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Measurement and Assessment in Education, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Cecil R. Reynolds, Ronald B. Livingston, Victor Willson

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Apr 29, 2008

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Description

This text employs a pragmatic approach to the study of educational tests and measurement so that teachers will understand essential psychometric concepts and be able to apply them in the classroom.

 

The principles that guide the development of this text are:

 

(1) What essential knowledge and skills do classroom teachers need to conduct student assessments in a professional manner? 

(2) What does the research on educational assessment tell us? This focus has resulted in a uniquely approachable and technically accurate presentation of the material.

 

While providing a slightly more technical presentation of measurement and assessment than more basic texts, this text is both approachable and comprehensive. The text includes a gentle introduction to the basic mathematics of measurement, and expands traditional coverage to include a thorough discussion of performance and portfolio assessments, a complete presentation of assessment accommodations for students with disabilities, and a practical discussion of professional best practices in educational measurement.  

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Assessment

 

I. Introduction

 

II. The Language of Assessment

A. Tests, Measurement, & Assessment

            B. Types of Tests

            C. Types of Scores Interpretations

 

III. Assumptions of Educational Assessment

A. Psychological and educational constructs exist.

B. Psychological and educational constructs can be measured.

C. While we can measure constructs, our measurement is not perfect.

D. There are different ways to measure any given construct.

E. All assessment procedures have strengths and limitations.

F. Multiple sources of information should be part of the assessment process.

G. Performance on tests can be generalized to non-test behaviors.

H. Assessment can provide information that helps educators make better        educational decisions.

I. Assessments can be conducted in a fair manner.

J. Testing and assessment can benefit our educational institutions and society as a whole.

                       

IV. Participants in the Assessment Process

            A. People who develop tests.

            B. People who use tests.

            C. People who take tests.

            D. Other people involved in the assessment process.

 

V. Common Application of Educational Assessments

            A. Student Evaluation

            B. Instructional Decisions

            C. Selection, Placement, and Classification Decisions

            D. Policy Decisions

            E. Counseling and Guidance Decisions

 

VI. What Teachers Need to Know About Assessment

A. Teachers should be proficient in selecting professionally developed assessment

procedures that are appropriate for making instructional decisions.

B. Teachers should be proficient in developing assessment procedures that are

appropriate for making instructional decisions.

C. Teachers should be proficient in administering, scoring, and interpreting

professionally developed and teacher-made assessment procedures.

D. Teachers should be proficient in using assessment results when making

educational decisions.

E. Teachers should be proficient in developing valid grading procedures that

incorporate assessment information.

F. Teachers should be proficient in communicating assessment results.

G. Teachers should be proficient in recognizing unethical, illegal, and other

inappropriate uses of assessment procedures or information.

 

VII. Educational Assessment in the 21st Century

            A. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) and Other Technological Advances.

            B. Authentic Assessments

            C. Educational Accountability and High-Stakes Assessment

            D. Trends in the Assessment of Students with Disabilities

 

VIII. Summary

 

Tables

 

A. Table 1.1: Major Categories of Tests

B. Table 1.2: Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Scores

C. Table 1.3: Assumptions of Educational Assessment

D. Table 1.4: Common Applications of Educational Assessments

E. Table 1.5: Teacher Competencies in Educational Assessment

 

Special Interest Topics

 

A. Special Interest Topic 1.1: Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment — Another Step Toward Unifying Assessment and Instruction

B. Special Interest Topic 1.2: Technology and Assessment in the Schools

C. Special Interest Topic 1.3: Princeton Review's Rankings of High-Stakes Testing Programs

D. Special Interest Topic 1.4: The “Nation’s Report Card”

E. Special Interest Topic 1.5: What Does the 21st Century Hold for the Assessment Profession?

 

Chapter 2: The Basic Mathematics of Measurement

 

I. The Role of Mathematics in Assessment

 

II. Scales of Measurement

            A. What is Measurement?

            B. Nominal Scales

            C. Ordinal Scales

            D. Interval Scales

            E. Ratio Scales


III. The Description of Test Scores

            A. Distributions

            B. Measures of Central Tendency

            C. Measures of Variability

 

IV. Correlation Coefficients

            A. Scatterplots

            B. Correlation and Prediction

            C. Types of Correlation Coefficients

            D. Correlation and Causality

 

