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IT Systems Management, Safari, 2nd Edition

By Rich Schiesser

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Jan 28, 2010

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Description

The best-practice guide to managing IT infrastructures–now fully updated!

 

IT Systems Management is an up-to-the-minute guide to maintaining stable, responsive IT production environments. Top IT systems management expert Rich Schiesser illuminates
both the theoretical and practical aspects of systems management, using methods and examples drawn from decades of experience leading and consulting with the world’s most complex enterprise IT organizations.

 

This thoroughly updated edition covers every systems management discipline  and all elements of success: people, process, and technology. Schiesser shows how to apply best-practice system management throughout all IT infrastructure environments, from mainframe data centers to web-enabled systems, client/server and mid-range platforms to wireless and VoIP networks. 

 

Schiesser systematically addresses today’s most crucial issues, as well as emerging trends that will transform IT systems management. You’ll find an entirely new chapter on using IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) effectively, plus new coverage ranging from managing outsourced functions to efficiently delivering “ultra-speed” Internet connections. This edition includes more real-life examples throughout, and new interactive problems designed to give IT professionals even deeper insight. Coverage includes:

 

•  Implementing bullet-proof processes in areas ranging from change management to production acceptance, capacity planning to storage

•  Optimizing the “people” components of IT service delivery, from customer service to executive support

•  Using technology to manage systems more efficiently and effectively

•  Systematically managing performance, availability, and business continuity

•  Reducing the cost and complexity of IT facilities management

•  Taking a more strategic approach to security

 

 

Rich Schiesser founded and owns RWS Enterprises, Inc., a consultancy that specializes in designing and implementing world-class IT infrastructures. His client list has included The Weather Channel, Amazon.com, and DIRECTV. He has led major IT infrastructure organizations at Hughes Aircraft, the City of Los Angeles, and Twentieth Century Fox. For nearly ten years, he managed the primary data center at Northrop Grumman, one of the world’s most advanced computer facilities. A former University of Phoenix faculty member, he has taught IT management at UCLA and California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA).

 

informit.com/ph

 

 

Table of Contents

Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxviii

About the Author. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli

Chapter 1 Acquiring Executive Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

            Systems Management: A Proposed Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

            Why Executive Support Is Especially Critical Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

            Building a Business Case for Systems Management . . . . . . . . . . . 4

            Educating Executives on the Value of Systems Management . . . . . 7

                        Three Universal Principles Involving Executive Support . . . . . . . .9

                        Developing a Powerful Weapon for Executive

                        Support–Business Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

                        Ensuring Ongoing Executive Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Chapter 2 Organizing for Systems Management . . . . . . . . . . 15

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

            Factors to Consider in Designing IT Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

            Factors to Consider in Designing IT Infrastructures . . . . . . . . . . . 19

                        Locating Departments in the Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

                        Recommended Attributes of Process Owners . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Chapter 3 Staffing for Systems Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

            Determining Required Skill Sets and Skill Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

            Assessing the Skill Levels of Current Onboard Staff. . . . . . . . . . . 35

                        Alternative Sources of Staffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

                        Recruiting Infrastructure Staff from the Outside . . . . . . . . . . . .40

            Selecting the Most Qualified Candidate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

            Retaining Key Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

            Using Consultants and Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

                        Benefits of Using Consultants and Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . .47

                        Drawbacks of Using Consultants and Contractors . . . . . . . . . .48

                        Steps for Developing Career Paths for Staff Members . . . . . . .50

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Chapter 4 Customer Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

            How IT Evolved into a Service Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

            The Four Key Elements of Good Customer Service. . . . . . . . . . . . 57

                        Identifying Your Key Customers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

                        Identifying Key Services of Key Customers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

                        Identifying Key Processes that Support Key Services . . . . . . . .64

                        Identifying Key Suppliers that Support Key Processes . . . . . . .64

            Integrating the Four Key Elements of Good Customer Service . . . . 64

            The Four Cardinal Sins that Undermine Good Customer Service . . 68

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Chapter 5 Ethics, Legislation, and Outsourcing. . . . . . . . . . . 73

