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Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, 10th Edition

By X. J. Kennedy, Dana Gioia

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Oct 30, 2006


The most popular introductory anthology of its kind, Kennedy/Gioia’s Literature continues to inspire students with engaging insights on reading and writing about stories, poems, and plays.


Poets in their own right, editors X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia bring personal warmth and a human perspective to this comprehensive anthology.  Organized into three genres—Literature, Tenth Edition, presents readable discussions of the literary devices, illustrated by apt works, supported by useful writing tips, and followed by (now) seven full chapters devoted to writing.  A broad scope of traditional and contemporary works is provided, most headed by author images and richly detailed biographical notes and some followed by author commentary.  While maintaining the characteristics of its previous editions–accessible apparatus, expansive author representation–this tenth edition of Literature has been re-imagined to include new casebooks, a lively new design, and more writing coverage than ever before.

Table of Contents




Fable, Parable, and Tales

W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra

* Aesop, The North Wind and the Sun

Bidpai, The Camel and His Friends

Chuang Tzu, Independence

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death


The Short Story

John Updike, A & P

Writers on Writing: John Updike, Why Write?



William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

* Anne Tyler, Teenage Wasteland

James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues

* Eudora Welty, A Worn Path

Writers on Writing: James Baldwin, Race and the African American Writer



Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill 

* Tobias Wolff, The Rich Brother

Raymond Carver, Cathedral 

Writers on Writing: Raymond Carver, Commonplace but Precise Language



Kate Chopin, The Storm

Jack London, To Build a Fire

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets

Writers on Writing: Amy Tan, Setting the Voice



Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place

William Faulkner, Barn Burning


* O. Henry, Gift of the Magi

Ha Jin, Saboteur

Writers on Writing: Ernest Hemingway, The Direct Style



Stephen Crane, The Open Boat

* Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband

Luke 15: 11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Harrison Bergeron

Writers on Writing: Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., The Themes of Science Fiction



John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery

Elizabeth Tallent, No One’s a Mystery

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

*Writers on Writing: Shirley Jackson, Reactions to "The Lottery"



* Yiyun Li, A Thousand Years of Good Prayers


* Writers on Writing: Yiyun Li, “What I Could Not Write about Was Why I Was Writing”



Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis

Writers on Writing: Franz Kafka, Discussing The Metamorphosis



Flannery O'Connor,  A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Flannery O'Connor,  Revelation

* Flannery O'Connor, Parker’s Back

Flannery O'Connor on Writing

Flannery O'Connor, An Excerpt from “On Her Own Work”: The Element of Suspense in “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”

Flannery O'Connor, On Her Catholic Faith

Flannery O'Connor, An Excerpt from “The Grotesque in Southern Fiction”: The Serious Writer and the Tired Reader

Flannery O'Connor, Yearbook Cartoons

Critics on Flannery O'Connor

Robert Brinkmeyer Jr., Flannery O’Connor and Her Readers

J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not so Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit

Mary Jane Schenck, Deconstructing "A Good Man Is Hard to Find"

* Kathleen Feeley, The Mystery of Divine Direction: “Parker’s Back”


11. CRITICAL CASEBOOK: 3 Stories in Depth

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart

Edgar Allan Poe on Writing

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tale and Its Effect

Edgar Allan Poe, On Imagination  

Edgar Allan Poe, The Philosophy of Composition 

Critics on “The Tell-Tale Heart”

Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in “The Tell-Tale Heart”

* Scott Peeples, “The Tell-Tale Heart” as a Love Story

* John Chua, The Figure of the Double in Poe

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper

Charlotte Perkins Gilman on Writing

* Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper”

* Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Whatever Is 

* Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Nervous Breakdown of Women

Critics on “Yellow Wallpaper”

Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in “The Yellow Wallpaper”

* Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement

* Elizabeth Ammons, Biographical Echoes in “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

Alice Walker on Writing

* Black Women Writers in America, Interview by John O’Brien 

* Alice Walker: “I Know What the Earth Says, ” Interview by William R. Ferris

Critics on “Everyday Use”

Barbara T. Christian, “Everyday Use” and the Black Power Movement

* Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker, Stylish vs. Sacred in “Everyday Use”

* Elaine Showalter, Quilt as Metaphor in “Everyday Use”



Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path

Anjana Appachana, The Prophecy

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings

Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark

Willa Cather,  Paul's Case

John Cheever, The Five-Forty-Eight

Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Pet Dog

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

Sandra Cisneros, House on Mango Street.

