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Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, Backpack Edition

By Edgar V. Roberts, Robert Zweig

Published by Longman

Published Date: Jun 21, 2011

Description

The Backpack Edition of Roberts comprehensive anthology gives readers the same thorough coverage of writing about literature in a briefer and affordable format. It Includes complete coverage of writing about each element. Part I, is devoted to Reading, Responding to, and Writing about Literature. There is a thorough overview of the research process, including a full-length model research paper in Appendix I and MLA recommendations for documenting surces in Appendix II. 

 

Table of Contents

Preface                                                                                                                                       

 

PART I  The Process of Reading, Responding to, and Writing About Literature

 

What Is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?          

Types of Literature: The Genres

Reading Literature and Responding to It Actively

Alice Walker  Everyday Use

Reading and Responding in a Computer File or Notebook

Sample Notebook Entries on Walker’s “Everyday Use” 

Major Stages in Thinking and Writing about Literary Topics: Discovering Ideas, Preparing to Write, Making an Initial Draft of Your Essay, and Completing the Essay                                                   

Writing Does Not Come Easily–for Anyone

The Goal of Writing: To Show a Process of Thought 

     Discovering Ideas (“Brainstorming”)

     Study the Characters in the Work   

     Determine the Work’s Historical Period and Background 

     Analyze the Work’s Economic and Social Conditions

     Explain the Work’s Major Ideas

     Describe the Work’s Artistic Qualities

     Explain Any Other Approaches That Seem Important

Preparing to Write 

     Build Ideas from Your Original Notes

     Trace Patterns of Action and Thought 

The Need for the Actual Physical Process of Writing  

     Raise and Answer Your Own Questions 

     Put Ideas Together Using a Plus-Minus, Pro-Con, or Either-Or Method 

Originate and Develop Your Thoughts Through Writing 

Making an Initial Draft of Your Essay   

Base Your Essay on a Central Idea, Argument, or Statement 

The Need for a Sound Argument in Essays About Literature

Create a Thesis Sentence as Your Guide to Organization 

     Begin Each Paragraph with a Topic Sentence 

     Select Only One Topic–No More–for Each Paragraph

Referring to the Names of Authors 

Use Your Topic Sentences as the Arguments for Your Paragraph Development

The Use of Verb Tenses in the Discussion of Literary Works 

Develop an Outline as the Means of Organizing Your Essay 

Basic Writing Types: Paragraphs and Essays

Paragraph Assignment

Illustrative Student Essay (First Draft): Mrs. Johnson’s Overly Self-Assured Daughter, Dee, in Walker’s “Everyday Use” 

Completing the Essay: Developing and Strengthening Your Essay Through Revision 

     Make Your Own Arrangement of Details and Ideas 

     Use Literary Material as Evidence to Support Your Argument 

     Always Keep to Your Point; Stick to It Tenaciously 

     Check Your Development and Organization 

     Try to Be Original 

     Write with Specific Readers as Your Intended Audience 

     Use Exact, Comprehensive, and Forceful Language 

Illustrative Student Essay (Improved Draft): Mrs. Johnson’s Overly Self-Assured Daughter, Dee, in Walker’s “Everyday Use” 

     Commentary on the Essay

A Summary of Guidelines 

A Short Guide to the Use of References and Quotations in Essays About Literature                                                                       

Integrate Passages and Ideas into Your Essay  

Distinguish Your Thoughts from Those of Your Author 

Integrate Material by Using Quotation Marks 

Blend Quotations into Your Own Sentences 

Indent Long Quotations and Set Them in Block Format 

 

PART II  Reading and Writing About Fiction                              

 

1   Fiction: An Overview

Modern Fiction  

The Short Story 

Elements of Fiction I: Verisimilitude and Donnée 

Elements of Fiction II: Character, Plot, Structure, and Idea or Theme 

Elements of Fiction III: The Writer’s Tools  

Stories for Study 

SANDRA CISNEROS   ’Mericans 

WILLIAM FAULKNER  A Rose for Emily

LUIGI PIRANDELLO  War

Plot: The Motivation and Causality of Fiction 

Writing About the Plot of a Story

Illustrative Student Essay: Plot in William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily"