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

            Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

                        The RadioShack Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

                        The Tyco Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

                        The WorldCom Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

                        The Enron Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

Legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

                        Sarbanes-Oxley Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

                        Graham-Leach-Bliley Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

                        California Senate Bill 1386 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84

            Outsourcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter 6 Comparison to ITIL Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

            Developments Leading Up To ITIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

            IT Service Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

            The Origins of ITIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

                        Quality Approach and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

            Criteria to Differentiate Infrastructure Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

            Comparison of Infrastructure Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

            Ten Common Myths Concerning the Implementation of ITIL . . . . 102

                        Myth #1: You Must Implement All ITIL or No ITIL at All . . . . . .102

                        Myth #2: ITIL is Based on Infrastructure Management Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

                        Myth #3: ITIL Applies Mostly to Data Center Operations . . . . .103

                        Myth #4: Everyone Needs to be Trained on ITIL Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104

                        Myth #5: Full Understanding of ITIL Requires Purchase of Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104

                        Myth #6: ITIL Processes Should be Implemented Only One at a Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105

                        Myth #7: ITIL Provides Detailed Templates for Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105

                        Myth #8: ITIL Framework Applies Only to Large Shops . . . . . .106

                        Myth #9: ITIL Recommends Tools to Use for Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

                        Myth #10: There Is Little Need to Understand ITIL Origins . . .106

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Chapter 7 Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

            Definition of Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

            Differentiating Availability from Uptime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

            Differentiating Slow Response from Downtime . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

            Differentiating Availability from High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

            Desired Traits of an Availability Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

            Methods for Measuring Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

            The Seven Rs of High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

                        Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121

                        Reputation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122

                        Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123

                        Repairability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

                        Recoverability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

                        Responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126

                        Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Availability Process . . . . . . . . . . . 127

            Measuring and Streamlining the Availability Process . . . . . . . . . 131

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Chapter 8 Performance and Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

            Differences between the Performance and Tuning Process and Other Infrastructure Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

            Definition of Performance and Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

            Preferred Characteristics of a Performance and Tuning Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

            Performance and Tuning Applied to the Five Major Resource Environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

                        Server Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141

                        Disk Storage Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

                        Database Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147

                        Network Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151

                        Desktop Computer Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152

                        Assessing an Infrastructure’s Performance and Tuning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

            Measuring and Streamlining the Performance and Tuning

            Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Chapter 9 Production Acceptance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

            Definition of Production Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

            The Benefits of a Production Acceptance Process . . . . . . . . . . . 162

            Implementing a Production Acceptance Process . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

                        Step 1: Identify an Executive Sponsor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

                        Step 2: Select a Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165

                        Step 3: Solicit Executive Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166

                        Step 4: Assemble a Production Acceptance Team . . . . . . . . .166

                        Step 5: Identify and Prioritize Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

                        Step 6: Develop Policy Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168

                        Step 7: Nominate a Pilot System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

                        Step 8: Design Appropriate Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

                        Step 9: Document the Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170

                        Step 10: Execute the Pilot System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170

                        Step 11: Conduct a Lessons-Learned Session . . . . . . . . . . .174

                        Step 12: Revise Policies, Procedures, and Forms . . . . . . . . .174

                        Step 13: Formulate Marketing Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

                        Step 14: Follow-up for Ongoing Enforcement and Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

            Full Deployment of a New Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

            Distinguishing New Applications from New Versions of Existing Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

            Distinguishing Production Acceptance from Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

            Case Study: Assessing the Production Acceptance Process at Seven Diverse Companies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

                        The Seven Companies Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177

                        Selected Companies Comparison in Summary . . . . . . . . . . .198

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Chapter 10 Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

            Definition of Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

            Drawbacks of Most Change Management Processes . . . . . . . . . 207

            Key Steps Required in Developing a Change Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

                        Step 1: Identify an Executive Sponsor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

                        Step 2: Assign a Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210

                        Step 3: Select a Cross-Functional Process Design Team . . . .211

                        Step 4: Arrange for Meetings of the Cross-Functional Process Design Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211

                        Step 5: Establish Roles and Responsibilities for Members Supporting the Process Design Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211

                        Step 6: Identify the Benefits of a Change Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212

                        Step 7: If Change Metrics Exist, Collect and Analyze them; If Not, Set Up a Process to Do So . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

