Explorer (5.3.1.8) 236

        Computer 236

        Windows Explorer 236

        Launching Applications and Opening Files 236

    Windows 7 Libraries (5.3.1.9) 237

    Install and Uninstall Applications (5.3.1.10) 237

        Adding an Application 237

        Uninstalling or Changing a Program 238

Control Panel Utilities (5.3.2) 239

    Introduction to Control Panel Utilities (5.3.2.1) 239

    User Accounts (5.3.2.2) 241

        User Account Control Settings 241

    Internet Options (5.3.2.6) 242

    Display Settings (5.3.2.10) 243

    Folder Options (5.3.2.11) 245

        General Tab 245

        View Tab 245

        Search Tab 245

    Action Center (5.3.2.12) 245

    Windows Firewall (5.3.2.13) 246

    Power Options (5.3.2.14) 247

    System Utility (5.3.2.15) 248

        Performance Settings 248

        Windows ReadyBoost 249

    Device Manager (5.3.2.19) 250

    Regional and Language Options (5.3.2.23) 252

Administrative Tools (5.3.3) 252

    Computer Management (5.3.3.1) 252

    Event Viewer, Component Services, and Data Sources (5.3.3.2) 253

    Services (5.3.3.3) 254

    Performance and Windows Memory Diagnostic (5.3.3.4) 255

System Tools (5.3.4) 256

    Disk Defragmenter and Disk Error-Checking Tool (5.3.4.1) 256

        Disk Defragmenter 256

        Disk Error-Checking Tool 257

    System Information (5.3.4.5) 258

Accessories (5.3.5) 259

    Remote Desktop (5.3.5.1) 259

Control Panel Utilities Unique to Specific Windows Versions (5.3.6) 260

    Windows 7 Unique Utilities (5.3.6.1) 261

        HomeGroup 261

        Action Center 261

        Windows Defender 261

        RemoteApp and Desktop Connections 262

        Troubleshooting 262

    Windows Vista Unique Utilities (5.3.6.2) 262

    Windows XP Unique Utilities (5.3.6.3) 263

Command-Line Tools (5.3.7) 264

    Windows CLI Commands (5.3.7.1) 264

    Run Line Utility (5.3.7.3) 265

        MSCONFIG 267

Client-Side Virtualization (5.4) 268

    Purpose of Virtual Machines (5.4.1.1) 268

    Hypervisor: Virtual Machine Manager (5.4.1.2) 269

        Windows Virtual PC 269

        Windows XP Mode 270

    Virtual Machine Requirements (5.4.1.3) 270

Common Preventive Maintenance Techniques for Operating Systems (5.5) 271

    Preventive Maintenance Plan Contents (5.5.1.1) 271

        Preventive Maintenance Planning 271

        Security 272

        Startup Programs 272

    Updates (5.5.1.5) 273

        Device Driver Updates 273

        Operating System Updates 273

        Firmware Updates 274

    Scheduling Tasks (5.5.1.6) 274

        Windows Task Scheduler 274

        at Command 275

    Restore Points (5.5.1.10) 276

    Hard Drive Backup (5.5.1.14) 277

        Normal Backup 278

        Copy Backup 278

        Incremental Backup 278

        Differential Backup 278

        Daily Backup 278

Basic Troubleshooting Process for Operating Systems (5.6) 279

    Identify the Problem (5.6.1.1) 279

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (5.6.1.2) 279

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (5.6.1.3) 280

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and

    Implement the Solution (5.6.1.4) 280

    Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures (5.6.1.5) 281

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (5.6.1.6) 281

    Common Problems and Solutions (5.6.2.1) 282

Summary (5.7.1.1) 288

Summary of Exercises 288

    Labs 288

    Worksheets 291

Check Your Understanding 291

Chapter 6 Networks 295

Objectives 295

Key Terms 295

Introduction (6.0.1) 299

Principles of Networking (6.1) 299

    Define Computer Networks (6.1.1.1) 299