V. Summary

 

Tables

Table 2.1: Common Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, & Ratio Scales

Table 2.2: Distribution of Scores for 20 Students

Table 2.3: Ungrouped Frequency Distribution

Table 2.4: Group Frequency Distribution

Table 2.5: Calculating the Standard Deviation and Variance

Table 2.6: Calculating a Pearson Correlation Coefficient

 

Figures

 

Figure 2.1: Graph of the Homework Scores

Figure 2.2: Hypothetical Distribution of Large Standardization Sample
Figure 2.3: Negatively Skewed Distribution

Figure 2.4: Positively Skewed Distribution

Figure 2.5: Bimodal Distribution

Figure 2.6: Relationship between Mean, Median, and Mode in Normal and Skewed Distributions

Figure 2.7: Three Distributions with Different Degrees of Variability

Figure 2.8: Scatterplots of Different Correlation Coefficients

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 2.1: Population Parameters and Sample Statistics

Special Interest Topic 2.2: A Public Outrage: Physicians Overcharge Their Patients

Special Interest Topic 2.3: Is the Variance Always Larger Than the Standard Deviation?

Special Interest Topic 2.4: Caution: Drawing Conclusions of Causality


Chapter 3: The Meaning of Test Scores

 

I. Introduction

 

II. Norm-Referenced & Criterion-Referenced Score Interpretations

A. Norm-Referenced Interpretations

B. Criterion-Referenced Interpretations

 

III. Norm-Referenced, Criterion-Referenced, or Both?

 

IV. Qualitative Description of Scores

 

V. Summary

 

Tables

 

Table 3.1: Transforming Raw Scores to Standard Scores

Table 3.2: Relationship of Different Standard Score Formats

Table 3.3: Converting Standard Scores From One Format to Another

Table 3.4: Characteristics of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Scores

 

Figures

Figure 3.1: Illustration of the Normal Distribution

Figure 3.2: Normal Distribution with Mean, Standard Deviation, & Percentages.

Figure 3.3: Normal Distribution Illustrating the Relationship among Standard Scores.

  Special Interest Topics   Special Interest Topic 3.1: The “Flynn Effect.” Special Interest Topic 3.2: Whence the Normal Curve?

Special Interest Topic 3.3: Why do IQ Tests use a Mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15?

Special Interest Topic 3.4: The History of Stanine Scores

Special Interest Topic 3.5: Every Child on Grade Level?

 

Chapter 4: Reliability for Teachers

I. Introduction

 

II. Errors of Measurement

            A. Sources of Measurement Error

 

III. Methods of Estimating Reliability

            A. Test-Retest Reliability

            B. Alternate Form Reliability

            C. Internal Consistency Reliability

            D. Inter-Rater Reliability

            E. Reliability of Composite Scores

            F. Selecting a Reliability Coefficient

            G. Evaluating Reliability Coefficients

            H. How to Improve Reliability

            I. Special Problems in Estimating Reliability

 

IV. The Standard Error of Measurement

            A. Evaluating the Standard Error of Measurement

 

V. Reliability: Practical Strategies for Teachers

 

VI. Summary

Tables

 

Table 4.1: Major Types of Reliability

Table 4.2: Half-Test Coefficients and Corresponding Full-Test Coefficients Corrected

with the Spearman-Brown Formula

Table 4.3: Calculation of KR 20

Table 4.4: Calculation of Coefficient Alpha

Table 4.5: Calculating Inter-Rater Agreement

Table 4.6: Source of Error Variance Associated with Major Types of Reliability

Table 4.7: Reliability Expected When Increasing the Numbers of Items

Table 4.8: Standard Errors of Measurement for Values of Reliability and Standard Deviations

Table 4.9: Reliability Estimates for Tests with a Mean of 80%

 

Figures

 

Figure 4.1: Partitioning the Variance

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 4.1: Generalizability Theory

Special Interest Topic 4.2: Consistency of Classification with Mastery Tests

Special Interest Topic 4.3: A Quick Way To Estimate Reliability for Classroom Exams

 

Chapter 5: Validity for Teachers

 

I. Introduction

            A. Threats to Validity

            B. Reliability & Validity

           