                        Step 8: Identify and Prioritize Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

                        Step 9: Develop Definitions of Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

                        Step 10: Design the Initial Change Management Process . . .216

                        Step 11: Develop Policy Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221

                        Step 12: Develop a Charter for a Change Advisory Board (CAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222

                        Step 13: Use the CAB to Continually Refine and Improve the Change Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223

            Emergency Changes Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Change Management Process . . . 224

            Measuring and Streamlining the Change Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Chapter 11 Problem Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

            Definition of Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

            Scope of Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

            Distinguishing Between Problem, Change, and Request Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

            Distinguishing Between Problem Management and Incident Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

            The Role of the Service Desk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

            Segregating and Integrating Service Desks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

            Key Steps to Developing a Problem Management Process . . . . . 239

                        Step 1: Select an Executive Sponsor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239

                        Step 2: Assign a Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240

                        Step 3: Assemble a Cross-Functional Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

                        Step 4: Identify and Prioritize Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

                        Step 5: Establish a Priority and Escalation Scheme . . . . . . . .243

                        Step 6: Identify Alternative Call-Tracking Tools . . . . . . . . . . . .243

                        Step 7: Negotiate Service Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243

                        Step 8: Develop Service and Process Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . .245

                        Step 9: Design the Call-Handling Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245

                        Step 10: Evaluate, Select, and Implement the Call-Tracking Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245

                        Step 11: Review Metrics to Continually Improve the Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246

            Opening and Closing Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

            Client Issues with Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

                        Assessing an Infrastructure’s Problem Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249

                        Measuring and Streamlining the Problem Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Chapter 12 Storage Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

            Definition of Storage Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

            Desired Traits of a Storage Management Process Owner . . . . . . 256

            Storage Management Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

            Storage Management Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

            Storage Management Reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

            Storage Management Recoverability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Storage Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

            Measuring and Streamlining the Storage Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Chapter 13 Network Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

            Definition of Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

            Key Decisions about Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

                        What Will Be Managed by This Process? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278

                        Who Will Manage It? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279

                        How Much Authority Will This Person Be Given? . . . . . . . . . . .281

                        What Types of Tools and Support Will Be Provided? . . . . . . . .283

                        To What Extent Will Other Processes Be Integrated With This Process? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284

                        What Levels of Service and Quality Will Be Expected? . . . . . .284

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Network Management Process . . . 285

            Measuring and Streamlining the Network Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Chapter 14 Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

            Definition of Configuration Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

            Practical Tips for Improving Configuration Management . . . . . . . 293

                        1. Select a Qualified Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293

                        2. Acquire the Assistance of a Technical Writer or a Documentation Analyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294

                        3. Match the Backgrounds of Writers to Technicians . . . . . . .295

                        4. Evaluate the Quality and Value of Existing Configuration Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295

                        5. Involve Appropriate Hardware Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296

                        6. Involve Appropriate Software Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296

                        7. Coordinate Documentation Efforts in Advance of Major Hardware and Software Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297

                        8. Involve the Asset-Management Group for Desktop Equipment Inventories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Configuration Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

                        Measuring and Streamlining the Configuration Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

Chapter 15 Capacity Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

            Definition of Capacity Planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

            Why Capacity Planning Is Seldom Done Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

                        1. Analysts Are Too Busy with Day-To-Day Activities . . . . . . . .305

                        2. Users Are Not Interested in Predicting Future Workloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305

                        3. Users Who Are Interested Cannot Forecast Accurately . . . .306

                        4. Capacity Planners May Be Reluctant to Use Effective Measuring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306

                        5. Corporate or IT Directions May Change From Year to Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306

                        6. Planning Is Typically Not Part of an Infrastructure Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306

                        7. Managers Sometimes Confuse Capacity Management with Capacity Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

            How to Develop an Effective Capacity Planning Process . . . . . . . 307

                        Step 1: Select an Appropriate Capacity Planning Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308

                        Step 2: Identify the Key Resources to be Measured . . . . . . . .309

                        Step 3: Measure the Utilizations or Performance of the Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309

                        Step 4: Compare Utilizations to Maximum Capacities . . . . . .310

                        Step 5: Collect Workload Forecasts from Developers and Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

                        Step 6: Transform Workload Forecasts into IT Resource Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312