    Features and Benefits (6.1.1.2) 301

        Require Fewer Peripherals 301

        Increase Communication Capabilities 301

        Avoid File Duplication and Corruption 301

        Lower the Cost of Licensing 302

        Centralize Administration 302

        Conserve Resources 302

Identifying Networks (6.2) 302

    LANs (6.2.1.1) 302

    WLANs (6.2.1.2) 303

    PANs (6.2.1.3) 304

    MANs (6.2.1.4) 304

    WANs (6.2.1.5) 304

    Peer-to-Peer Networks (6.2.1.6) 305

    Client/Server Networks (6.2.1.7) 306

Basic Networking Concepts and Technologies (6.3) 307

    Bandwidth (6.3.1.1) 307

    Data Transmission (6.3.1.2) 308

        Simplex 308

        Half-Duplex 309

        Full-Duplex 309

    IP Addressing (6.3.2.1) 309

        IPv4 and IPv6 310

    IPv4 (6.3.2.2) 311

        IPv4 Subnet Mask 312

    IPv6 (6.3.2.3) 313

    Static Addressing (6.3.2.4) 314

    DHCP Addressing (6.3.2.5) 315

        Configuring Alternate IP Settings 317

        DNS 317

    ICMP (6.3.2.6) 317

Common Ports and Protocols (6.3.3) 319

    TCP and UDP (6.3.3.1) 319

    TCP and UDP Protocols and Ports (6.3.3.3) 320

Physical Components of a Network (6.4) 322

    Modems (6.4.1.1) 322

    Hubs, Bridges, and Switches (6.4.1.2) 323

        Hubs 323

        Bridges and Switches 324

        Power over Ethernet 325

    Routers and Wireless Access Points (6.4.1.3) 325

        Wireless Access Points 325

        Routers 326

        Multipurpose Devices 326

    NAS (6.4.1.4) 327

    VoIP Phones (6.4.1.5) 327

    Hardware Firewalls (6.4.1.6) 328

    Internet Appliances (6.4.1.7) 329

    Purchasing Authentic Networking Devices (6.4.1.8) 329

Cables and Connectors (6.4.2) 330

    Considerations for Cabling a Network (6.4.2.1) 330

        Cost 331

        Security 331

        Design for the Future 331

        Wireless 331

    Coaxial Cables (6.4.2.2) 332

    Twisted-Pair Cables (6.4.2.3) 332

        Category Rating 333

        Wire Schemes 334

        Straight-Through Cables 335

        Crossover Cable 335

    Fiber-Optic Cables (6.4.2.6) 336

Network Topologies (6.5) 337

    Logical and Physical Topologies (6.5.1.1) 337

        Bus 338

        Ring 339

        Star 339

        Hierarchical 339

        Mesh 339

        Hybrid 339

    Determining the Network Topology (6.5.1.3) 340

Ethernet Standards (6.6) 341

    Standards Organizations (6.6.1.1) 341

    IEEE 802.3 (6.6.1.2) 342

    Ethernet Technologies (6.6.1.3) 342

    IEEE 802.11 (6.6.1.4) 343

OSI and TCP/IP Data Models (6.7) 343

    TCP/IP (6.7.1.1) 343

        Application Layer Protocols 344

        Transport Layer Protocols 344

        Internet Layer Protocols 344

        Network Access Layer Protocols 345

    OSI (6.7.1.2) 345

    Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models (6.7.1.3) 346

Computer-to-Network Connection (6.8) 347

    Network Installation Completion List (6.8.1.1) 347

    Selecting a NIC (6.8.2.1) 348

    Installing and Updating a NIC (6.8.2.3) 350

    Configuring a NIC (6.8.2.7) 351

        Configure Alternate IP Settings 352

    Advanced NIC Settings (6.8.2.8) 352

        Duplex and Speed 352

        Wake on LAN 353

        Quality of Service 353

Wireless and Wired Router Configurations (6.8.3) 353

    Connecting to the Router (6.8.3.1) 353

    Setting the Network Location (6.8.3.2) 354

    Logging In to the Router (6.8.3.3) 356

    Basic Network Setup (6.8.3.4) 356

    Basic Wireless Settings (6.8.3.7) 358

        Network Mode 358

        SSID 358

        Channel 359

        Wireless Security 359

    Testing Connectivity with the Windows GUI (6.8.3.12) 360

