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Learning and Teaching: Research-Based Methods, 5th Edition

By Don P. Kauchak, Paul D. Eggen

Published by Pearson

Published Date: May 11, 2006

Description

This substantially revised Fourth Edition represents one of the most up-to-date, research-based methods texts available today. This text has two specific goals: to change how teachers think about teaching and to change how they actually teach. Solidly grounded in research, the text describes practical methods in a clear, readable manner with numerous case examples and offers suggestions for applying those methods in today's diverse school environments. Kauchak and Eggen organize their discussion around three important themes in education: diversity, motivation, and technology.

Table of Contents

Preface.

1. Research and Teaching.

Defining Good Teaching

Research in Teaching: An Historical Perspective

Studies of Teacher Characteristics

The Search for the Right Method

School-Level Research

Teacher Effectiveness Research: Teachers Do Make a Difference

Beyond Effective Teaching: A Focus on Student Learning

Contemporary Views of Teaching and Learning

From Behaviorist to Cognitive Perspectives

Constructivism: Students as Creators of Understanding

Text Themes

The Diversity of Our Learners

Ways of Enhancing Learner Motivation

Assessment

The Use of Technology for Increasing Learning

Learning to Teach

Knowledge of Subject Matter

Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Knowledge of Teaching and Learning

Teaching Strategies

Teacher Decision Making

Reform and No Child Left Behind

Standards-Based Professional Development

Advanced Professional Standards: National Board Certification

Developing a Professional Portfolio

Using This Book to Learn to Teach

2. Student Diversity.

Capitalizing on Cultural Diversity

Multicultural Education: The Challenge

Theories of Minority Achievement

Culturally Responsive Teaching

Language Diversity

English Dialects

English Language Development Programs

Students Placed At Risk: Teaching the Children of Poverty

Students Placed At Risk: Understanding the Problem

Resiliency: Capitalizing on Student Strengths

Teaching Students Placed At Risk

Motivation: The Need for Challenge

Teaching Students with Different Learning Abilities

Intelligence: What Does It Mean?