Writing Topics About Plot in Fiction  

 

2   Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Work’s Narrator or Speaker                                                               

An Exercise in Point of View: Reporting an Accident 

Conditions That Affect Point of View 

Point of View and Opinions  

Determining a Work’s Point of View  

Mingling Points of View 

Point of View and Verb Tense 

Summary: Guidelines for Points of View 

Stories for Study 

SHERMAN ALEXIE  This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona 

SHIRLEY JACKSON  The Lottery

LORRIE MOORE  How to Become a Writer

Writing About Point of View 

Illustrative Student Essay: Shirley Jackson’s Dramatic Point of View in “The Lottery”

Writing Topics About Point of View 

 

3 Characters: The People in Fiction                  

Character Traits  

How Authors Disclose Character in Literature  

Types of Characters: Round and Flat  

Reality and Probability: Verisimilitude  

Stories for Study 

T. C. BOYLE  Greasy Lake  

SUSAN GLASPELL  A Jury of Her Peers

KATHERINE MANSFIELD  Miss Brill

AMY TAN  Two Kinds

Writing About Character   

Writing Topics About Character 

 

4   Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories                                                                                 

What Is Setting? 

The Literary Uses of Setting

Stories for Study 

JAMES JOYCE  Araby

CYNTHIA OZICK  The Shawl

EDGAR A. POE The Cask of Amontillado

Writing Topics About Setting 

 

5   Structure: The Organization of Stories        

Formal Categories of Structure  

Formal and Actual Structure  

Stories for Study

RALPH ELLISON  Battle Royal

HA JIN  Saboteur

EUDORA WELTY  A Worn Path

TOM WHITECLOUD  Blue Winds Dancing

Writing Topics About Structure 

 

6   Tone and Style: The Words That Convey Attitudes in Fiction     

Diction: The Writer’s Choice and Control of Words 

Tone, Irony, and Style 

Tone, Humor, and Style

Stories For Study 

KATE CHOPIN  The Story of an Hour

ERNEST HEMINGWAY  Hills Like White Elephants

FRANK O’CONNOR  First Confession

JOHN UPDIKE  A & P

Writing Topics About Tone and Style

 

7   Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning

Symbolism

Allegory

Fable, Parable, and Myth

Allusion in Symbolism and Allegory 

Stories For Study 

AESOP The Fox and the Grapes

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE  Young Goodman Brown

LUKE  The Parable of the Prodigal Son

GABRIEL GARCÍA MARQUEZ  A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings

KATHERINE ANNE PORTER  The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

Writing About Symbolism

Illustrative Student Essay (Symbolism): Symbols of Light and Darkness in Porter’s “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall”  

Writing Topics About Symbolism

 

8   Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction  

Ideas and Assertions

Ideas and Issues 

Ideas and Values 

The Place of Ideas in Literature 

How to Find Ideas 

Stories for Study 

TONI CADE BAMBARA  The Lesson

D. H. LAWRENCE  The Horse Dealer’s Daughter

AMéRICO PAREDES  The Hammon and the Beans

Writing About a Major Idea in Fiction

Illustrative Student Essay: D. H. Lawrence’s “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” as an Expression of the Idea that Loving Commitment is Essential in Life

Writing Topics About Ideas 

 

9   Four Stories for Additional Enjoyment and Study       

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN  The Yellow Wallpaper

JOYCE CAROL OATES  Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

FLANNERY O’CONNOR  A Good Man Is Hard to Find

TOBIAS WOOLF  Powder

 

PART III  Reading and Writing About Poetry

 