                        Step 7: Map Requirements onto Existing Utilizations . . . . . . .312

                        Step 8: Predict When the Shop Will Be Out of Capacity . . . . .312

                        Step 9: Update Forecasts and Utilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312

            Additional Benefits of Capacity Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

                        1. Strengthens Relationships with Developers and End-Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313

                        2. Improves Communications with Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . .313

                        3. Encourages Collaboration with Other Infrastructure Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313

                        4. Promotes a Culture of Strategic Planning as Opposed to Tactical Firefighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314

            Helpful Hints for Effective Capacity Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

                        1. Start Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314

                        2. Speak the Language of Your Customers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315

                        3. Consider Future Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315

                        4. Share Plans with Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315

                        5. Anticipate Nonlinear Cost Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315

                        6. Plan for Occasional Workload Reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

                        7. Prepare for the Turnover of Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

                        8. Strive to Continually Improve the Process . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

                        9. Evaluate the Hidden Costs of Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

            Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

                        1. Hardware Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

                        2. Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

                        3. Software Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

                        4. Memory Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

                        5. Channel Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

                        6. Cache Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

                        7. Data Backup Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

                        8. Operations Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

                        9. Offsite Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

                        10. Network Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

                        11. Network Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319

                        12. Floor Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319

                        13. Power and Air Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Capacity Planning Process . . . . . . 319

            Measuring and Streamlining the Capacity Planning Process . . . . 322

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Chapter 16 Strategic Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

            Definition of Strategic Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

            Developing a Strategic Security Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

                        Step 1: Identify an Executive Sponsor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327

                        Step 2: Select a Security Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327

                        Step 3: Define Goals of Strategic Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328

                        Step 4: Establish Review Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328

                        Step 5: Identify, Categorize, and Prioritize Requirements . . . .328

                        Step 6: Inventory Current State of Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331

                        Step 7: Establish Security Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331

                        Step 8: Develop Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331

                        Step 9: Assemble Planning Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335

                        Step 10: Review and Approve Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335

                        Step 11: Evaluate Technical Feasibility of Plans . . . . . . . . . . .335

                        Step 12: Assign and Schedule the Implementation of Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Strategic Security Process . . . . . . 336

            Measuring and Streamlining the Security Process . . . . . . . . . . . 339

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

Chapter 17 Business Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

            Definition of Business Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

            Case Study: Disaster at the Movie Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

                        Three Important Lessons Learned from the Case Study . . . . .343

            Steps to Developing an Effective Business Continuity Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

                        Step 1: Acquire Executive Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345

                        Step 2: Select a Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346

                        Step 3: Assemble a Cross-Functional Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347

                        Step 4: Conduct a Business Impact Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .348

                        Step 5: Identify and Prioritize Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .348

                        Step 6: Assess Possible Business Continuity Recovery Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348

                        Step 7: Develop a Request for Proposal (RFP) for Outside Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349

                        Step 8: Evaluate Proposals and Select the Best Offering . . . .349

                        Step 9: Choose Participants and Clarify Their Roles on the Recovery Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349

                        Step 10: Document the Business Continuity Plan . . . . . . . . .349

                        Step 11: Plan and Execute Regularly Scheduled Tests of the Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350

                        Step 12: Conduct a Lessons-Learned Postmortem after Each Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350

                        Step 13: Continually Maintain, Update, and Improve the Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350

            Nightmare Incidents with Disaster Recovery Plans. . . . . . . . . . . 351

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Disaster Recovery Process. . . . . . 353

            Measuring and Streamlining the Disaster Recovery Process. . . . 356

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

Chapter 18 Facilities Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

            Definition of Facilities Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

            Major Elements of Facilities Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

            The Facilities Management Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

                        Determining the Scope of Responsibilities of a Facilities Management Process Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363

                        Desired Traits of a Facilities Management Process Owner . . .363

            Evaluating the Physical Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

                        Major Physical Exposures Common to a Data Center . . . . . . .366

                        Keeping Physical Layouts Efficient and Effective . . . . . . . . . .366

            Tips to Improve the Facilities Management Process. . . . . . . . . . 367

            Facilities Management at Outsourcing Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

            Assessing an Infrastructure’s Facilities Management Process . . 369

            Measuring and Streamlining the Facilities Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

