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Longman Writer, The, 9th Edition

By Judith Nadell, John Langan, Deborah Coxwell-Teague

Published by Longman

Published Date: Dec 27, 2013

Description

The best of the “product" and "process" approaches to writing.

 

The Longman Writer with MyWritingLab draws on decades of teaching experience to integrate the best of the "product" and "process" approaches to writing. Emphasis on the reading-writing connection, focus on invention and revision, and attention to the fact that patterns blend in actual writing are delivered with clear, step-by-step writing instruction and extensive practice activities and assignments—more than 500 in all.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part I

The Reading Process

1 Becoming a Critical Reader

  Stage 1: Get an Overview of the Selection

  Stage 2: Deepen Your Sense of the Selection

  Stage 3: Evaluate the Selection

  Assessing Visuals in a Reading

    Assessing an Image: An Example

    Assessing a Graph: An Example

  A Model Annotated Reading

        Ellen Goodman, “Family Counterculture”

 

Part II

The Writing Process

2 Getting Started Through Prewriting

  Use Prewriting to Get Started

    Keep a Journal

    The Pre-Reading Journal Entry

    Understand the Boundaries of the Assignment

    Determine Your Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Point of View

    Discover Your Essay’s Limited Subject

    Generate Raw Material About Your Limited Subject

    Conduct Research

    Organize the Raw Material

  Activities: Getting Started Through Prewriting

 

3 Identifying a Thesis

  What Is a Thesis?

  Finding a Thesis

  Writing an Effective Thesis

    Tone and Point of View

    Implied Pattern of Development

    Including a Plan of Development

    1. Don’t Write a Highly Opinionated Statement

    2. Don’t Make an Announcement

    3. Don’t Make a Factual Statement

    4. Don’t Make a Broad Statement

  Arriving at an Effective Thesis

  Placing the Thesis in an Essay

  Activities: Identifying a Thesis

 

4 Supporting the Thesis with Evidence

  What Is Evidence?

  How Do You Find Evidence?

    How the Patterns of Development Help Generate Evidence

  Characteristics of Evidence

    The Evidence Is Relevant and Unified

    The Evidence Is Specific

    The Evidence Is Adequate

    The Evidence Is Dramatic

    The Evidence Is Accurate

    The Evidence Is Representative

    Borrowed Evidence Is Documented

  Activities: Supporting the Thesis with Evidence

 

5 Organizing the Evidence

  Use the Patterns of Development

  Select an Organizational Approach

    Chronological Approach

    Spatial Approach

    Emphatic Approach

    Simple-to-Complex Approach

  Prepare an Outline

  Activities: Organizing the Evidence

 

6 Writing the Paragraphs in the First Draft

  How to Move from Outline to First Draft

  General Suggestions on How to Proceed

  If You Get Bogged Down

  A Suggested Sequence for Writing the First Draft

    1. Write the Supporting Paragraphs

    2. Write Other Paragraphs in the Essay’s Body

    3. Write the Introduction

    4. Write the Conclusion

    5. Write the Title

  Pulling It All Together

  Sample First Draft

        Harriet Davids, “Challenges for Today’s Parents”

    Commentary

  Activities: Writing the Paragraphs in the First Draft

 

7 R evising Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

  Five Strategies to Make Revision Easier

    Set Your First Draft Aside for a While

    Work from Printed Text

    Read the Draft Aloud

    View Revision as a Series of Steps

    Evaluate and Respond to Instructor Feedback

    Peer Review: An Additional Revision Strategy

    Evaluate and Respond to Peer Review

  Revising Overall Meaning and Structure

  Revising Paragraph Development

  Sample Student Revision of Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

  Activities: Revising Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

 

8 Revising Sentences and Words

  Revising Sentences

    Make Sentences Consistent with Your Tone

    Make Sentences Economical

    Vary Sentence Type

    Vary Sentence Length

    Make Sentences Emphatic

  Revising Words 1

    Make Words Consistent with Your Tone

    Use an Appropriate Level of Diction

    Avoid Words That Overstate or Understate

    Select Words with Appropriate Connotations

    Use Specific Rather Than General Words

    Use Strong Verbs

    Delete Unnecessary Adverbs

    Use Original Figures of Speech

    Avoid Sexist Language

  Sample Student Revision of Sentences and Words

  Activities: Revising Sentences and Words

 

9 Editing and Proofreading

  Edit Carefully

  Use the Appropriate Manuscript Format

  Proofread Closely

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Proofreading

        Harriet Davids, “Challenges for Today’s Parents”

    Commentary

  Activities: Editing and Proofreading

 

Part III

The Patterns of Development

10 Description

  What Is Description?