II. "Types of Validity" versus "Types of Validity Evidence"


III. Types of Validity Evidence

A. Evidence Based on Test Content

B. Evidence Based on Relations to Other Variables

            C. Evidence Based on Internal Structure

            D. Evidence Based on Response Processes

            E. Evidence Based on Consequences of Testing

F. Integrating Evidence of Validity

 

IV. Validity: Practical Strategies for Teachers

 

V. Chapter Summary

 

Tables

 

Table 5.1: Tracing Historical Trends in the Concept of Validity

Table 5.2: Sources of Validity Evidence

 

Figures

 

Figure 5.1: Illustration of Item Relevance

Figure 5.2: Illustration of Content Coverage

Figure 5.3: Predictive and Concurrent Studies

Figure 5.4: Graph of a Regression Line

 

Special Interest Topic

 

Special Interest Topic 5.1: Regression, Prediction, and Your First Algebra Class

 

Chapter 6: Item Analysis for Teachers

 

I. Introduction

 

II. Item Difficulty Index (or Item Difficulty Level)

A. Special Assessment Situations and Item Difficulty

 

III. Item Discrimination

A. Item Discrimination on Mastery Tests

B. Difficulty and Discrimination on Speed Tests

 

IV. Distracter Analysis

            A. How Distracters Influence Item Difficulty and Discrimination

 

V. Item Analysis: Practical Strategies for Teachers

 

VI. Using Item Analysis to Improve Items

 

VII. Item Analysis and Performance Assessments

VIII. Qualitative Item Analysis

 

IX. Using Item Analysis to Improve Classroom Instruction

 

X. Summary

 

Tables

 

Table 6.1: Optimal p Values for Items with Varying Numbers of Choices

Table 6.2: Guidelines for Evaluating D Values

Table 6.3: Maximum D Values at Different Difficulty Levels

Table 6.4: Two Examples of Test Scoring and Item Analysis Programs

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 6.1: Item Difficulty Indexes and Power Tests

Special Interest Topic 6.2: Item Analysis for Constructed Response Items

Special Interest Topic 6.3: Developing a Test Bank

 

Chapter 7: The Initial Steps in Developing a Classroom Test:

Deciding What to Test and How to Test It

 

I. Introduction

 

II. Characteristics of Educational Objectives

 

III. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

A. Cognitive Domain

B. Affective Domain

C. Psychomotor Domain

 

IV. Behavioral versus Nonbehavioral Educational Objectives

 

V. Writing Educational Objectives

VI. Developing a Table of Specifications

VII. Implementing the Table of Specifications and Developing an Assessment

            A. Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Assessment

            B. Selecting which types of items to use

            C. Putting the Assessment Together

VIII. Preparing your Students and Administering the Assessment.

IX. Summary

Tables

 

Table 7.1: Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Table 7.2: Krathwohl’s Taxonomy of Affective Objectives

Table 7.3: Harrow’s Taxonomy of Psychomotor Objectives

Table 7.4: Learning Objectives for Chapter 2: The Basic Math of Measurement

Table 7.5: Table of Specifications for Test on Chapter 2: Based on Content Areas

Table 7.6: Table of Specifications for Test on Chapter 2: Content Areas with Percentages

Table 7.7: Strengths and Weaknesses of Selected-Response Items

Table 7.8: Strengths and Weaknesses of Constructed-Response Items

Table 7.9: Practical Suggestions for Assembling an Assessment

 

Special Interest Topics

 

A. Special Interest Topic 7.1: Suggestions for Reducing Test Anxiety.

B. Special Interest Topic 7.2: Strategies for Preventing Cheating

Chapter 8: The Development and Use of Selected-Response Items

 

I. Introduction

II. Multiple-choice Items

A. Guidelines for Developing Multiple-choice Items

B. Strengths and Weaknesses of Multiple-choice Items

 

III. True-False Items

A. Guidelines for Developing Multiple-choice Items

B. Strengths and Weaknesses of Multiple-choice Items

 

IV. Matching Items

A. Guidelines for Developing Matching Items

B. Strengths and Weaknesses of Matching Items

 

V. Summary

Tables

 

Table 8.1: Checklist for the Development of Multiple-choice Items

Table 8.2: Strengths and Weaknesses of Multiple-choice Items

Table 8.3: Checklist for the Development of True-False Items

Table 8.4: Strengths and Weaknesses of True-False Items

Table 8.5: Checklist for the Development of Matching Items

Table 8.6: Strengths and Weaknesses of Matching Items

 

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 8.1: Do Multiple-choice Items Penalize Creative Students?

