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Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition

By Lambert Deckers

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 5, 2009

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Well-grounded in the history of the field, Motivation combines classic studies with current research, while promoting the idea that motivation stems from physiological states, psychological motives, and environmental incentives and goals.


Motivation provides an overarching organizational scheme of how motivation (the inducement of action, feelings, and thought) leads to behavior from physiological, psychological, and environmental sources. The material draws on topics that are familiar to students while maintaining a conversational tone to sustain student interest.

Table of Contents



Part I: Introduction and History


1     Introduction to Motivation and Emotion

Meaning of Motivation

To be Moved into Action

Knowledge, Competence, and Motivation

Determinism versus Free Will and Free Act

Section Recap

Sources of Motivation

Internal Sources

Linking Biological and Psychological Variables

External Sources

The Past as a Source of Motivation

Combined Internal and External Sources Motivate Behavior

Motivation Sequence


Section Recap

Study of Motivation and Emotion

Research in Motivation

Research in Emotion

Sources and Scope of Motivation

Section Recap



2     The History of Motivation and Emotion

Brief History of Motivation

Aristotle’s Theory


Evolution and Motivation

Unconscious Motivation

Internal Sources of Motivation

Commonality among Instincts, Drives, and Needs

External Sources of Motivation

External and Internal Sources Induce Behavior

Section Recap

Brief History of Emotion

Emotion as Subjective Feeling

Basic Emotions

Emotion as Motive for Action and Thought

Accompaniments of Emotion

Section Recap


Part II: Biological Properties of Motivation


3     Evolutionary Antecedents of Motivation

Evolution of Universal Motives

Evolutionary History and Personal History

Evolutionary Psychology

Section Recap

Universal Motives of Sex, Fear, Food, and Music

Selecting a Mate

Maintaining Relationships

Biosocial Theory

Fear as a Universal Motive

Liking and Preferences for Foods

Universal Appeal of Music

Section Recap



4     Addictions and Addictive Behaviors

Drugs of Abuse and Addiction

Psychoactive Drugs

Extent of Drug Use

Characteristics of Addiction

Initiation into Drug Use

Section Recap

Theories of Drug Addiction

Discovery of Pleasure Centers in the Brain

Pleasure Emerges from the Brain

Psychological Theories

Conditioning Theories

Events That Lead to Drug Relapse

Drug-Use Reinforcement

Cognition and Addiction

Section Recap

Behavioral Addictions

Exercise Addiction and Drug Addiction

Endorphins and Exercise-Induced Euphoria

Gambling Addiction

Section Recap



5     Homeostasis:  Temperature, Thirst, Hunger, and Eating

Internal Factors of Body Regulation


Negative Feedback System

Effects of Deviation from Set Point


Thirst and Drinking

The Body’s Energy Requirements

Short- and Long-Term Energy Regulation

Hunger Sensations

Feedback Mechanisms for Satiety

Section Recap

Food Characteristics and Eating

Cephalic Responses

Palatability and Amount of Food

Sensory-Specific Satiety

Food Preferences

Section Recap

Person Characteristics and Eating

Boundary Model of Eating

Cognitive Release of Diet Restraint

Stress-Induced Eating

Hunger Boundary

Section Recap



6     Behavior, Arousal and Affective Valence

Arousal and Performance

An Analogy for Arousal

Categories of Arousal

Sources of Arousal

Arousal and Behavior

Section Recap

Theories about the Performance-Arousal Relationship

Hull-Spence Drive Theory

Cusp Catastrophe Model

Cue Utilization Hypothesis

Processing Efficiency Theory

Section Recap

Arousal and Affective Valence

Variation in Affective Valence

Stimulus Complexity and Affective Valence

Incongruity Resolution in Music, Humor and Suspense


Incongruity Resolution and Humor

Resolution of Suspense

Section Recap



7     Stress, Coping, and Health

Relationship between Life Events and Stress

Demands, Strain, Coping, and Stress

Characteristics of Stress

Characteristics of Stressors

Stressor-Stress Relationship

Section Recap

Bodily Effects of Stress

Physiological Effects of Stressors