Multiple Intelligences: The Work of Howard Gardner

Intellectual Diversity: Implications for Teaching

Learning Styles

Field Dependence/Independence

Conceptual Tempo: Impulsive and Reflective Learners

Classroom Learning Styles: The Work of Dunn and Dunn

Learning Styles: Implications for Teachers

Students with Exceptionalities

Working with Students with Exceptionalities: Support for Classroom Teachers

The Exceptional Student Population

Teachers' Roles in Working with Students Having Exceptionalities

Adapting Instruction for Students with Exceptionalities

Technology as a Tool for Inclusion

The Challenge of Assessment in Diverse Classrooms

Provide Practice with Test Taking

Teach Test-Taking Strategies

Use Clear Language in Items

Make Provisions for Nonnative English Speakers

3. Teacher Planning: Research and Reality.

Planning: A Functional Analysis

Variables in Instructional Planning

The Teacher

Learner Development

Learner Motivation

Content

Teaching Context

Materials and Resources

Time

A Cognitive Planning Model

Selecting Topics

Specifying Learning Objectives

Preparing and Organizing Learning Activities

Preparing Assessments

Instructional Alignment

Backward Design

Long-Term, Unit, and Lesson Planning

Long-Term Planning

Unit Planning

Daily Lesson Planning

Integrating the Curriculum: Interdisciplinary and Thematic Units

An Integrated Continuum

Designing and Implementing Integrated Units

Research on Integrated Planning

Research on Teacher Planning

Planning for Diversity: Differentiating Instruction

Varying Time

Varying Learning Objectives

Adapting Instructional Materials

Offering Different Learning Activities

Technology as a Tool for Differentiating Instruction

4. Effective Teaching: The Research Base.

Classroom Climate: A Prerequisite to Learning

Acceptance and Caring: The Human Dimension of Teaching

A Safe and Orderly Learning Environment

A Learning-Focused Classroom

Effective Teaching and the Concept of Time

Allocated Time: Priorities in the Curriculum

Instructional Time: Time from a Teacher's Perspective

Engaged Time: Time from a Learner's Perspective

Academic Learning Time: The Role of Success

A General Instructional Model

Characteristics of Effective Teachers

Teacher Attitudes

Teacher Attitudes, Learner Diversity, and Motivation

Effective Communication

Organization

Effective Lesson Beginnings

Review

Focus

Developing the Lesson

Ending Lessons Effectively

Closure

Assessment and Effective Teaching

5. Increasing Learning through Student Involvement.

Student Involvement: A Key to Learning and Motivation

Learner Involvement: The Need for Clear Learning Objectives

Student Involvement: The Role Of Content Representations

Effective Content Representations: Using Technology

Effective Content Representations: Accommodating Learner Diversity

The Role of Teacher Questioning in Student Learning

Using Questioning to Assess Current Understanding

Increasing Student Motivation

Guiding New Learning

Questions: Their Influence on Student Thinking

Elements of Effective Questioning

Questioning Frequency

Equitable Distribution

Prompting

Effective Questioning: Increasing Student Motivation

Repetition for Emphasis

Wait Time

Effective Questioning: Involving Students from Diverse Backgrounds

Classroom Questions: Additional Issues

Low- and High-Level Questions

Selecting Students

Callouts

Choral Responses

6. Creating Productive Learning Environments: Classroom Management.

The Importance Of Classroom Management

Classroom Management: A Definition

Management Goals: Learning and Self-Regulation

Creating Responsibility-Oriented Classrooms

Classroom Management: An Historical Perspective

Planning for Classroom Management

Student Characteristics

The Physical Environment

Classroom Rules: Establishing Standards for Behavior

Procedures: Creating An Efficient Learning Environment

Implementing Management Plans

Implementing Plans: The First 10 Days

Learner Diversity: Challenges To Home—School Communication

The Relationship between Management and Instruction

The Role of Assessment in Classroom Management

Management Interventions

An Intervention Continuum

Dealing with Individual Problems

Serious Management Problems: Violence and Aggression

7. Direct Instruction.

Direct Instruction in the Total Instructional Perspective

Direct Instruction

Direct Instruction: The Research Base

Forms of Content Taught by Direct Instruction

Goals of Direct Instruction

Planning for Direct Instruction

Implementing Direct Instruction Lessons

The Role of Assessment in Direct Instruction

The Motivational Benefits of Effective Feedback

8. Lecture Discussions: Teaching Organized Bodies of Knowledge.

Organized Bodies Of Knowledge: Integrating Facts, Concepts, and Generalizations

Using Lectures to Teach Organized Bodies Of Knowledge

Lecture Discussions: Alternatives to Standard Lectures

The Lecture-Discussion Model: The Research Base

Planning for Lecture Discussions

Implementing Lecture-Discussion Lessons

The Role of Assessment in Lecture-Discussion Lessons

9. Guided Discovery: A Constructivist Approach to Instruction.

Guided Discovery: An Overview

Guided Discovery: Theoretical Foundations

Characteristics of Constructivism

Guided Discovery and Student Motivation

Misconceptions about Guided Discovery

Planning for Guided Discovery Lessons

Identifying Topics

Specifying Learning Objectives

Selecting Examples and Nonexamples

Planning for Social Interaction

Planning for Assessment

Conducting Guided Discovery Lessons

Review and Introduction

The Open-Ended Phase

The Convergent Phase

Closure

Application

Ongoing Assessment in Guided Discovery Lessons

10. Learning and Teaching in Groups.

Social Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives

Developmental Theories

Elaboration Theory

Motivation Theory

Components of Effective Group Interaction

Using Groupwork to Facilitate Learning

Organizing and Conducting Groupwork Activities

Working in Pairs: Introducing Groupwork

Working with Larger Groups

Combining Pairs

Groupwork with Higher-Level Tasks

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning: Getting Started

STAD: Student Teams-Achievement Division

Jigsaw II

Group Investigation

Computer-Mediated Communication: Using Technology to Facilitate Cooperative Learning

Using Cooperative Learning to Capitalize on Diversity

Discussions

Using Discussions to Promote Student Growth

Promoting Cognitive Growth with Discussions: Planning

Promoting Cognitive Growth with Discussions: Implementation

Affective Discussions: Promoting Ethical and Moral Growth

Peer Tutoring: Students as Resources

Research on Peer Tutoring

A Basic Peer Tutoring Model

Assessing Learning in Social Interaction Strategies

Assessing Cognitive Achievement

Assessing Growth in Social Interaction Skills

11. Problem-Based Instruction.

Problem-Based Learning

Problem-Based Instruction: An Overview

Problem-Based Learning: Theoretical Foundations

Project-Based Learning

Essential Components

Implementing Project-Based Instruction in the Classroom

Assessment and Project-Based Learning

Research on Project-Based Learning

Problem Solving

Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems

A Problem-Solving Model

Helping Learners Become Better Problem Solvers

Anchored Instruction: Technology as a Tool to Teach Problem Solving

Inquiry Strategies

Identifying a Question

Forming Hypotheses

Gathering Data

Assessing Hypotheses

Generalizing

Analyzing the Inquiry Process

Critical Thinking

Knowledge of Content

Basic Processes

Metacognitive Knowledge

Attitudes and Dispositions

Teaching Critical Thinking in the Classroom

12. Assessing Learner Understanding.

Classroom Assessment

Formal and Informal Assessment

Functions of an Assessment System

Characteristics of Effective Assessment

Teachers' Assessment Patterns

Using Assessment to Promote Learning

Preparing Students

Administering Tests

Examining Results

Research on Classroom Testing: Implications for Teachers

Alternative Assessment

Performance Assessment

Portfolio Assessment

Designing an Assessment System

Grades and Grading

Communication

Using Technology in Assessment

Planning and Constructing Tests

Analyzing Test Data

Maintaining Student Records

Reference.

Author Index.

Subject Index.

Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-205-49521-4

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-49521-4

Format: Book

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