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal

Gabriel García Márquez, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World

* Dagoberto Gilb, Look on the Bright Side

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat

Kazuo Ishiguro, A Family Supper

James Joyce, Araby

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies

D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried

Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing

* Octavio Paz, My Life with the Wave

Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds

* Helena María Viramontes, The Moths




William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

Lyric Poetry

D. H. Lawrence, Piano

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

Narrative Poetry

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence

Robert Frost, “Out, Out—”

Dramatic Poetry

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

Writers on Writing: Adrienne Rich, Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers"

William Stafford, Ask Me

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me"




Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book

Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter

Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles

Benjamin Alire Sáenz, To the Desert

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter

The Person in the Poem

Natasha Trethewey, White Lies

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal

Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting

* Suji Kwock Kim, Monologue for an Onion

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

Dorothy  Wordsworth, Journal Entry

James Stephens, A Glass of Beer

Anne Sexton, Her Kind

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow


Robert Creeley, Oh No

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen

Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage

John Betjeman, In Westminster Abbey

Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links

* Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig

* Joseph Stroud, Missing

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox

For Review and Further Study

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper

* David Lehman, Rejection Slip

William Stafford, At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border

H. L. Hix, I Love the World, As Does Any Dancer

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

Writers on Writing: Wilfred Owen, War Poetry

Student Essay, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz"


15. WORDS 

Literal Meaning:  What a Poem Says First

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say

Marianne Moore, Silence

Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down!

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You

The Value of a Dictionary

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath

John Clare, Mouse’s Nest

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead

Kelly Cherry, Advice to a Friend Who Paints

Carl Sandburg, Grass

Word Choice and Word Order

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes

Kay Ryan, Blandeur

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment

Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts

For Review and Further Study

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

Billy Collins, The Names

Anonymous, Carnation Milk

* Kenneth Rexroth, Vitamins and Roughage

* Gina Valdes, English con Salsa

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky

Writers on Writing: Lewis Carroll,  Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky"



John Masefield, Cargoes

William Blake, London

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock

* Gwendolyn Brooks, Southeast Corner

Timothy Steele, Epitaph

* E. E. Cummings, next to of course to god america i

Robert Frost, Fire and Ice

Clare Rossini, Final Love Note

* Jennifer Reeser, Winter-proof

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World

Writers on Writing: Richard Wilbur, Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World"



Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel

T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish

Anne Stevenson, The Victory

Charles Simic, Fork

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence

Jean Toomer, Reapers

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty

About Haiku

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell

Taniguchi Buson, I go

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket

Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps

Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain

Neiji Ozawa, War forced us from California

Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs

Contemporary American Haiku

Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, John Ridland, * Garry Gay, Adelle Foley, Jennifer Brutschy, Connie Bensley, A Selection of Haiku

For Review and Further Study

John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art

T. C. Hulme, The Image

Walt Whitman, The Runner

* William Carlos Williams, El Hombre

Chana Bloch, Tired Sex

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter

* Rita Dove, Silos

Louise Glück, Mock Orange

Billy Collins, Embrace

John Haines, Winter News

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning

Writers on Writing: Ezra Pound, The Image

Student Essay, Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish"



Why Speak Figuratively?

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?

