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NCLEX-PN Exam Cram, 4th Edition

By Wilda Rinehart, Diann Sloan, Clara Hurd

Published by Pearson IT Certification

Published Date: May 22, 2014

Description

“The book offers a quick ‘cram’ approach to the NCLEX that is very user-friendly and not time-intensive. The overall approach is very learner-centered and the content is well-paced.” –Catherine Dearman, R.N., Ph.D.

 

  • Covers exactly what you need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-PN® exam
  • 445 sample test questions help you gain confidence and decide when you’re ready to take the actual exam
  • Includes the popular Cram Sheet tearcard to help you remember key concepts and do extra last-minute studying
  • Exam Alerts identify important information found on the exam
  • Simplifies key medication aide concepts and techniques for easy learning

 

Covers the critical information you’ll need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-PN exam!

 

  • Discover how the NCLEX-PN exam works, and how best to prepare for it
  • Understand essential disease processes, treatments, and diagnostic studies
  • Care for clients with respiratory, genitourinary, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, neurological, and many other disorders
  • Serve maternal, infant, and pediatric clients
  • Provide compassionate and effective psychiatric care
  • Consider cultural, religious, and legal concerns associated with client care
  • Review all stages of the nursing process: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation
  • Address client needs for a safe, effective-care environment; health promotion and maintenance; and psychosocial and physiological integrity

 

PEARSON IT CERTIFICATION PRACTICE TEST

The CD features the innovative Pearson IT Certification practice test, giving you an effective tool to assess your readiness for the NCLEX-PN exam.

 

 

Pearson IT Certification Practice Test minimum system requirements:

 

  • Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista (SP2), Windows 7, or Windows 8 Professional; Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 Client; Pentium class 1GHz processor (or equivalent); 512MB RAM; 650MB hard disk space plus 50MB for each downloaded practice exam; access to the Internet to register and download exam databases
  • NCLEX-PN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (NCSBN), which does not sponsor or endorse this product.

 

Table of Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................xxi

    Welcome to the NCLEX-PN® Exam Cram ................................................................xxi

    Taking the Computerized Adaptive Test.......................................................................xxii

    The Cost of the Exam....................................................................................................xxii

    How to Prepare for the Exam......................................................................................xxiii

    How to Use This Book.................................................................................................xxiii

Self-Assessment................................................................................................1

    Testing Your Exam Readiness............................................................................................2

Chapter 1 Preparing for the National Council Exam for Licensed Practical Nurses ................3

    Preparing for the Exam.....................................................................................................4

        The Computer Adaptive Test ..................................................................................4

        Testing Strategies......................................................................................................5

        Reading the Question Carefully ..............................................................................6

        Look for Keywords...................................................................................................6

        Watch for Specific Details........................................................................................6

    Exam Prep Questions ........................................................................................................9

        Answer Rationales...................................................................................................11

Chapter 2 Simplifying Pharmacology.....................................................................13

    Pharmacology...................................................................................................................14

        Three Areas of Pharmacology ...............................................................................14

    How Nurses Work with Pharmacology..........................................................................15

        Time-Released Drugs.............................................................................................16

        Administering Medications ....................................................................................17

    Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs ........................................................18

        Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors .........................................................18

        Beta Adrenergic Blockers .......................................................................................19

        Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides) .........................................................................20

        Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety) ....................................................22

        Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic) ..........................................................24

        Glucocorticoids.......................................................................................................25

        Antivirals .................................................................................................................26

        Cholesterol-Lowering Agents................................................................................28

        Angiotensin Receptor Blockers..............................................................................29

        Histamine 2 Antagonists ........................................................................................30

        Proton Pump Inhibitors .........................................................................................31

        Anticoagulants ........................................................................................................32

        More Drug Identification Helpers ........................................................................33

    Herbals .............................................................................................................................34

    Drug Schedules ................................................................................................................35

    Pregnancy Categories for Drugs.....................................................................................35

    Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................36

        Answer Rationales...................................................................................................38

Chapter 3 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System.........................41

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease .......................................................................42

        Chronic Bronchitis .................................................................................................42

        Emphysema.............................................................................................................42

        Asthma ....................................................................................................................43

    Acute Respiratory Infections ...........................................................................................44

        Pneumonia ..............................................................................................................44

        Pleurisy....................................................................................................................45

        Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................46

        Influenza .................................................................................................................46

    Acute Respiratory Failure................................................................................................47

        Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ...................................................................47

        Pulmonary Embolus ...............................................................................................48

    Emerging Infections ........................................................................................................50

        Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome .....................................................................50

        Legionnaire’s Disease .............................................................................................51

    Diagnostic Tests for Review............................................................................................51

    Pharmacology Categories for Review.............................................................................52

    Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................53

        Answer Rationales...................................................................................................55

    Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................56

Chapter 4 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Renal and Genitourinary System.........57

    Acute Glomerulonephritis ...............................................................................................58

    Chronic Glomerulonephritis...........................................................................................59

    End Stage Renal Disease .................................................................................................60

        Peritoneal Dialysis ..................................................................................................60

        Hemodialysis...........................................................................................................60

        Renal Transplantation ............................................................................................61

    Nephrotic Syndrome .......................................................................................................61