10   Meeting Poetry: An Overview                          

The Nature of Poetry 

BILLY COLLINS  Schoolsville

LISEL MUELLER  Hope

ROBERT HERRICK  Here a Pretty Baby Lies

Poetry of the English Language 

How to Read a Poem 

Studying Poetry 

Anonymous  Sir Patrick Spens

GWENDOLYN BROOKS  The Mother

WILLIAM COWPER The Poplar Field

THOMAS HARDY  The Man He Killed

JOY HARJO  Eagle Poem

RANDALL JARRELL  The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

DORRIANE LAUX The Life of Trees

EMMA LAZARUS The New Colossus

EUGENIO MONTALEEnglish Horn

JIM NORTHRUP  Ogichidag

NAOMI SHIHAB NYE  Where Children Live

OCTAVIO PAZ    Two Bodies 

PHIL RIZZUTO   They Own the Wind 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments

ELAINE TERRANOVA  Rush Hour

Writing a Paraphrase of a Poem 

Illustrative Student Paraphrase: A Paraphrase of Thomas Hardy’s “The Man He Killed” 

Writing an Explication of a Poem

Illustrative Student Essay: An Explication of Thomas Hardy’s “ Man He Killed”

Writing Topics About the Nature of Poetry  

 

11   Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry

Choice of Diction: Specific and Concrete, General and Abstract

Levels of Diction 

Special Types of Diction 

Syntax

Decorum: The Matching of Subject and Word 

Denotation and Connotation 

Robert Graves  The Naked and the Nude

Poems for Study 

WILLIAM BLAKE  The Lamb

ROBERT BURNS Green Grow the Rashes

LEWIS CARROLL  Jabberwocky

E. E. CUMMINGS  next to of course god america i

JOHN DONNE  Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God

RICHARD EBERHART  The Fury of Aerial Bombardment

BART EDELMAN  Chemistry Experiment

THOMAS GRAY  Sonnet on the Death of Richard West

A. E. HOUSMAN  Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now 

DENISE LEVERTOV  Of Being 

JUDITH ORTIZ [COFER]  Latin Women Pray 

EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON  Richard Cory 

KAY RYAN  Crib  

WALLACE STEVENS  Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock 

MARK STRAND  Eating Poetry 

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH  Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud) 

JAMES WRIGHT A Blessing

Writing Topics About the Words of Poetry 

 

12   Imagery: The Poem’s Link to the Senses    

Responses and the Writer’s Use of Detail 

The Relationship of Imagery to Ideas and Attitudes

Types of Imagery

JOHN MASEFIELD  Cargoes 

WILFRED OWEN  Anthem for Doomed Youth 

ELIZABETH BISHOP The Fish 

POEMS FOR STUDY 

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING  Sonnets from the Portuguese, Number 14: If Thou Must Love Me 

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE  Kubla Khan 

T. S. ELIOT Preludes 

LOUISE ERDRICH          Indian Boarding School: The Runaways 

SUSAN GRIFFIN  Love Should Grow Up Like a Wild Iris in the Fields 

THOMAS HARDY  Channel Firing 

GEORGE HERBERT  The Pulley 

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS  Spring 

DENISE LEVERTOV  A Time Past 

EUGENIO MONTALE  Buffalo (Buffalo) 

PABLO NERUDA  Every Day You Play 

OCTAVIO PAZ    The Street

EZRA POUND In a Station of the Metro 

MIKLÓS RADNÓTI  Forced March 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 13: My Mistress’ Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun 

Writing About Imagery 

Illustrative Student Essay: Imagery in T. S. Eliot’s “Preludes” 

Writing Topics About Imagery in Poetry 

 