Metaphor and Simile

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors

N. Scott Momaday, Simile

Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low – in my Regard

Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home

Other Figures

James Stephens, The Wind

Margaret Atwood, You fit into me

John Ashbery, The Cathedral Is

George Herbert, The Pulley

* Dana Gioia, Money

* Charles Simic, My Shoes

For Review and Further Study

Robert Frost, The Silken Tent

* April Lindner, Low Tide

Jane Kenyon, The Suitor

Robert Frost, The Secret Sits

A. R. Ammons, Coward

Kay Ryan, Turtle

* Heather McHugh, Language Lesson, 1976

Robinson Jeffers, Hands

Robert Burns, Oh, my love is like a red, red rose

Writers on Writing: Robert Frost, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor


19. SONG

Singing and Saying

Ben Jonson, To Celia

Anonymous, The Cruel Mother

* William Shakespeare, O Mistress Mine

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory

Paul Simon, Richard Cory


Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham


Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues


Run D.M.C.,  from Peter Piper

For Review and Further Study

John Lennon and Paul McCartney, Eleanor Rigby

Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin'

* Aimee Mann, Deathly

Writers on Writing: Paul McCartney, Creating "Eleanor Rigby"



Sound as Meaning

Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?

John Updike, Recital

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

Emanuel di Pasquale, Rain

Aphra Behn, When Maidens Are Young

Alliteration and Assonance

A. E. Housman, Eight O’Clock

* James Joyce, All Day I Hear

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls


William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga

James Reeves, Rough Weather

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus

* Ogden Nash, The Panther

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur

Fred Chappell, Narcissus and Echo

Robert Frost, Desert Places

Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane

William Shakespeare, Full fathom five thy father lies

Chryss Yost, Lai with Sounds of Skin

T. S. Eliot, Virginia

Writers on Writing: T. S. Eliot, The Music of Poetry



Stresses and Pauses

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break

Ben Jonson, Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears

Sir Thomas Wyatt, With serving still

Dorothy Parker, Résumé


Max Beerbohm, On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm

Thomas Campion, Rose-cheeked Laura, come

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme

* Jacqueline Osherow, Song for the Music in the Warsaw Ghetto

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty

* William Carlos Williams, Smell!

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!

David Mason, Song of the Powers

Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie

Writers on Writing: Gwendolyn Brooks, Hearing "We Real Cool"



Formal Patterns

John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable

Robert Graves, Counting the Beats

John Donne, Song (“Go and catch a falling star”)

Phillis Levin, Brief Bio

The Sonnet

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Michael Drayton, Since there’s no help, come let us kiss and part

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why

Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You

* Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded

Timothy Steele, Summer

A. E. Stallings, Sine Qua Non

* R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet

The Epigram

Alexander Pope, Sir John Harrington, Robert Herrick, William Blake, E. E. Cummings, Langston Hughes, J. V. Cunningham, John Frederick Nims, Stevie Smith, Brad Leithauser, Dick Davis, Anonymous, Hilaire Belloc, Wendy Cope, A selection of epigrams

W. H. Auden, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, Cornelius Ter Maat, Clerihews

Other Forms

Robert Pinsky, ABC

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night

Robert Bridges, Triolet

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina

*Writers on Writing: A. E. Stallings, On Form and Artifice



Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill ’s

W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death

William Carlos Williams, The Dance

Stephen Crane, The Heart

Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford

* Ezra Pound, Salutation

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird

Prose Poetry

Carolyn Forché, The Colonel

* Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness

Visual Poetry

George Herbert, Easter Wings

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow

Terry Ehret, from Papyrus

Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat

Found Poetry

Ronald Gross, Yield

Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse

E. E. Cummings, in Just-

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red

* Alice Fulton, Failure

Writers on Writing: Walt Whitman, The Poetry of the Future



T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

Matthew 13:24-30, The Parable of the Good Seed

George Herbert, The World

* Edwin Markham, Outwitted

* John Ciardi, A Box Comes Home

Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken

Christina Rossetti, Uphill

* Christian Wiman, Postolka

For Review and Further Study

William Carlos Williams, The Term

Ted Kooser, Carrie

* Jane Hirshfield, Tree

Jon Stallworthy, An Evening Walk

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar

Writers on Writing: William Butler Yeats, Poetic Symbols


25. MYTH

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay

D. H. Lawrence, Bavarian Gentians

William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us

H. D., Helen


Louise Bogan, Medusa

* John Keats, La Belle Dame Sans Merci

Personal Myth

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming

* Gregory Orr, Two Lines from the Brothers Grimm

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School

Myth and Popular Culture

Charles Martin, Taken Up

* Andrea Hollander Budy, Snow White

Anne Sexton, Cinderella

Writers on Writing: Anne Sexton, Transforming Fairy Tales

Student Essay, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.'s "Helen"



Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus

Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilingüe

Culture, Race, and Ethnicity

Claude McKay, America

Samuel Menashe, The Shrine Whose Shape I Am

Francisco X. Alarcón, The X in My Name

* Amy Uyematsu, Deliberate

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It


Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu

Emily Grosholz, Listening

Donald Justice, Men at Forty

Adrienne Rich, Women

For Review and Further Study

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to love America

Andrew Hudgins, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead

Alastair Reid, Speaking a Foreign Language

Philip Larkin, Aubade

Writers on Writing: Rhina Espaillat,  Being a Bilingual Writer



Is Poetic Translation Possible?

World Poetry

Li Po, Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text)

Li Po, Moon-beneath Alone Drink (literal translation)

Li Po, translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight

Comparing Translations

Horace, “Carpe Diem” Ode (Latin text)

Horace, “Carpe Diem” Ode (literal translation)

Horace, translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, Horace to Leuconoe

Horace, translated by James Michie, Don’t Ask

Horace, translated by A. E. Stallings, A New Year’s Toast

Omar Khayyam, Rubai (Persian text)

Omar Khayyam, Rubai (literal translation)

Omar Khayyam, translated by Edward FitzGerald, A Book of Verses underneath the Bough

Omar Khayyam, translated by Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah, Our Day’s Portion

Omar Khayyam, translated by Dick Davis, I Need a Bare Sufficiency


Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are

Wendy Cope, From Strugnell’s Rubaiyat

Hugh Kingsmill, What, still alive at twenty-two?

Bruce Bennett, The Lady Speaks Again

Gene Fehler, If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent

Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla

Writers on Writing: Arthur Waley, The Method of Translation


28. Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America

Sor Juana

Asegura la Confianza de que Oculturá de todo un Secreto

Translated by Diane Thiel, She Promises to Hold a Secret in Confidence

Presente en que el Cariño Hace Regalo la Llaneza

Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection

Pablo Neruda

Muchos Somos

Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many

Cien Sonetos de Amor (V)

Translated by Stephen Tapscott, One Hundred Love Sonnets (V)

Jorge Luis Borges

Amorosa Anticipación

Translated by Robert Fitzgerald, Anticipation of Love

Los Engimas

Translated by John Updike, The Enigmas

Octavio Paz

Con los Ojos Cerrados

Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With Our Eyes Shut


Translated by Charles Tomlinson, Certainty

Surrealism in Latin American Poetry

Frida Kahlo, Two Friedas

César Vallejo, La Cólera que Quiebra al Hombre en Niños

César Vallejo, translated by Thomas Merton, Anger

Contemporary Mexican Poets

José Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traición

José Emilio Pacheco, translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason

* Francisco Hernández, Bajo Cero

* Francisco Hernández, translated by Carolyn Forché, Below Zero

* Tedi López Mills, Convalecencia

* Tedi López Mills, Convalescence

Writers on Writing

Octavio Paz, In Search of the Present

Writers on Translating: Alastair Reid, Translating Neruda



Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face

Grace Treasone, Life

Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger – moaned for Drink

Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment

William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark

Wallace McRae, Reincarnation

Recognizing Excellence

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium

Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

Robert Hayden, The Whipping

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art

W. H. Auden, September 1, 1939

Evaluating Famous Poems

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain!

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus

* Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee

Writers on Writing: Edgar Allan Poe, A Long Poem Does Not Exist



Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica

Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, J. V. Cunningham, Elizabeth Bishop, Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, William Stafford, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Bly, Some Definitions of Poetry

Ha Jin, Missed Time



Emily Dickinson

Success is counted sweetest

* I taste a liquor never brewed

Wild Nights – Wild Nights!

I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain

I'm Nobody! Who are you?