    Testing Connectivity with the Windows CLI (6.8.3.13) 361

        ipconfig Command Options 362

        ping Command Options 362

        net Commands 363

        tracert Command 364

        nslookup Command 364

OS Configurations (6.8.4) 365

    Domain and Workgroup (6.8.4.1) 365

        Domain 365

        Workgroup 366

    Connecting to a Workgroup or a Domain (6.8.4.2) 366

    Windows 7 Homegroup (6.8.4.3) 366

    Sharing Resources in Windows Vista (6.8.4.4) 368

    Sharing Resources in Windows XP (6.8.4.5) 369

    Network Shares and Mapping Drives (6.8.4.6) 369

        Network File Sharing 369

        Network Drive Mapping 370

    VPN (6.8.4.10) 371

Select an ISP Connection Type (6.9) 372

    Brief History of Connection Technologies (6.9.1.1) 372

        Analog Telephone 373

        Integrated Services Digital Network 373

        Broadband 373

    DSL and ADSL (6.9.1.2) 373

    Line-of-Sight Wireless Internet Service (6.9.1.3) 374

    WiMAX (6.9.1.4) 374

    Other Broadband Technologies (6.9.1.5) 375

        Cellular 375

        Cable 376

        Satellite 376

        Fiber Broadband 376

    Selecting an ISP for the Customer (6.9.1.7) 376

        POTS 377

        ISDN 378

        DSL 378

        Cable 378

        Satellite 378

        Cellular 378

Common Preventive Maintenance Techniques Used for Networks (6.10) 379

    Preventive Maintenance Procedures (6.10.1.1) 379

Basic Troubleshooting Process for Networks (6.11) 380

    Identify the Problem (6.11.1.1) 380

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (6.11.1.2) 381

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (6.11.1.3) 381

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and

    Implement the Solution (6.11.1.4) 381

    Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures (6.11.1.5) 382

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (6.11.1.6) 382

Common Problems and Solutions for Networks (6.11.2) 383

    Identify Common Problems and Solutions (6.11.2.1) 383

Summary (6.12.1) 385

Summary of Exercises 387

    Labs 387

    Worksheets 387

    Packet Tracer Activities 388

Check Your Understanding 388

Chapter 7 Laptops 393

Objectives 393

Key Terms 393

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 395

Laptop Components (7.1) 395

    External Features Unique to Laptops (7.1.1.1) 395

    Common Input Devices and LEDs in Laptops (7.1.1.2) 399

    Internal Components (7.1.1.3) 401

        Motherboards 401

        RAM 401

        CPUs 402

    Special Function Keys (7.1.1.4) 402

    Docking Station Versus Port Replicator (7.1.1.5) 403

Laptop Display Components (7.2) 405

    LCD, LED, OLED, and Plasma Monitors (7.2.1.1) 406

Internal Components (7.2.2) 406

    Backlights and Inverters (7.2.2.1) 406

    Wi-Fi Antenna Connectors (7.2.2.2) 407

Laptop Power (7.3) 408

    Power Management (7.3.1.1) 408

    Managing ACPI Settings in the BIOS (7.3.1.2) 409

    Managing Laptop Power Options (7.3.1.4) 410

        Laptop Power Options 410

        Hard Drive and Display Power Management 411

        Sleep Timers 412

        Battery Warnings 412

Laptop Wireless Communication Technologies (7.4) 413

    Bluetooth (7.4.1.1) 413

        Bluetooth Installation and Configuration 414

    Infrared (7.4.1.2) 415

    Cellular WAN (7.4.1.3) 417

    Wi-Fi (7.4.1.4) 417

Laptop Hardware and Component Installation and Configuration (7.5) 419

    Expansion Cards (7.5.1.1) 419

    Flash Memory (7.5.1.2) 421

        External Flash Drive 421

        Flash Cards and Flash Card Readers 421

    SODIMM Memory (7.5.1.3) 422