13   Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry                                                   

Metaphors and Similes: The Major Figures of Speech 

Characteristics of Metaphorical Language 

JOHN KEATS  On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

Vehicle and Tenor

Other Figures of Speech  JOHN KEATS Bright Star 

JOHN GAY  Let Us Take the Road 

POEMS FOR STUDY 

JACK AGÜEROS Sonnet for You, Familiar Famine 

WILLIAM BLAKE  The Tyger 

ROBERT BURNS  A Red, Red Rose 

JOHN DONNE  A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning 

ABBIE HUSTON EVANS  The Iceberg Seven-Eighths Under 

JOY HARJO  Remember 

JOHN KEATS To Autumn 

HENRY KING  Sic Vita 

ROBERT LOWELL  Skunk Hour 

PABLO NERUDA If You Forget Me 

MARGE PIERCY  A Work of Artifice 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day? 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 3: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought 

WALT WHITMAN  Facing West from California’s Shores 

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH  London, 1820 

SIR THOMAS WYATT  I Find No Peace 

Writing About Figures of Speech

Illustrative Student Paragraph: Wordsworth’s Use of Overstatement in “London, 1820” 

Writing Topics About Figures of Speech in Poetry 

 

14   Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry    

Tone, Choice, and Response 

CORNELIUS WHUR  The First-Rate Wife 

Tone and the Need for Control 

WILFRED OWEN  Dulce et Decorum Est 

Tone and Common Grounds of Assent 

Tone in Conversation and Poetry 

Tone and Irony 

THOMAS HARDY  The Workbox 

Tone and Satire  ALEXANDER POPE  Epigram from the French 

ALEXANDER POPE  Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog Which I Gave to His Royal Highness 

POEMS FOR STUDY 

WILLIAM BLAKE On Another’s Sorrow 

ROBERT BROWNING My Last Duchess

JIMMY CARTER I Wanted to Share My Father’s World 

BILLY COLLINS  The Names 

E. E. CUMMINGS  she being Brand /-new 

MARTIN ESPADA   Bully   

MARI EVANS I Am a Black Woman 

SEAMUS HEANEY Mid-Term Break 

DAVID IGNATOW  The Bagel 

YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA  Facing It 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN  My Childhood’s Home 

PAT MORA  La Migra 

SHARON OLDS  The Planned Child 

ALEXANDER POPEfrom Epilogue to the Satires Dialogue I 

ANNE RIDLER  Nothing Is Lost 

THEODORE ROETHKE  My Papa’s Waltz 

CATHY SONG      Lost Sister

JONATHAN SWIFT  A Description of the Morning 

DAVID WAGONER  My Physics Teacher 

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH The Solitary Reaper 

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS  When You Are Old 

Writing Topics About Tone in Poetry 

 

15   Form: The Shape of Poems                                  

Closed-Form Poetry 

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH  Fragment from The Prelude 

ALEXANDER POPE  Fragment from The Rape of the Locke 

ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON  The Eagle 

JOHN MILTON Fragment from Lycidas 

ANONYMOUS  Spun in High, Dark Clouds 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds 

Open-Form Poetry WALT WHITMAN  Reconciliation 

E. E. CUMMINGS  Buffalo Bill’s Defunct 

GEORGE HERBERT  Colossians 3:3 (Our Life is Hid With Christ in God) 

GEORGE HERBERT  Easter Wings 

CHARLES HARPER WEBB  The Shape of History 

JOHN HOLLANDER  Swan and Shadow 

WILLIAM HEYEN  Mantle 

MAY SWENSON  Women 

ROBERT HASS  Museum 

POEMS FOR STUDY 

ELIZABETH BISHOP  One Art 

BILLY COLLINS  Sonnet 

ROBERT FROST Desert Places 

GEORGE HERBERT Virtue 

JOHN HALL INGHAM George Washington

JOHN KEATS  Ode to a Nightingale

YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA    Grenade 

CLAUDE McKAY  In Bondage 

HERMAN MELVILLE Shiloh

DUDLEY RANDALL  Ballad of Birmingham 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 73

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY  Ozymandias 

DYLAN THOMAS Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night 

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS  The Dance 

Writing Topics About Poetic Form 

 

16. Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning     

Symbolism and Meanings 

VIRGINIA SCOTT  Snow 

The Function of Symbolism in Poetry 

Allusions and Meaning 

Studying for Symbols and Allusions 

POEMS FOR STUDY 

PETER DAVISON  Delphi

STEPHEN DUNN  Hawk 

RALPH WALDO EMERSON Concord Hymn

ISABELLA GARDNER  Collage of Echoes 

THOMAS HARDY  In Time of “The Breaking of Nations” 

GEORGE HERBERT  The Collar 

JOSEPHINE JACOBSEN  Tears 

ROBINSON JEFFERS  The Purse-Seine 

JOHN KEATS  La Belle Dame Sans Merci: A Ballad 

X. J. KENNEDY  Old Men Pitching Horseshoes  

ANDREW MARVELL  To His Coy Mistress 

MARY OLIVER  Wild Geese 

KAY RYAN    We’re Building the Ship as We Sail It 

GARY SNYDER  Milton by Firelight 

WALT WHITMAN  A Noiseless Patient Spider 

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS  The Second Coming 

Writing Topics About Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry 

 

17. Four Major American Poets: Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Langston Hughes, and Sylvia Plath  

EMILY DICKINSON’S Life and Work   

Writing Topics About the Poetry of Emily Dickinson 

POEMS BY EMILY DICKINSON (ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED) 

After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes (J341, F372) 

Because I Could Not Stop for Death (J712, F479) (Included in Chapter 11, p. )

The Bustle in a House (J178, F118) 

I Dwell in Possibility (F466, J657) 

I Heard a Fly Buzz — When I Died (J465, F491) 

My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (J1732, F1773) 

ROBERT FROST’S Life and Work

Writing Topics About the Poetry of Robert Frost 

POEMS BY ROBERT FROST (CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED) 

Mending Wall (1914) 

The Road Not Taken (1915) 

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923)

Misgiving (1923) 

Desert Places (1936)

Take Something Like a Star (1943) 

LANGSTON HUGHES’ Life and Work 

Writing Topics About the Poetry of Langston Hughes 

POEMS OF LANGSTON HUGHES (ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED) 

Harlem 

Negro 

The Negro Speaks of Rivers 

Silhouette 

Theme for English B 

The Weary Blues 

SYLVIA PLATH’S Life and Work 

Writing Topics About the Poetry of Sylvia Plath 

POEMS OF SYLVIA PLATH (ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED) 

Daddy 

Lady Lazarus 

Metaphors 

Mirror 

Song for a Summer’s Day 

Tulips 

 

18. Sixty Two Poems for Additional Enjoyment and Study

AI        Conversation

ANNA AKHMATOVA         Willow 

MAYA ANGELOU  Still I Rise Still 

ANONYMOUS (NAVAJO)  Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant 

MATTHEW ARNOLD Dover Beach

W.H. AUDEN Musee des Beaux Arts

LOUISE BOGAN  Women 

ARNA BONTEMPS  A Black Man Talks of Reaping 

EMILY BRONTE     Love and Friendship

GWENDOLYN BROOKS We Real Cool

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING  Sonnets from the Portuguese: Number 43,  How Do I Love Thee 

BILLY COLLINS  Days 

STEPHEN CRANE  Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind 

E. E. CUMMINGS  if there are any heavens 

CARL DENNIS  The God Who Loves You 

JOHN DONNE  Holy Sonnet 1: Death Be Not Proud 

PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR  Sympathy [I Know What the Caged Bird Feels] 

JAMES EMANUEL  The Negro 

CHIEF DAN GEORGE  The Beauty of the Trees 

NIKKI GIOVANNI  Poetry 

FRANCES E. W. HARPER  She’s Free! 

ROBERT HAYDEN  Those Winter Sundays 

A. D. HOPE  Advice to Young Ladies 

CAROLINA HOSPITAL  Dear Tia 

ROBINSON JEFFERS  The Answer 

JOHN KEATS  Ode on a Grecian Urn 

YAHIA LABABIDI   What Do Animals Dream?  

