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Leisure in a Changing America: Trends and Issues for the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition

By Richard Kraus

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 2, 2000

Table of Contents

1.Contemporary Leisure: Trends, Concepts, and Values.

Leisure's Growth in Modern Society.

Challenges to Recreation and Leisure-Service Agencies.

Expectations of Leisure at Mid-Century.

Key Concepts: Leisure, Play, Recreation.

Values and Outcomes of Leisure Experience.

Retrospective at Century's End.

Futurist Predictions: An Overview.

2.Leisure in America: The Post-War Years.

Growing Affluence in Post-World War II Years.

Major Trends and Events Affecting Leisure Services.

Environmental Programs.

Recreation and the War on Poverty.

Civil Rights and Leisure.

Youth Rebellion and the Counterculture.

Decline in Acceptance of Work Values.

Other Effects of Counterculture: Emergence of Minority Groups.

Implications for Leisure and Recreation.

3.Challenge and Change at Century's End.

Work and Free-Time Shifts in the 1980's.

Leisure's Decline: Reality or Myth?

Fiscal Cutbacks and the Leisure “Industry.”

Trends in the Mid- and Late 1990s.

Conservative Trend in Social Policy.

Challenges to Leisure-Service Movement.

Outlook for the Future.

4.The Leisure-Service System Today.

Agencies Comprising the Leisure-Service System.

Public Leisure-Service Agencies.

Voluntary, Nonprofit Social Agencies.

Commercial Recreation.

Therapeutic Recreation Service.

Private Membership Organizations.

Campus Recreation: Programming in Schools and Colleges.

Armed Forces Recreation.

Employee Services and Recreation.

Partnerships Among Leisure-Service Organizations.

Privatization Approaches.

Professionalism in the Leisure-Service Field.

Professional Identity and Role.

5.Forecasting the Future: Trends and Issues.

Forecasting Methods Applicable to Leisure.

Forecasting in the Leisure-Service Field.

Trends and Issues: Views of Leisure-Service Educators.

Preliminary Review of Survey Findings.

6.People I: Demographic Trends Affecting Leisure.

Importance of Demographic Analysis.

Patterns of Population Growth.

Influence of Age Groups on Leisure.

Leisure, Play, and Recreation in Childhood.

Adolescents and Leisure.

Leisure during the Adult Years.

Leisure and the Elderly.

Leisure and the Family.

Socioeconomic Trends Affecting Leisure Involvement.

7.People II: Racial and Ethnic Influences on Leisure.

Definitions of Race and Ethnicity.

The Drive Toward Multiculturalism.

Leisure and Ethnicity: A Challenge.

Leisure Involvements of African Americans.

Leisure and Hispanic Americans.

Native Americans and Leisure.

Asian Americans and Leisure.

Leisure in the Lives of White Ethnics.

8.People III: Gender, Sex, and Leisure Lifestyles.

Meanings of Sex and Gender.

Leisure in the Lives of Women.

Women in Sports.

Men and Leisure.

Leisure and Alternative Sexual Lifestyles.

Sex and Leisure.

Implications for Leisure-Service Field.

9.Pastimes I: Sports in Contemporary Life.

Overview of Leisure Experiences.

Sports as Leisure Pursuit.

Role of Sports in American Education.

Sports as Commercial Enterprise.

Reexamining Sports Values.

10.Pastimes II: Outdoor Recreation, Travel, and Tourism.

Meaning of Outdoor Recreation.

Overview of Major Pursuits: Hunting and Fishing.

Other Wilderness Pursuits.

Conflicts between Environmentalists and Recreationists.

The Role of Adventure Recreation.

Needs of Urban Residents.

Tourism: A Major Industry.

11.Pastimes III: Popular Culture—Arts and Entertainment, Television, and Hobbies.

Meaning of Popular Culture.

The Arts in Leisure.

Mass Media of Entertainment.

Television as Dominant Leisure Activity.

Video Games and Computer Pursuits.

Literary Forms of Leisure.

Other Pursuits: Hobbies, Pets, and Sociability.

The Leisure Activities Spectrum.

12.The Commodification of Leisure.

Commodification and the Consumer Mentality.

Commodification in the Larger Society.

Examples of Commodification in Leisure.

Commodification in the Public Leisure-Service Activities.

Implications of Commodification Trend.

The Shady Side of Leisure: Morally Marginal Play.

Gambling as Leisure Pursuit.

Substance Abuse and Leisure.

Commercialized Sex.

Technology's Role in Commodifying Leisure.

13.Environmental Trends and Issues.

The Environmental Movement: An Overview.

Threats to Outdoor Environments.

New Strategies in Environmental Management.

Partnerships and Land Preservation.

Leisure and the Urban Environment.

14.Charting the Future: Challenges for the Leisure-Service System.

Forecasting the Future: Alternative Views.

Technology's Influence on Leisure.

Effect of Population Changes.

Challenges Facing Leisure-Service Field.

Appendix A: Survey of Leisure-Service Educators.

Appendix B: Suggested Course Materials.