* I Dwell in Possibility

The Soul selects her own Society

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church

After great pain, a formal feeling comes

This is my letter to the World

I heard a Fly buzz – when I died

I started Early – Took my Dog

Because I could not stop for Death

The Bustle in a House

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant

Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson

Emily Dickinson, Recognizing Poetry

Emily Dickinson, Self-Description

Critics on Emily Dickinson

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Meeting Emily Dickinson

Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson’s Manuscripts

Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson

Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of “Because I could not stop for Death”)

Judith Farr, A Reading of “My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun”

Langston Hughes

The Negro Speaks of Rivers 

Mother to Son 

Dream Variations

I, Too 

The Weary Blues

Song for a Dark Girl



* Ku Klux

Ballad of the Landlord 

Theme for English B

Subway Rush Hour 


* As Befits a Man

Harlem [Dream Deferred]

Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes

Langston Hughes, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain

Langston Hughes, The Harlem Renaissance

Critics on Langston Hughes

Arnold Rampersad, Hughes as an Experimentalist

Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson, Langston Hughes and Harlem

Darryl Pinckney, Black Identity in Langston Hughes

Peter Townsend, Langston Hughes and Jazz

Onwuchekwa Jemie, A Reading of "Dream Deferred"



T. S. Eliot

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Publishing “Prufrock”

* Ezra Pound, Letters to Harriet Monroe on “Prufrock”

The Reviewers on Prufrock and Other Observations: 1917-1918

* Unsigned, Review from Times Literary Supplement

* Unsigned, Review from Literary World

* Unsigned, Review from New Statesman

* Conrad Aiken, Divers Realists

* Babette Deutsch, Another Impressionist

* Marianne Moore, A Note on T. S. Eliot’s Book

* May Sinclair, Prufrock and Other Observations: A Criticism

T. S. Eliot on Writing

* T. S. Eliot, Poetry and Emotion 

* T. S. Eliot, The Objective Correlative 

* T. S. Eliot, The Difficulty of Poetry

Critics on “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”

* Christopher Ricks, What’s in a Name?

* Philip R. Headings, The Pronouns in the Poem: “One,” “You,” and “I”

* Maud Ellmann, Will There Be Time?

* Denis Donoghue, One of the Irrefutable Poets

* Burton Raffel, “Indeterminacy” in Eliot’s Poetry

* John Berryman, Prufrock’s Dilemma

* M. L. Rosenthal, from “Adolescents Singing



Anonymous, Lord Randall

Anonymous, The Three Ravens

Anonymous, The Twa Corbies

Anonymous, Last Words of the Prophet (Navajo Mountain Chant)