  How Description Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Description in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Marie Martinez, “Salt Marsh”

    Commentary

  Activities: Description

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Description

        Mario Suárez, “El Hoyo”

        Cherokee Paul McDonald, “A View from the Bridge”

        Gordon Parks, “Flavio’s Home”

  Additional Writing Topics: Description

 

11 Narration

  What Is Narration?

  How Narration Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Narration in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Paul Monahan, “If Only”

    Commentary

  Activities: Narration

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Narration

        Audre Lorde, “The Fourth of July”

        Lynda Barry, “The Sanctuary of School”

        Joan Murray, “Someone’s Mother”

  Additional Writing Topics: Narration

 

12 Illustration

  What Is Illustration?

  How Illustration Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Illustration in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Michael Pagano, “Pursuit of Possessions”

    Commentary

  Activities: Illustration

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Illustration

        Kay S. Hymowitz, “Tweens: Ten Going On Sixteen”

        Beth Johnson, “Bombs Bursting in Air”

        France Borel, “The Decorated Body”

  Additional Writing Topics: Illustration

 

13 Division-Classification

  What Is Division-Classification?

  How Division-Classification Fits Your Purpose and Audience Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Division-Classification in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Gail Oremland, “The Truth About College Teachers”

    Commentary

  Activities: Division-Classification

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Division-Classification

        Ann McClintock, “Propaganda Techniques in Today’s Advertising”

        Scott Russell Sanders, “The Men We Carry in Our Minds”

        Bianca Bosker, “How Teens Are Really Using Facebook: It’s a ‘Social Burden,’ Pew Study Finds”

  Additional Writing Topics: Division-Classification

 

14 Process Analysis

  What Is Process Analysis?

  How Process Analysis Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Process Analysis in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Robert Barry, “Becoming a Recordoholic”

    Commentary

  Activities: Process Analysis

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Process Analysis

        Amy Sutherland, “What Shamu Taught Me About a Happy Marriage”

        David Shipley, “Talk About Editing”

        Alex Horton, “On Getting By”

  Additional Writing Topics: Process Analysis

 

15 Comparison-Contrast

  What Is Comparison-Contrast?

  How Comparison-Contrast Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Comparison-Contrast in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Carol Siskin, “The Virtues of Growing Older”

    Commentary

  Activities: Comparison-Contrast

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Comparison-Contrast

        Eric Weiner, “Euromail and Amerimail”

        Patricia Cohen, “Reality TV: Surprising Throwback to the Past?”

        Alex Wright, “Friending, Ancient or Otherwise”

  Additional Writing Topics: Comparison-Contrast

 

16 Cause-Effect

  What Is Cause-Effect?

  How Cause-Effect Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Cause-Effect in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Carl Novack, “Americans and Food”

    Commentary

  Activities: Cause-Effect

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Cause-Effect

        Stephen King, “Why We Crave Horror Movies”

        Belinda Luscombe, “The Science of Romance: Why We Flirt”

        Josie Appleton, “The Body Piercing Project”

  Additional Writing Topics: Cause-Effect

 

17 Definition

  What Is Definition?

  How Definition Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Definition in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Laura Chen, “Physics in Everyday Life”

    Commentary

  Activities: Definition

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Definition

        Ann Hulbert, “Beyond the Pleasure Principle”

        Laura Fraser, “The Inner Corset”

        Keith Johnson, “Who’s a Pirate? In Court, a Duel over Definitions”

  Additional Writing Topics: Definition

 

18 Argumentation-Persuasion

  What Is Argumentation-Persuasion?

  How Argumentation-Persuasion Fits Your Purpose and Audience

  Prewriting Strategies

  Strategies for Using Argumentation-Persuasion in an Essay

  Revision Strategies

  Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Mark Simmons, “Compulsory National Service”

    Commentary

  Activities: Argumentation-Persuasion

    Prewriting Activities

    Revising Activities

  Professional Selections: Argumentation-Persuasion

        Anna Quindlen, “Driving to the Funeral”

        Mary Sherry, “In Praise of the “F” Word”

  Debating the Issues: Gender-Based Education

        Gerry Garibaldi, “How the Schools Shortchange Boys”

        Michael Kimmel, “A War Against Boys?”