Special Interest Topic 8.2: Correction for Guessing

Special Interest Topic 8.3: What research says about "Changing your answer?"

 

Chapter 9: The Development and Use of Constructed-Response Items

 

I. Introduction

II. Oral Testing: The Oral Essay as a Precursor of Constructed-Response Items

III. Essay Items

A. Purposes of Essay Items

B. Essay Items at Different Levels of Complexity

            C. Restricted-Response versus Extended-Response Essays

            D. Guidelines for Developing Essay Items

            E. Strengths and Weaknesses of Essay Items

            F. Guidelines for Scoring Essay Items

 

III. Short-Answer Items

A. Guidelines for Developing Short-Answer Items

B. Strengths and Weaknesses of Short-Answer Items

 

IV. A Final Note: Constructed-Response versus Selected-Response Items

 

V. Summary

Tables

 

Table 9.1: Purposes of Essay Testing

Table 9.2: Guidelines for the Development of Essay Items

Table 9.3: Strengths and Weaknesses of Essay Items

Table 9.4: Holistic Scoring Rubric

Table 9.5: Analytic Scoring Rubric

Table 9.6: Guidelines for Scoring Essay Items

Table 9.7: Guidelines for the Development of Short-Answer Items

Table 9.8: Strengths and Weaknesses of Short-Answer Items

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 9.1: Computer Scoring of Essay Items

 

Chapter 10: Performance Assessments & Portfolios

I. Introduction - What Are Performance Assessments?


II. Guidelines for Developing Effective Performance Assessments

A. Selecting Appropriate Performance Tasks

            B. Developing Instructions

            C. Developing Procedures for Scoring Responses

            D. Implementing Procedures to Minimize Errors in Rating

 

III. Strengths & Weaknesses of Performance Assessments

 

IV. Portfolios

 

V. Guidelines for Developing Portfolio Assessments

 

VI. Strengths & Weaknesses of Portfolios

 

VII. Summary

 

List of Tables

 

Table 10.1: Guidelines for Selecting Performance Tasks.

Table 10.2: Guidelines for Developing Instructions for Performance Assessments.

Table 10.3: Example of a Rating Scale using Verbal Descriptions

Table 10.4: Example of a Numerical Rating Scale 

Table 10.5: Example of a Graphic Rating Scale 

Table 10.6: Example of a Descriptive Graphic Rating Scale 

Table 10.7: Example of a Checklist Used with Preschool Children

Table 10.8: Guidelines for Developing and Implementing Scoring Procedures

Table 10.9: Strengths & Weaknesses of Performance Assessments

Table 10.10: Guidelines for Developing Portfolio Assessments

Table 10.11: Strengths and Weaknesses of Portfolios Assessments

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 10.1: Example of a Performance Assessment in Mathematics

Special Interest Topic 10.2: Reliability Issues in Performance Assessments

Special Interest Topic 10.3: Performance Assessments in High-Stakes Testing.

 

Chapter 11: Assigning Grades on the Basis of Classroom Assessments

 

I. Introduction

 

II. Feedback and Evaluation

A. Formal and Informal Evaluation

B. The Use of Formative Evaluation in Summative Evaluation

 

III. Reporting Student Progress: Which Symbols to Use

 

IV. The Basis for Assigning Grades

 

V. Frame of Reference

            A. Norm-Referenced Grading (Relative Grading)

            B. Criterion-Referenced Grading (Absolute Grading)

            C. Achievement in Relation to Improvement or Effort

            D. Achievement Relative to Ability

            E. Recommendations

 

VI. Combining Grades Into a Composite

 

VII. Informing Students of Grading System

 

VIII. Parent Conferences

 

IX. Summary

 

Tables

 

Table 11.1: Report Form Reflecting Achievement and Non-Achievement Factors

Table 11.2: Examples of Grading based on Effort versus Achievement

Table 11.3: Example of Weighting Different Assessment Procedures

Table 11.4: Commercially Available Grade Book Programs

Table 11.5: Example of Grading Requirements Presented to Students at the Beginning of a Test & Measurement Course

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 11.1: Brief History of Grading

Special Interest Topic 11.2: Schools No Longer Assigning Ds?