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach

John Ashbery, At North Farm

* Margaret Atwood, Siren Song

W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening

W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts

Elizabeth Bishop, Filling Station

William Blake, The Tyger

William Blake, The Sick Rose

Eavan Boland, Anorexic

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother

Gwendolyn Brooks, the preacher: ruminates behind the sermon

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways

Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister

Geoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty

G. K. Chesterton, The Donkey

Lucille Clifton, Homage to my hips

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan

Billy Collins, Care and Feeding

Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters

E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond

* Marisa de los Santos, Perfect Dress

John Donne, Death be not proud

John Donne, The Flea

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

John Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham

T. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi

Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways

B. H. Fairchild, A Starlit Night

Robert Frost, Birches

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California

Thom Gunn, The Man with Night Sweats

Donald Hall, Names of Horses

Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain

Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush

Thomas Hardy, Hap

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Seamus Heaney, Digging

Anthony Hecht, Adam

George Herbert, Love

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins to Make Much of Time

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall

Gerard Manley Hopkins, No worst, there is none

Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover

A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now

A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young

Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

Robinson Jeffers, To the Stone-cutters

Ben Jonson, On My First Son

* Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be

John Keats, To Autumn

* Ted Kooser, Abandoned Farmhouse

Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad

Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures

Irving Layton, The Bull Calf

* Denise Levertov, The Ache of Marriage

Philip Levine, They Feed They Lion

* Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding into California

Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo

John Milton, How soon hath time

John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent

Marianne Moore, Poetry

Frederick Morgan, The Master

Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman

Howard Nemerov, The War in the Air 

* Lorine Niedecker, Poet’s Work

Yone Noguchi, A Selection of Hokku

Sharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys’ Party

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

Linda Pastan, Ethics

Robert Phillips, Running on Empty

Sylvia Plath, Daddy

Edgar Allan Poe, A Dream within a Dream

Alexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang’rous Thing

Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant’s Wife: a Letter

Dudley Randall, A Different Image

John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts

Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy

Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane

Mary Jo Salter, Welcome to Hiroshima

William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes

William Shakespeare, Not marble nor the gilded monuments

William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold

William Shakespeare, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun

Louis Simpson, American Poetry

David R. Slavitt, Titanic

Christopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry

William Jay Smith, American Primitive

Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting

William Stafford, The Farm on the Great Plains

Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream

Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning

* Larissa Szporluk, Vertigo

Sara Teasdale, The Flight

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Dark house, by which once more I stand

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill

John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player

Derek Walcott, The Virgins

Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose

* Walt Whitman, Song of the Open Road

Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing

Richard Wilbur, The Writer

C. K. Williams, Elms

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All

William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old Lady

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge

James Wright, A Blessing

James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio

Mary Sidney Wroth, In This Strange Labyrinth

Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me sekë

William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop

William Butler Yeats, The Magi

William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old

* Bernice Zamora, Penitents





A Play in Its Elements

Susan Glaspell, Trifles

Writers on Writing: Susan Glaspell, Creating Trifles

Student Essay, Outside Trifles




* Christopher Marlowe, A Scene from Doctor Faustus (in which Faustus sells his soul to the devil; Act 2, Scene 1)


David Ives, Sure Thing

Jane Martin, Beauty

*Writers on Writing: David Ives, On the One-Act Play



The Theater of Sophocles


The Civic Role of Greek Drama

Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy

The Origins of Oedipus the King

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald)

The Background of Antigonê

Sophocles, Antigonê (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald)

Critics on Sophocles

Aristotle, Defining Tragedy

Sigmund Freud, The Oedipus Complex

E. R. Dodds, On Misunderstanding Oedipus

A. E. Haigh, The Irony of Sophocles

*  David Wiles, The Chorus as Democrat

Patricia M. Line, Antigonê's Flaw 

Writers on Writing : Robert Fitzgerald, Translating Sophocles into English



The Theater of Shakespeare



A Note on Othello

William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice

The Background of Hamlet

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

The Background of A Midsummer Night’s Dream

William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream  

Critics on Shakespeare

A. C. Bradley, Hamlet's Character 

Rebecca West, Hamlet and Ophelia 

Jan Kott, Producing Hamlet 

Joel Wingard, Reader-Response Issues in Hamlet

W. H. Auden, Iago as a Triumphant Villain 

Maud Bodkin, Lucifer on Shakespeare's Othello 

Virginia Mason Vaughan, Black and White in Othello 

Anthony Burgess, An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare 

* Claire Asquith, Shakespeare’s Language as a Hidden Political Code

Germaine Greer, Shakespeare’s “Honest Mirth”

Linda Bamber, Female Power in A Midsummer Night's Dream 

Writers on Writing: Ben Jonson, On His Friend And Rival William Shakespeare

Student Essay, Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera?



Realism and Naturalism

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House  (Translated by James McFarlane)

Writers on Writing

* Henrik Ibsen, Correspondence on the Final Scene of A Doll’s House

Tragicomedy and the Absurd

Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer

Writers on Writing: Milcha Sanchez-Scott, Writing The Cuban Swimmer

Student Essay, Helmer vs. Helmer



Writing an Evaluation of a Play

Judging a Play’s Greatness

Checklist: Evaluating a Play

Writing Assignment on Evaluation



Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman

Writers on Writing

Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the Common Man

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie

Writers on Writing: Tennessee Williams, How to Stage The Glass Menagerie



* Rita Dove, The Darker Face of the Earth

Writers on Writing

* Rita Dove, The Inspiration for The Darker Face of the Earth

Beth Henley, Am I Blue?

Writers on Writing

Beth Henley,What’s in a Title?