Replacing Hardware Devices (7.5.2) 424

    Overview of Hardware Replacement (7.5.2.1) 424

    Power (7.5.2.2) 426

        Replacing a Battery 427

        Replacing a DC Jack 427

    Keyboard, Touchpad, and Screen (7.5.2.4) 428

        Replacing a Keyboard 429

        Replacing a Touchpad 429

        Replacing a Screen 430

    Hard Drive and Optical Drive (7.5.2.6) 431

        Replacing a Hard Drive 431

        Replacing an Optical Drive 432

    Wireless Card (7.5.2.8) 433

    Speakers (7.5.2.9) 433

    CPU (7.5.2.10) 434

    System Board (7.5.2.11) 436

    Plastics (7.5.2.12) 436

Preventive Maintenance Techniques for Laptops (7.6) 437

    Scheduling Maintenance (7.6.1.1) 437

        Preventive Maintenance Program 437

    Cleaning Procedures (7.6.1.2) 439

        Keyboard 439

        Vents 439

        LCD Display 440

        Touchpad 440

        Optical Drive 440

        CD and DVD Discs 440

Basic Troubleshooting Process for Laptops (7.7) 441

    Identify the Problem (7.7.1.1) 441

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (7.7.1.2) 441

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (7.7.1.3) 442

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and

    Implement the Solution (7.7.1.4) 442

    Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures (7.7.1.5) 443

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (7.7.1.6) 443

    Identify Common Problems and Solutions (7.7.2.1) 443

Summary (7.8.1) 447

Summary of Exercises 448

    Worksheets 448

    Virtual Laptop Activities 448

Check Your Understanding 449

Chapter 8 Mobile Devices 451

Objectives 451

Key Terms 451

Introduction (8.0.1) 454

Mobile Device Hardware Overview (8.1) 454

    Non-Field-Serviceable Parts (8.1.1.1) 454

    Non-Upgradeable Hardware (8.1.1.2) 455

    Touchscreens (8.1.1.3) 456

    Solid State Drives (8.1.1.4) 457

Mobile Operating Systems (8.2) 458

    Open Source Versus Closed Source (8.2.1.1) 458

    Application and Content Sources (8.2.1.2) 459

        Push Versus Pull 460

        Sideloading 460

Android Touch Interface (8.2.2) 461

    Home Screen Items (8.2.2.1) 461

        Navigation Icons 461

        Google Search 462

        Special Enhancements 462

        Notification and System Icons 462

        TouchFLO 463

    Managing Apps, Widgets, and Folders (8.2.2.2) 463

        Apps 464

        Widgets 464

        Folders 465

        All Apps Icon 466

iOS Touch Interface (8.2.3) 466

    Home Screen Items (8.2.3.1) 466

        Home Button 467

        Notification Center 467

        Search 468

    Managing Apps and Folders (8.2.3.2) 468

        Apps 468

        Multitasking Bar 469

        Folders 469

Common Mobile Device Features (8.2.4) 470

    Screen Orientation and Calibration (8.2.4.1) 470

        Screen Orientation 470

        Screen Calibration 471

    GPS (8.2.4.2) 472

Network Connectivity and Email (8.3) 473

    Wireless Data Network (8.3.1.1) 473

    Cellular Communications (8.3.1.3) 475

        WiMAX and LTE 476

        Airplane Mode 476

    Bluetooth for Mobile Devices (8.3.2.1) 477

    Bluetooth Pairing (8.3.2.2) 477

    Introduction to Email (8.3.3.1) 479

        POP3 479

        IMAP 480

        SMTP 480

        MIME 480

        SSL 480

        Exchange 480

    Android Email Configuration (8.3.3.3) 481

    iOS Email Configuration (8.3.3.4) 481

Mobile Device Synchronization (8.3.4) 482

    Types of Data to Synchronize (8.3.4.1) 482

    Application Installation Software Requirements (8.3.4.2) 483

    Synchronization Connection Types (8.3.4.3) 484

        Cross-Platform Data Synchronization 484