Special Interest Topic 11.3: Grading and Punishment?

Special Interest Topic 11.4: Some Thoughts on Weighting Assessment Procedures

 

Chapter 12: Standardized Achievement Tests in the Era of High-Stakes Assessment

 

I. Introduction

 

II. Group Administered Achievement Tests

            A. Commercially Developed Group Achievement Test

            B. State Developed Achievement Tests

            C. Best Practices in Achievement Testing in the Schools

 

III. Individual Achievement Tests

 

IV. Selecting an Achievement Battery

 

V. Summary

 

Tables

 

Table 12.1: Major Publishers of Standardized Group Achievement Tests

Table 12.2: Important Test-Taking Skills to Teach Students

 

Figures

 

Figure 12.1: TerraNova The Second Edition Sample Report - Individual Profile Report

Figure 12.2: TerraNova The Second Edition Sample Report - Home Report

Figure 12.3: Performance Profile for Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS)

Figure 12.4: Profile Narrative for Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS)

Figure 12.5: Score Labels for the Iowa Tests and CogAT

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 12.1: Standards-Based Assessment

Special Interest Topic 12.2: Finding Information on Standardized Tests

Special Interest Topic 12.3: Mismatch Between State Standards and Off-The-Shelf

Achievement Tests

Special Interest Topic 12.4: American Educational Research Association (AERA)

Position Statement on High-Stakes Testing.

Special Interest Topic 12.5: Why Standardized Tests Should Not be Used to Evaluate

Educational Quality

Special Interest Topic 12.6: Value-Added Assessment: A New Approach to

Educational Accountability

Special Interest Topic 12.7: Deciding Not to Test an Upset Student.

 

Chapter 13: The Use of Aptitude Tests in the Schools

I. Introduction

 

II. A Brief History of Intelligence Tests

 

III. The Use of Aptitude and Intelligence Tests in the Schools

            A. Aptitude-Achievement Discrepancies

 

IV. Aptitude and Intelligence Tests

            A. Group Aptitude/Intelligence Tests

            B. Individual Aptitude/Intelligence Tests

            C. Selecting Aptitude/Intelligence Tests

 

V. College Admission Tests

 

VI. Summary

Tables

 

Table 13.1: Organization of Major Group Intelligence/Aptitude Tests

Table 13.2: Organization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - 4th Edition (WISC-IV)

Table 13.3: Organization of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5)

Table 13.4: Organization of Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities

Table 13.5: Organization of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS)

Table 13.6: Organization of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT)

 

Figures

 

Figure 13.1: A Continuum of General Abilities

Figure 13.2: InView Sample Report - Home Report Form

Figure 13.3: Profile Narrative for the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)

Figure 13.4: Combined Profile Narrative for the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS)        and the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)

Figure 13.5: Achievement/Ability Graphic Comparison of the Iowa Tests of Basic         Skills (ITBS) and the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)

 

Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 13.1:The Controversial IQ: Knows & Unknowns

Special Interest Topic 13.2: The Controversial IQ: IQ Tests & Schools

Special Interest Topic 13.3:Ability Profiles on the CogAT

 

Chapter 14: Assessment of Behavior and Personality

I. Assessing Behavior and Personality

            A. Response Sets

            B. Assessment of Behavior and Personality in the Schools

 

II. Behavior Rating Scales

A. Behavior Assessment System for Children - TRS & PRS

B.  Conners Rating Scales - Revised

C. Child Behavior Checklist & Teacher Report Form

 

III. Self-Report Measures

A. Behavior Assessment System for Children - Self-Report of Personality

B. Youth Self-Report

 

IV. Projective Techniques

            A. Projective Drawings

            B. Sentence Completion Tests

            C. Apperception Tests

            D. Inkblot Tests

           

V. Summary

Tables

Table 14.1: Composites and Scales in the TRS and PRS

Table 14.2: Composites and Scales in the SRP

Table 14.3: The Projective Debate

 