KATHERINE LARSON  Statuary 

IRVING LAYTON  Rhine Boat Trip 

PHILIP LEVINE Islands

AUDRE LORDE  Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem 

AMY LOWELL  Patterns 

CLAUDE McKAY  The White City 

N. SCOTT MOMADAY  The Bear 

HOWARD NEMEROV  Life Cycle of Common Man 

JIM NORTHRUP  wahbegan 

MARY OLIVER  Ghosts 

DOROTHY PARKER  Résumé 

LINDA PASTAN  Marks 

MARGE PIERCY  The Secretary Chant 

EDGAR ALLAN POE  Annabel Lee 

ALBERTO RÍOS  The Vietnam Wall 

CARL SANDBURG  Chicago 

SIEGFRIED SASSOON  Dreamers 

ALAN SEEGER  I Have a Rendezvous with Death 

BRENDA SEROTTE  My Mother’s Face 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and  Men’s Eyes 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth 

KARL SHAPIRO  Auto Wreck 

STEVIE SMITH  Not Waving But Drowning 

GARY SOTO  Oranges 

WILLIAM STAFFORD  Traveling Through the Dark 

GERALD STERN  Burying an Animal on the Way to New York 

WALLACE STEVENS  The Emperor of Ice-Cream

JOHN UPDIKE  Perfection Wasted

TINO VILLANUEVA  Day-Long Day

JUDITH VIORST  True Love
SHELLY WAGNER  The Boxes

EDMUND WALLER  Go, Lovely Rose

WALT WHITMAN  Full of Life Now

WALT WHITMAN  I Hear America Singing

JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER  The Bartholdi Statue

PAUL ZIMMER  The Day Zimmer Lost Religion

 

PART IV   Reading and Writing About Drama

 

19. The Dramatic Vision: An Overview

Drama as Literature

Performance: The Unique Aspect of Drama

Drama from Ancient Times to Our Own: Tragedy, Comedy, and Additional Forms

ANONYMOUS  The Visit to the Sepulcher (Visitatio Sepulchri)

PLAYS FOR STUDY

SUSAN GLASPELL  Trifles

EUGENE O’NEILL  Before Breakfast

Writing About the Elements of Drama

Referring to Plays and Parts of Plays

Illustrative Student Essay: Eugene O’Neill’s Use of Negative Descriptions and Stage Directions in Before Breakfast as a Means of Revealing Character 

Writing Topics About the Elements of Drama

 

20. Tragedy

Plays for Study

SOPHOCLES  Oedipus the King

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Writing Topics About Tragedy

 

21. Comedy, Satire, and Farce

Plays for Study

ANTON CHEKHOV  The Bear, A Joke in One Act

JANE MARTIN   Beauty 

LUIS VALDEZ  Los Vendidos  

Writing Topics About Comedy

 

22. Problem Drama: Two Major Plays for Additional Enjoyment and Study

HENRIK IBSEN  A Dollhouse (Et Dukkehjem)

AUGUST WILSON  Fences

 

Appendix

I. Writing a Research Essay on Literature              

Selecting a Topic  

Setting Up a Working Bibliography  

Locating Sources

      Searching the Internet  

                Evaluating Sources (box)

      Searching Library Resources

                Important Considerations About Computer-Aided Research (box)

         Review the Bibliographies in Major Critical Studies on your Topic 

        Consult Bibliographical Guides

        Gaining Access to Books and Articles Through Databases 

Taking Notes and Paraphrasing Material  

                Plagiarism: An Embarrassing but Vital Subject—and a Danger to be Overcome  (box)

Being Creative and Original While Doing Research  

Documenting Your Work  

Strategies for Organizing Ideas in Your Research Essay  

Illustrative Student Essay Using Research: The Structure of Katherine Mansfield’s “Miss Brill

Writing Topics About How to Undertake a Research Essay  

 

II. MLA Recommendations for Documenting Sources

 

Credits

 

Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines

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