Methods for Securing Mobile Devices (8.4) 485

    Overview of Passcode Locks (8.4.1.1) 485

    Restrictions on Failed Login Attempts (8.4.1.3) 486

Cloud-Enabled Services for Smart Devices (8.4.2) 487

    Remote Backup (8.4.2.1) 487

    Locator Applications (8.4.2.2) 488

    Remote Lock and Remote Wipe (8.4.2.3) 489

Software Security (8.4.3) 490

    Antivirus (8.4.3.1) 490

        Rooting and Jailbreaking 490

    Patching and Updating Operating Systems (8.4.3.2) 491

Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Mobile Devices (8.5.1) 492

    Identify the Problem (8.5.1.1) 492

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (8.5.1.2) 493

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (8.5.1.3) 493

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and

    Implement the Solution (8.5.1.4) 494

    Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures (8.5.1.5) 494

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (8.5.1.6) 494

    Identify Common Problems and Solutions (8.5.2.1) 495

Summary (8.6.1) 498

Summary of Exercises 499

    Labs 499

    Worksheets 499

Check Your Understanding 499

Chapter 9 Printers 503

Objectives 503

Key Terms 503

Introduction (9.0.1) 504

Common Printer Features (9.1) 504

    Characteristics and Capabilities of Printers (9.1.1.1) 504

        Capabilities and Speed 505

        Color or Black and White 505

        Quality 505

        Reliability 505

        Total Cost of Ownership 506

    Wired Printer Connection Types (9.1.1.2) 506

        Serial 506

        Parallel 507

        SCSI 507

        USB 507

        FireWire 507

        Ethernet 507

Types of Printers (9.2) 507

    Inkjet Printers (9.2.1.1) 508

    Laser Printers (9.2.1.2) 509

        Printing Process 509

    Thermal Printers (9.2.1.3) 511

    Impact Printers (9.2.1.4) 511

        Types of Impact Printers 512

Installing and Configuring Printers (9.3) 513

    Installing a Printer (9.3.1.1) 513

Types of Print Drivers (9.3.1.5) 514

    Updating and Installing Print Drivers (9.3.1.6) 515

    Printer Test Page (9.3.1.7) 516

        Print Test Page 516

        Print from an Application 517

        Test the Printer 517

        Test the Printer from the Printer Panel 518

Configuring Options and Default Settings (9.3.2) 518

    Common Configuration Settings (9.3.2.1) 518

    Global and Individual Document Options (9.3.2.2) 520

        Global Method 520

        Per Document Method 520

Optimizing Printer Performance (9.3.3) 520

    Software Optimization (9.3.3.1) 521

    Hardware Optimization (9.3.3.2) 521

        Firmware 521

        Printer Memory 521

        Additional Printer Upgrades 522

Sharing Printers (9.4) 523

    Configuring Printer Sharing (9.4.1.1) 523

    Wireless Printer Connections (9.4.1.2) 525

Print Servers (9.4.2) 526

    Purposes of Print Servers (9.4.2.1) 526

    Network, Dedicated, and Computer Shared Print Servers (9.4.2.2) 526

        Hardware Print Servers 526

        Dedicated PC Print Servers 527

        Computer-Shared Printers 527

Preventive Maintenance Techniques for Printers (9.5) 528

    Vendor Guidelines (9.5.1.1) 528

    Replacing Consumables (9.5.1.2) 529

    Cleaning Methods (9.5.1.3) 530

        Printer Maintenance 531

    Operational Environment (9.5.1.4) 532

Basic Troubleshooting Process for Printers (9.6) 532

    Identify the Problem (9.6.1.1) 533

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (9.6.1.2) 533

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (9.6.1.3) 534

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Implement the Solution (9.6.1.4) 534

    Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures (9.6.1.5) 535

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (9.6.1.6) 535

Common Problems and Solutions for Printers (9.6.2) 536

    Identify Common Problems and Solutions (9.6.2.1) 536

Summary (9.7.1.1) 537

Summary of Exercises 537

    Labs 538

    Worksheets 538

Check Your Understanding 538

Chapter 10 Security 541

Objectives 541

Key Terms 541

Introduction (10.0.1) 544

Security Threats (10.1) 545

    Adware, Spyware, and Phishing (10.1.1.1) 545

        Adware 545

        Spyware 545

        Grayware 545

        Phishing 545

    Viruses, Worms, Trojans, and Rootkits (10.1.1.2) 546

        Viruses 546

        Worms 546

        Trojans 546

        Virus Protection Software 547

        Rootkits 547

    Web Security (10.1.1.3) 547

        ActiveX Filtering 548

        Pop-Up Blocker 548

        SmartScreen Filter 549

    InPrivate Browsing (10.1.1.4) 550

    Spam (10.1.1.5) 551

    TCP/IP Attacks (10.1.1.6) 552

        Denial of Service 552

        Distributed DoS 552

        SYN Flood 552

        Spoofing 553

        Man-in-the-Middle 553

        Replay 553

        DNS Poisoning 553

    Social Engineering (10.1.2.1) 554

    Data Wiping, Hard Drive Destruction, and Recycling (10.1.2.2) 554

        Data Wiping 555

        Degaussing 555

        Hard Drive Destruction 556

        Solid State Drives 556

        Hard Drive Recycling 556

Security Procedures (10.2) 556

    What Is a Security Policy? (10.2.1.1) 557

    Security Policy Requirements (10.2.1.3) 557

    Usernames and Passwords (10.2.1.4) 559

        Requiring Passwords 559

    Password Requirements (10.2.1.5) 560

        Screensaver Required Password 561

    File and Folder Permissions (10.2.1.6) 561

        Principle of Least Privilege 564

        Restricting User Permissions 565

    Software Firewalls (10.2.2.1) 565

    Biometrics and Smart Cards (10.2.2.2) 567

        Smart Card Security 568

        Security Key Fob 568

    Data Backups (10.2.2.3) 568

    Data Encryption (10.2.2.4) 569

    Malicious Software Protection Programs (10.2.3.1) 571

        Rogue Antivirus 571

        Remediating Infected Systems 572

    Signature File Updates (10.2.3.3) 573

    Common Communication Encryption Types (10.2.4.1) 575

        Hash Encoding 575

        Symmetric Encryption 575

        Asymmetric Encryption 576

    Service Set Identifiers (10.2.4.2) 577

    MAC Address Filtering (10.2.4.3) 578

    Wireless Security Modes (10.2.4.4) 578

        Additions to WPA and WPA2 579

    Wireless Access (10.2.4.6) 579

        Wireless Antennae 580

        Network Device Access 580

        Wi-Fi Protected Setup 581

    Firewalls (10.2.4.7) 581

        Demilitarized Zone 582

    Port Forwarding and Port Triggering (10.2.4.9) 583

    Physical Equipment Protection Methods (10.2.5.1) 585

        Disabling AutoRun 585

        Two-Factor Authentication 586

    Security Hardware (10.2.5.2) 586

        Protecting Data While in Use 587

        The Right Security Mix 588

Security Maintenance (10.3.1) 589

    Operating System Service Packs and Security Patches (10.3.1.1) 589

    Data Backups (10.3.1.3) 591

    Configuring Firewall Types (10.3.1.7) 593

    Maintaining Accounts (10.3.1.11) 595

        Terminating Employee Access 595

        Guest Accounts 595

Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Security (10.4.1) 596

    Identify the Problem (10.4.1.1) 596

    Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (10.4.1.2) 597

    Test the Theory to Determine Cause (10.4.1.3) 597

    Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Implement the Solution (10.4.1.4) 598

    Verify Full System Functionality and, If Applicable, Implement Preventive Measures (10.4.1.5) 598

    Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes (10.4.1.6) 599

    Identify Common Problems and Solutions (10.4.2.1) 599

Summary (10.5.1.1) 602

Summary of Exercises 602

    Labs 602

    Worksheets 603

Check Your Understanding 603

Chapter 11 The IT Professional 607

Objectives 607

Key Terms 607

Introduction (11.0.1) 608

Communication Skills and the IT Professional (11.1) 608

    Relationship Between Communication Skills and Troubleshooting (11.1.1.1) 608

    Relationship Between Communication Skills and Professional Behavior (11.1.1.2) 609