Figures

Figure 14.1: Completed Clinical and Adaptive Profile sections of a TRS

Figure 14.2: Completed Clinical and Adaptive Profile sections of a SRP

Figure 14.3: A Picture Similar to Those Used on Apperception Tests

Figure 14.4: An Inkblot Similar to Those Used on Inkblot Tests

 

Special Interest Topics

Special Interest Topic 14:1: The Handsome and Deformed Leg

Special Interest Topic 14.2: An Example of a "Fake Good" Response Set

Special Interest Topic 14.3: Popular Tests of Behavior & Personality

 

Chapter 15: Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

 

I. Introduction

 

II. Major Legislation that Impact the Assessment of Students with Disabilities

 

III. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

            A. IDEA Categories of Disabilities

 

IV. Section 504

 

V. The Rationale for Accommodations

 

VI. When are accommodations not appropriate or necessary?

 

VII. Strategies for Accommodations

            A. Modifications of Presentation Format

            B. Modifications of Response Format

            C. Modifications of Timing

            D. Modification of Setting

            E. Adaptive Devices and Supports

            F. Using Only Portion of a Test

            G. Using Alternate Assessments

 

VIII. Determining What Accommodations to Provide

 

IX. Reporting Results of Modified Assessments

 

X. Summary

Tables

 

Table 15.1: Accommodations Involving Modifications of the Presentation Format

Table 15.2: Accommodations Involving Modifications of the Response Format

Table 15.3: Accommodations Involving Modifications of Timing

Table 15.4: Accommodations Involving Modifications of Setting

Table 15.5: Accommodations Involving Adaptive Devices and Supports

Table 15.6: Determining which Accommodations to Provide

 

List of Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 15.1: Differential Effects & Assessment Accommodations?

Special Interest Topic 15.2: Allowable Accommodations in a Statewide Assessment Program

Special Interest Topic 15.3: Assessment of Students with Disabilities — Selected Legal Issues

 

Chapter 16: The Problem of Bias in Educational Assessment

I. Introduction

II. What Do We Mean By Bias?

III. Past and Present Concerns: A Brief Look

IV. The Controversy over Bias in Testing: Its Origin, What it is, and What it is Not

V. Cultural Bias and the Nature of Psychological Testing

VI. Objections to the Use of Educational Tests with Minorities

            A. Inappropriate content

            B. Inappropriate standardization samples.

            C. Examiner and language bias.

            D. Inequitable social consequences.

            E. Measurement of different constructs.

            F. Differential predictive validity.

            G. Qualitatively distinct aptitude and personality.

 

VII. The Problem of Definition in the Study of Bias

VIII. Culture Free Tests, Cultural Loading, and Cultural Bias

IX. Inappropriate Indicators of Bias: Mean Differences & Equivalent Distributions

X. Bias in Test Content

XII. Bias in Other Internal Features of Tests

XIII. Bias in Predictive and in Relation to Variables External to the Test

XV. Conclusion

List of Figures

Figure 16.1: Equal Slopes and Intercepts

Figure 16.2: Equal Slopes with Differing Intercepts

Figure 16.3: Equal Intercepts and Differing Slopes

Figure 16.4: Differing Slopes and Intercepts

 

Special Interest Topics

Special Interest Topic 16.1: Sex Differences in Intelligence

Special Interest Topic 16.2: Courtroom Controversy Over IQ Testing in the Public Schools

Special Interest Topic 16.3: Fairness & Bias — A Complex Relationship

 

Chapter 17: Best Practices in Educational Assessment

 

I. Introduction

II. Guidelines for Developing Assessments

III. Guidelines for Published Assessments

IV. Guidelines for Administering Assessments

V. Guidelines for Scoring Assessments

VI. Guidelines for Interpreting, Using, and Communicating Assessment Results

VII. Responsibilities of Test Takers

VIII. Summary

 

List of Tables

 

Table 17.1: Checklist for Developing Assessments

Table 17.2: Checklist for Selecting Published Assessments

Table 17.3: Checklist for Administering Assessments

Table 17.4 Checklist for Scoring Assessments

Table 17.5: Checklist for Interpreting, Using, and Communicating Assessment Results

Table 17.6: Responsibilities of Test Takers

 

List of Special Interest Topics

 

Special Interest Topic 17.1: Teachers Cheating?

Special Interest Topic 17.2: Steps to Prevent Student Cheating.


Appendices

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