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Linguistics for Non-Linguists: A Primer with Exercises, CourseSmart eTextbook, 5th Edition

By Frank Parker, Kathryn Riley

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jun 19, 2009

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Description

Linguistics for Non-Linguists, Fourth Edition, is a highly readable introductory text that presents students with the basic elements of linguistics in a clear and concise style that any beginner will understand.

This newly revised edition continues to expand on the success of earlier editions, taking a subject that is generally considered quite complicated and making it accessible to virtually anyone who requires a basic understanding of linguistics. The authors illustrate major concepts in an easy-to-read style, giving students and specialists in language-related fields an introduction to the essential principles and methods of linguistic theory. Non-linguistics majors will also find this book user-friendly, with a wealth of exercises and references interspersed throughout to help reinforce concepts.

Specialists in language-related fields, including Speech-Language Pathology, Experimental Phonetics, Communication, Education, Psychology, and English as a Second Language, will find this text a must-have reference for all courses.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

 

 

Preface ix

 

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1

 

CHAPTER TWO: Pragmatics 4

 

IMPLICATURE 5

Conversational Maxims 5

SPEECH ACTS 7

A Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts 8

Felicity Conditions 9

Explicit versus Nonexplicit Illocutionary Acts 11

Direct versus Indirect Illocutionary Acts 13

Expressed versus Implied Locutionary Acts 16

Literal versus Nonliteral Locutionary Acts 18

Overview of Speech Act Theory 19

 

SUMMARY 21

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 21

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 21

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 24

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: Semantics 26

 

BACKGROUND 27

SENSE 29

REFERENCE 34

TRUTH 38

 

SUMMARY 43

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 44

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 44

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 46

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Syntax 47

 

CATEGORIES 48

LEFT-TO-RIGHT ORDERING 49

CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE 53

X-BAR SYNTAX 60

TRANSFORMATIONS 63

 

Movement 65

Constraints on Movement 69

 

SUMMARY 72

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 72

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 72

EXPLORATORY EXERCISE 78

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE : Morphology 79

 

MORPHEMES 80

LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES 82

FREE AND BOUND MORPHEMES 82

INFLECTIONAL AND DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES 83

Inflectional Affixes 83

Derivational Affixes 88

Differences between Types of Affixes 89

 

WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES 93

SUMMARY 95

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 95

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 96

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 98

 

CHAPTER SIX: Phonology 99

 

VOCAL TRACT 100

SEGMENTS 101

PHONEMIC ALPHABET 102

Vowels 102

Consonants 105

LEVELS OF REPRESENTATION 110

PHONOLOGICAL RULES 113

Aspiration 113

Vowel Lengthening 115

Vowel Nasalization 116

Flapping 118

Rule Ordering 119

 

SUMMARY 121

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 122

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 122

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 125

 

 

CHAPTER SEVEN: Language Processing 127

 

SENTENCE-LEVEL PHENOMENA IN LANGUAGE PROCESSING 127

Resolving Syntactic Ambiguity 128

Resolving Ambiguous Pronoun Reference 130

Understanding Negative Sentences 131

Processing Passive Sentences 133

Processing Complex Sentences 134

Processing Heavy NPs 135

 

DISCOURSE-LEVEL PHENOMENA IN LANGUAGE PROCESSING 136

Readability 136

Schemata and Scripts 137

Cohesion 138

Thematic Roles 140

The Given-New Contract 141

Reading between the Lines 143

 

SUMMARY 144

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 145

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 145

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 146

 

 

CHAPTER EIGHT: LANGUAGE VARIATION 148

 

LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS, LANGUAGES, DIALECTS, AND IDIOLECTS 149

 

REGIONAL VARIATION 150

Regional Lexical Variation 154

Regional Phonological Variation 157

SOCIAL VARIATION 161

Nonstandard Phonological Variation 163

Nonstandard Morphological Variation 167

Nonstandard Syntactic Variation 169

LANGUAGE AND GENDER 175

Gender as a Social Variable 175

Gender Patterns within Standard English 176

            STYLISTIC VARIATION 179

Stylistic Lexical Variation 180

Stylistic Phonological Variation 180

Stylistic Morphological Variation 181

Stylistic Syntactic Variation 181

 

SUMMARY 182

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 183

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 183

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 186

 

CHAPTER NINE: LANGUAGE CHANGE 189

 

            BACKGROUND 189

            SEMANTIC CHANGE 191

            SYNTACTIC CHANGE 193

                        Word Order Typology 193

                        Rule Change 194

            MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE 197

            PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE 200

            CAUSES OF CHANGE 201

            SUMMARY 202

            SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 202

            SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 203

            EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 204

 

CHAPTER TEN: FIRST-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 205

 

PRELINGUISTIC STAGES 206

LINGUISTIC STAGES 208

Acquisition of Phonology 209

Acquisition of Morphology 214

Acquisition of Syntax 218

Acquisition of Semantics 225

ISSUES IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 229

Nativism and Empiricism 229

Language-Specific and General Cognitive Capacities 231

Chomsky’s Position 231

SUMMARY 237

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 237

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 238

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 242

 

 

CHAPTER ELEVEN: SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 243

 

ISSUES IN SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 244

Interlanguage Theory 244

Language Transfer 244

Other Linguistic Factors 245

PATTERNS IN SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 249

Phonology 249

Morphology 251

Syntax 253

Semantics 255

 

NON-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 257

SUMMARY 259

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 259

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 260

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 263

 

CHAPTER TWELVE: WRITTEN LANGUAGE 264

 

WRITING SYSTEMS 264

THE ENGLISH SPELLING SYSTEM 270

Reasons for Inconsistency in English Spelling 271

English Spelling and Morphophonemics 272

 

ANALYZING ERRORS IN WRITTEN ENGLISH 273

Phonology and Spelling 273

Morphology and Writing 276

 

SUMMARY 277

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 277

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 278

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 279

 

 

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: THE NEUROLOGY OF LANGUAGE 280

 

ANATOMY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 281

Lobes 283

Convolutions and Fissures 283

Broca’s Area 284

Wernicke’s Area 285

Supplementary Motor Cortex 286

HEMISPHERICAL SPECIALIZATION 287

Left-Hemisphere Dominance for Language 287

Left Brain versus Right Brain 291

Handedness 293

APHASIA 294

SUMMARY 299

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 299

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 300

EXPLORATORY EXERCISES 303

 

 

 

 

References 305

 

Glossary 313

 

Answers to Selected Exercises 333

 

Author Index 341

 

Subject Index 343

 

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Linguistics for Non-Linguists: A Primer with Exercises, CourseSmart eTextbook, 5th Edition
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$38.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-701943-4