Chapter 19 Developing Robust Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

            What Contributes to a World-Class Infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . 375

                        1. Executive Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376

                        2. Meaningful Metrics Analyzed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377

                        3. Proactive Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378

                        4. Call Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379

                        5. Employee Empowerment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379

                        6. Well-Developed Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379

                        7. Well-Trained Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380

                        8. Well-Equipped Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380

                        9. Robust Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380

                        10. Effective Use of Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381

                        11. Integrated Systems Management Functions . . . . . . . . . .381

            Characteristics of a Robust Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

                                    1. Process Objective Is Identified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382

                        2. Executive Sponsor Is Identified and Involved . . . . . . . . . . .382

                        3. Process Owner Is Identified and Given Responsibility for and Authority Over the Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382

                        4. Key Customers Are Identified and Involved . . . . . . . . . . . .383

                        5. Secondary Customers Are Identified and Consulted . . . . . .383

                        6. Process Suppliers Are Identified and Involved . . . . . . . . . .383

                        7. Process Outputs Are Identified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383

                        8. Process Inputs Are Identified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384

                        9. Process Is Described by a Sound Business Model . . . . . . .384

                        10. Process Hierarchy Is Understood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384

                        11. Execution Is Enforceable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384

                        12. Process Is Designed to Provide Service Metrics . . . . . . .384

                        13. Service Metrics Are Compiled and Analyzed, Not Just Collected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385

                        14. Process Is Designed to Provide Process Metrics . . . . . . .385

                        15. Process Metrics Are Compiled and Analyzed, Not Just Collected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386

                        16. Documentation Is Thorough, Accurate, and Easily Understood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386

                        17. Process Contains All Required Value-Added Steps . . . . . .387

                        18. Process Eliminates All Non-Value-Added Steps . . . . . . . .387

                        19. Process Guarantees Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388

                        20. Process Provides Incentives for Compliance and Penalties for Avoidance or Circumvention . . . . . . . . . . . .388

                        21. Process Is Standardized Across all Appropriate Departments and Remote Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388

                        22. Process Is Streamlined as Much as Possible and Practical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389

                        23. Process Is Automated Wherever Practical, but Only after Streamlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389

                        24. Process Integrates with all Other Appropriate Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389

            Understanding the Differences Between a Formal Process and an Informal Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

            Helpful Ground Rules for Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

            Methods for Prioritizing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

Chapter 20 Using Technology to Automate and Evaluate Robust

Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

            Automating Robust Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

            Evaluating an Infrastructure Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

            Evaluating Process Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

            Benefits of the Methodology to Evaluate Process Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

Chapter 21 Integrating Systems Management Processes . . 415

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

            Distinguishing Strategic Processes from Tactical Processes . . . . 415

                        Identifying Strategic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416

                        Identifying Tactical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417

                        The Value of Distinguishing Strategic from Tactical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418

            Relationships Between Strategic and Tactical Processes . . . . . . 418

                        Difficulties with Integrating Solely Tactical Processes . . . . . . .420

                        Difficulties with Integrating Solely Strategic Processes . . . . . .421

                        Difficulties with Integrating Tactical and Strategic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421

            Examining the Integrated Relationships Between Strategic and Tactical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423

            Significance of Systems Management Process Relationships. . . 428

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

Chapter 22 Special Considerations for Client-Server and Web-Enabled Environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

            Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

            Client-Server Environment Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

                        Vendor Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434

                        Multiplatform Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434

                        Performance and Tuning Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435

                        Disaster-Recovery Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436

                        Capacity Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438

            Web-Enabled Environment Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

                        Traditional Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441

                        Moderate and Growing Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442

                        Dotcom Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443

            Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

            Test Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

            Suggested Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

Appendix A Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Appendix B Summary of Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

Appendix C Assessment Worksheets Without

Weighting Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

Appendix D Assessment Worksheets With Weighting

Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

Appendix E Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

Appendix F Evolving in the 1970s and 1980s . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

Appendix G Into and Beyond the New Millennium . . . . . . . . . 521

Appendix H Answers to Selected Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543

9780137025060, TOC, 1/11/2010

 

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ISBN-10: 0-13-612352-X

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-612352-1

Format: Safari PTG

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