Stressors and Psychophysiological Disorders

Stressors and the Immune System

Section Recap

Variables Moderating the Impact of Life Events

Appraisal of Life Events

Coping and Behavior

Social Support as a Moderator

Personality Differences as Moderator Variables

Section Recap



Part III: Psychological Properties of Motivation


8     Drives, Needs, and Awareness 

Drives and Needs as Internal Sources of Motivation

Interaction of Push and Pull Motivation

Physiological Needs and Psychological Drives

Characteristics of Psychological Needs

Maslow’s Theory of Needs

Section Recap

Some Important Psychological Needs

Achievement Motivation

Factors that Affect Achievement Motivation

An Achievement Goal Framework

Need for Power

Need for Cognition

Self-Esteem, Relatedness, Autonomy, and Competence

Need for Affiliation and Intimacy

Self-Determination Theory

Section Recap

 Motivation without Awareness


Auto-Motive Hypothesis

Section Recap



9     Personality and Self in Motivation

Personality Associated with Motivation

Temperament, Personality, and Behavior

Personality Traits as Categories or Causes of Behavior

Personality Traits for Motivation

Biological Reality of Traits

Section Recap

Personality Traits Affect Motivation

Personality and Environment

Effects of Extraversion on Motivation

Effects of Neuroticism on Motivation

Effects of Conscientiousness on Motivation

Effects of Agreeableness on Motivation

Effects of Multiple Traits on Motivation

Happiness and the Big Five Personality Traits

Effects of Sensation Seeking on Motivation

Section Recap

Self as a Motivational System



Section Recap



Part IV: External Sources of Motivation


10     Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation and Incentive Value

Reinforcers and Punishers versus Incentives

Objective and Subjective Incentive Value

Incentives as Losses and Gains

Section Recap

Factors That Affect Incentive Value


Choice between Simultaneous Reinforcers

Contrast Effects

Temporal Motivation Theory

Section Recap

Intrinsic Motivation

Differences between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

Purpose of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior

Interaction between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivational Orientations

Section Recap



11     Goal Motivation

Origins of Goals

Incentives versus Goals

Sources of Goals

Section Recap

Goal Characteristics and Expectations

Characteristics of Goals

Expected Utility Theory


Prospect Theory

Section Recap

Goal Commitment and Goal Achievement

Committing to a Goal

Achievement Behaviors

Goal Achievement and Goal Failure

Section Recap



12     Economics of Motivation

Motivation Costs and Resources

Cost of Motivated Behavior

Motivation Resources

Section Recap

Spending Motivation Resources

Demand Law


Elasticity and the Substitution Effect

Section Recap

Motivation Toward Least Effort

Early Views on Effort and Motivation

Choices Based on Least Effort

Behavior and Thought Based on Least Effort

Section Recap



Part V:  The Emotions


13     Emotions and Moods

Characteristics and Categories of Emotions

What Is an Emotion?

Methods for Uncovering Basic Emotions

Characteristics of Affect

Intensity and Duration of Emotions

Section Recap

The Function of Arousal

Arousal and Physiological Variables

James-Lange Theory

Cognitive Arousal Theory

Cannon’s Theory of Arousal

Section Recap


Differences between Moods and Emotions

Time of Day, Day of Week

Seasonal Variation

Section Recap



14     Emotions as Motives

Appraisal of the Emotion Event

Event-Appraisal-Emotion Sequence

Characteristics of the Emotion Situation

Processing of Emotion Stimuli

Amygdala and Emotion-Event Processing

Section Recap

Emotions Motivate Facial Expressions

Brain, Facial Muscles and Expression

Expression-Feeling Link

Innateness of Facial Expression of Emotion

Function of Facial Expression

Section Recap

The Motivating Function of Emotions

Emotion as Motives for Behavior

Section Recap

Motivational Nature of Positive Emotions

Aim of Positive Emotions

Subjective Well-Being

Section Recap





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Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition
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$58.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-205-65583-0