Working with a Customer (11.1.2) 610

    Using Communication Skills to Determine Customer Problems (11.1.2.1) 610

    Displaying Professional Behavior with Customers (11.1.2.2) 611

    Keeping the Customer Focused on the Problem (11.1.2.5) 613

        Talkative Customers 613

        Rude Customers 613

        Angry Customers 614

        Knowledgeable Customers 614

        Inexperienced Customers 615

    Using Proper Netiquette (11.1.2.6) 615

Employee Best Practices (11.1.3) 616

    Time and Stress Management Techniques (11.1.3.1) 616

    Workstation Ergonomics 616

        Time Management 616

        Stress Management 617

    Observing Service Level Agreements (11.1.3.2) 618

    Following Business Policies (11.1.3.3) 619

        Customer Call Rules 619

        Call Center Employee Rules 619

        Customer Satisfaction 620

Ethical and Legal Issues in the IT Industry (11.2) 620

    Ethical Considerations in IT (11.2.1.1) 620

    Legal Considerations in IT (11.2.1.2) 621

Legal Procedures Overview (11.2.2) 621

    Computer Forensics (11.2.2.1) 622

    Cyber Law and First Response (11.2.2.2) 622

        Cyber Law 622

        First Response 623

    Documentation and Chain of Custody (11.2.2.3) 623

        Documentation 624

        Chain of Custody 624

Call Center Technicians (11.3) 625

    Call Centers (11.3.1.1) 625

    Level One Technician Responsibilities (11.3.1.2) 626

    Level Two Technician Responsibilities (11.3.1.3) 627

Summary (11.4.1) 628

Summary of Exercises 629

    Worksheets 629

Check Your Understanding 629

Chapter 12 Advanced Troubleshooting 633

Objectives 633

Key Terms 633

Introduction (12.0.1) 634

Apply Troubleshooting Process to Computer Components and Peripherals (12.1.1) 634

    Six Steps for Advanced Troubleshooting Computer Components and Peripherals (12.1.1.1) 634

    Common Problems and Solutions for Components and Peripherals (12.1.1.2) 637

    Apply Troubleshooting Skills to Computer Components and Peripherals (12.1.1.3) 639

Operating Systems (12.2) 641

    Six Steps for Advanced Troubleshooting Operating Systems (12.2.1.1) 641

    Common Problems and Solutions for Operating Systems (12.2.1.2) 643

    Apply Troubleshooting Skills to Operating Systems (12.2.1.3) 648

Apply Troubleshooting Process to Networks (12.3.1) 650

    Six Steps for Advanced Troubleshooting Networks (12.3.1.1) 650

    Common Problems and Solutions for Networks (12.3.1.2) 652

        Network Connection Problems 652

        Email Failure 654

        FTP and Secure Internet Connection Problems 654

        Problems Revealed by CLI Commands 655

    Apply Troubleshooting Skills to Networks (12.3.1.3) 656

Apply Troubleshooting Process to Laptops (12.4.1) 658

    Six Steps for Advanced Troubleshooting Laptops (12.4.1.1) 658

    Common Problems and Solutions for Laptops (12.4.1.2) 661

    Apply Troubleshooting Skills to Laptops (12.4.1.3) 664

    Apply Troubleshooting Process to Printers (12.5.1) 665

    Six Steps for Advanced Troubleshooting Printers (12.5.1.1) 665

    Common Problems and Solutions for Printers (12.5.1.2) 668

    Apply Troubleshooting Skills to Printers (12.5.1.3) 669

Apply Troubleshooting Process to Security (12.6.1) 670

    Six Steps for Advanced Troubleshooting Security (12.6.1.1) 670

    Common Problems and Solutions for Security (12.6.1.2) 673

        Malware Settings 673

        User Accounts and Permissions 674

        Computer Security 674

        Firewall and Proxy Settings 675

    Apply Troubleshooting Skills to Security (12.6.1.3) 676

Summary (12.7.1) 678

Summary of Exercises 678

    Labs 678

Check Your Understanding 679

Appendix A Answers to “Check Your Understanding” Questions 683

Glossary 699

 

 

9781587133084   TOC   6/6/2013

 

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