David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice

Writers on Writing: David Henry Hwang, Multicultural Theater

Terrence McNally, Andre's Mother

Writers on Writing: Terrence McNally, How to Write a Play

* August Wilson, Fences

* Writers on Writing: August Wilson, A Look into Black America




Start by Reading Actively

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay

Planning Your Essay

Prewriting: Discovering Ideas







Developing a Literary Argument







-Checklist: Developing an Argument

Writing a Rough Draft

Sample Student Essay, Rough Draft


Checklist: Revision Steps

Some General Advice on Rewriting

Sample Student Essay, Final Draft

Using Critical Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity

The Form of your Finished Paper

Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs

Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar), A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers



Start with Active Reading

Thinking About the Text

Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas

Writing a First Draft




What’s Your Purpose? Some Common Approaches to Writing About Fiction


Sample Student Essay (Explication)


Sample Student Essay (Analysis)

The Card Report

Sample Student Card Report

Comparison and Contrast

Sample Student Essay (Comparison and Contrast)



Getting Started

Reading Actively

Robert Frost, Design

Thinking About a Poem

Preparing to Write

Writing a First Draft




Some Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry


Sample Student Essay (Explication)

Randall Jarrell, On Frost’s “Design”


Sample Student Essay (Analysis)

Comparison and Contrast

Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread

Sample Student Essay (Comparison and Contrast)

How to Quote a Poem

Robert Frost, In White



Reading a Play

Some Methods of Writing About Drama



Comparison and Contrast

Card Report

Sample Student Card Report

A Review

Sample Student Drama Review

How to Quote a Play



Getting Started

Choosing a Topic

Finding Research Sources

Finding Print Resources

Using Online Databases

Using Visual Images


Finding Reliable Web Sources


Evaluating Sources

Print Resources

Choose Web Sources Carefully


Organizing Your Research

Refining Your Thesis

Organizing Your Paper

Writing and Revising

Guarding Academic Integrity

Papers for Sale Are Papers that “F”ail

A Warning Against Internet Plagiarism

Acknowledging Sources

Quoting a Source

Citing Ideas

Documenting Sources Using MLA Style

List of Sources

Parenthetical References

Works Cited List

Citing Print Sources in MLA Style

Citing Internet Sources in MLA Style

Sample Works Cited List

Endnotes and Footnotes

Sample Student Research Paper - Page xxxx

Concluding Thoughts

Reference Guide for Citations



Sample Student Journal Entry





Formalist Criticism

Cleanth Brooks, The Formalist Critic

Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues"

Robert Langbaum, On Robert Browning’s “My Last Duchess”

Biographical Criticism

Virginia Llewellyn Smith, Chekhov's Attitude to Romantic Emily Toth,

The Source for Alcée Laballière in “The Storm”

Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop’s “One Art”

Historical Criticism

Hugh Kenner, Imagism

Joseph Moldenhauer, "To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition

* Kathryn Lee Seidel, The Economics of “Sweat”

Psychological Criticism

Sigmund Freud, The Nature of Dreams

Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood, Fairy Tale Motifs in “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?”

Harold Bloom, Poetic Influence

Mythological Criticism

C. J. Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes

Northrop Frye, Mythic Archetypes

Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning"

Sociological Criticism

Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form

Daniel P. Watkins, Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner"

Alfred Kazin, Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln

Gender Criticism

Elaine Showalter, Toward a Feminist Poetics

* Nina Pelikan Straus, Transformations in The Metamorphosis

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Freedom of Emily Dickinson

Reader-Response Criticism

Stanley Fish, An Eskimo “A Rose for Emily”

Michael J. Colacurcio, The End of Young Goodman Brown

Robert Scholes, “How Do We Make a Poem?”

Deconstructionist Criticism

Roland Barthes, The Death of the Author

Barbara Johnson, Rigorous Unreliability

Geoffrey Hartman, On Wordsworth’s “A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal”

Cultural Studies

Vincent B. Leitch, Poststructuralist Cultural Critique

Mark Bauerlein, What Is Cultural Studies?

* Camille Paglia, On Blake’s “The Chimney Sweeper”

Additional Course Materials

Student's Guide to Getting Published, A

ISBN-13: 978-0-321-11779-3

$62.60 $59.47 | Add to Cart

What Every Student Should Know About Procrastination

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-58211-2

$16.20 $15.39 | Add to Cart

What Every Student Should Know About Study Skills

ISBN-13: 978-0-321-44736-4

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