  Debating the Issues: Government Regulation to Help Control Obesity and Related Diseases

        Robert Lustig, Laura Schmidt, and Claire Brindis, “The Toxic Truth About Sugar”

        Michael Marlow and Sherzod Abdukadirov, “Government Intervention Will Not Solve Our Obesity Problem”

 Additional Writing Topics: Argumentation-Persuasion

 

Part IV

The Research Essay

19 Locating, Evaluating, Analyzing, and Synthesizing Research Sources

  Plan the Research

    Understand the Essay’s Boundaries

    Choose a General Subject

    Prewrite to Limit the General Subject

    Understand Primary versus Secondary Research

    Conduct Preliminary Research

    Identify a Tentative (Working) Thesis

    Make a Schedule

  Conduct Primary Research

    Conduct Interviews

    Carry Out Surveys

  Conduct Secondary Research

    Find Books on Your Subject

    Find Periodicals on Your Subject

    Find Sources on the Internet

   Know the Advantages and Limitations of the Library and the Web

  Prepare a Working Bibliography and Take Notes

    Record Information About the Source

    Take Notes on the Source

  Evaluate Sources and Analyze Information

    Evaluate Sources

    Analyze Information

  Use Quotation, Summary, and Paraphrase to Synthesize Research While Avoiding Plagiarism

    Plagiarism

    Direct Quotation

  Summary

    Paraphrase

    Activities: Locating, Evaluating, and Integrating Research Sources

 

20 Writing the Research Essay

  Refine Your Working Thesis

  Sort Your Research Results

  Organize the Evidence by Outlining

  Write the First Draft

  Integrate Sources into Your Writing

    Using Sources Effectively

    Awkward Use of a Quotation

    Effective Use of a Source

    Introducing a Source

    Using Variety in Attributions

    Shortening or Clarifying Quotations

    Capitalizing and Punctuating Short Quotations

  Document Sources to Avoid Plagiarism

    What Needs to Be Documented?

    What Does Not Need to Be Documented?

  Creating In-Text References: MLA Format

  Revise, Edit, and Proofread the First Draft

  Prepare the Works Cited List: MLA Format

    General Instructions for the MLA Works Cited

    Citing Print Sources—Periodicals

    Citing Print Sources—Books

    Citing Sources Found on a Website

    Citing Sources Found Through an Online Database or Scholarly Project

    Citing Other Common Sources

  Prepare the References List: APA Format

    Parenthetic Citations in the Text

    General Instructions for the APA References List

    Citing Print Sources—Periodicals

    Citing Print Sources—Books

    Citing Sources Found on a Website

    Citing Sources Found Through an Online Database or Scholarly Project

    Citing Other Common Sources

  Student Research Paper: MLA-Style Documentation

    Commentary

  Student Research Paper: APA-Style Documentation

  Activities: Writing the Research Essay

 

Part V

The Literary Essay and Exam Essay

21 Writing About Literature

  Elements of Literary Works

    Literary Terms

  How to Read a Literary Work

    Read to Form a General Impression

    Ask Questions About the Work

    Reread and Annotate

    Modify Your Annotations

  Write the Literary Analysis

    Prewrite

    Identify Your Thesis

    Support the Thesis with Evidence

    Organize the Evidence

    Write the First Draft

    Revise Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

    Edit and Proofread

  Pulling It All Together

    Read to Form a General Impression

        Langston Hughes, “Early Autumn”

  Student Essay

        Karen Vais, “Stopping to Talk”

  Commentary

  Additional Selections and Writing Assignments

        Robert Frost, “Out, Out—”

        Kate Chopin, “The Story of an Hour”

 

22 Writing Exam Essays

  Three Forms of Written Answers

    Short Answers

    Paragraph-Length Answers

    Essay-Length Answers

  How to Prepare for Exam Essays

  At the Examination

    Survey the Entire Test

    Understand the Essay Question

  Write the Essay

    Prewrite

    Identify Your Thesis

    Support the Thesis with Evidence

    Organize the Evidence

    Write the Draft

    Revise, Edit, and Proofread

    Sample Essay Answer

    Commentary

  Activity: Writing Exam Essays

 

Part VI

A Concise Handbook

  Sentence Faults

    Fragments

      Phrase Fragments

      Dependent Clause Fragments

    Comma Splices and Run-On Sentences

      Three Common Pitfalls

  Faulty Parallelism

  Verbs

    Problems with Subject-Verb Agreement

      How to Correct Faulty Subject-Verb Agreement

    Problems with Verb Tense

      How to Correct Inappropriate Shifts in Verb Tense

      How to Correct Faulty Use of Past Tense

  Pronouns

    Problems with Pronoun Use

      Pronoun Case

      How to Correct Faulty Pronoun Case

      Pronoun Agreement

      Pronoun Reference

  Modifiers

    Problems with Modification

      Misplaced and Ambiguous Modifiers

      Dangling Modifiers

  Punctuation

    Period

    Question Mark

    Exclamation Point

    Comma

    Semicolon

    Colon

    Quotation Marks

    Ellipsis

    Apostrophe

    Parentheses

    Brackets

    Hyphen

    Dash

  Mechanics

    Capitalization

    Italics

    Numbers

    Abbreviations

  Spelling

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