    Urinary Calculi ................................................................................................................62

    Urinary Tract Infections..................................................................................................63

    Genitourinary Disorders .................................................................................................63

        Prostatitis ................................................................................................................63

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ..........................................................................................64

    Bladder Cancer ................................................................................................................66

    Diagnostic Tests for Review............................................................................................67

    Pharmacology Categories for Review.............................................................................67

    Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................68

        Answer Rationales...................................................................................................70

    Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................71

Chapter 5 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Hematopoietic System .....................73

    Anemia..............................................................................................................................74

        Pernicious Anemia..................................................................................................74

        Aplastic Anemia ......................................................................................................75

        Sickle Cell Anemia .................................................................................................76

        Iron Deficiency Anemia .........................................................................................77

        Cooley’s Anemia (Thalassemia Major) ..................................................................77

    Hemophilia ......................................................................................................................77

    Polycythemia Vera ...........................................................................................................78

    Diagnostic Tests for Review............................................................................................79

    Pharmacology for Review................................................................................................79

    Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................80

        Answer Rationales...................................................................................................82

    Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................83

Chapter 6 Caring for the Client with Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Acid/Base Balance ...........................................................................................85

    Basic Knowledge of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance........................................................86

    Regulation of pH and Its Effect on Fluid and Electrolytes ...........................................87

        How the Body Regulates pH.................................................................................87

    Metabolic Acidosis ...........................................................................................................87

        Causes of Metabolic Acidosis.................................................................................87

        Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis ...........................................................................88

        Care of the Client with Metabolic Acidosis ..........................................................88

    Respiratory Acidosis.........................................................................................................89

        Causes of Respiratory Acidosis ..............................................................................89

        Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis ........................................................................90

        Caring for the Client with Respiratory Acidosis...................................................90

    Metabolic Alkalosis ..........................................................................................................91

        Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis ................................................................................91

        Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis ..........................................................................91

        Caring for the Client with Metabolic Alkalosis ....................................................92

    Respiratory Alkalosis........................................................................................................92

        Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis........................................................................92

    Care of the Client with Respiratory Alkalosis.......................................................93

    Normal Electrolyte Values ..............................................................................................93

    Changes Associated with Aging ......................................................................................94

    Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................96

        Answer Rationales...................................................................................................98

    Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................99

Chapter 7 Caring for the Client with Burns .............................................................101

    Burn Classifications .......................................................................................................102

        Burn Measurement with TBSA ...........................................................................104

    Nursing Care for Burn Victims.....................................................................................105

        The Emergent Phase............................................................................................106

        The Intermediate Phase .......................................................................................110

        Dressings for Burns ..............................................................................................111

        The Rehabilitative Phase......................................................................................112

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................112

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................112

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................114

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................116

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................117

Chapter 8 Caring for the Client with Sensorineural Disorders ......................................119

    Disorders of the Eyes ....................................................................................................120

        Intraocular Disorders ...........................................................................................120

        Retinal Disorders..................................................................................................123

        Refractive Errors ..................................................................................................125

        Traumatic Injuries ................................................................................................126

    Visual Tests for Review..................................................................................................127

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................127

    Ear Disorders .................................................................................................................127

        Otitis Externa........................................................................................................128

        Otitis Media ..........................................................................................................128

        Meniere’s Disease .................................................................................................128

        Otosclerosis...........................................................................................................129

        Presbycusis ............................................................................................................129

        Ear Trauma ...........................................................................................................130

    Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss .............................................................................130

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................130

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................131

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................132

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................134

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................135

Chapter 9 Caring for the Client with Cancer ...........................................................137

    Cancer ............................................................................................................................138

        American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer..............................138

        The Four Major Categories of Cancer................................................................138

        Risk Factors for Specific Cancers ........................................................................139

        Cancer Prevention................................................................................................140

        Patient Teaching ...................................................................................................141

    Management of the Client with Cancer .......................................................................141

        Radiation...............................................................................................................142

        Chemotherapy ......................................................................................................143

    Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT)...145

        Types of Transplants.............................................................................................145

        Nursing Care After Transplantation....................................................................146

    Hodgkin’s Lymphoma ...................................................................................................147

        Diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.....................................................................147

        Prognosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.....................................................................148

        Treatment of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma....................................................................148

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................148

    Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................149

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................151

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................153

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................154

Chapter 10 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System.................155

    Ulcers .............................................................................................................................156

        Types of Ulcers .....................................................................................................156

        Treatment of Ulcers .............................................................................................157

    Inflammatory Bowel Disorders .....................................................................................159

        Crohn’s Disease (Regional Enteritis) ...................................................................159

        Ulcerative Colitis..................................................................................................160

    Diverticulitis...................................................................................................................161

        Diagnosis of Diverticulitis....................................................................................161

        Treatment of Diverticulitis...................................................................................161

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ..................................................................162

    Diseases Associated with the Liver ...............................................................................163

        Hepatitis................................................................................................................163

        Cirrhosis................................................................................................................168

        Pancreatitis............................................................................................................170

    Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis ...........................................................................................172

        Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis ....................................................172

        Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholethiasis ..............................................................173

        Treatment of Cholecystitis ...................................................................................173

        Treatment of Cholethiasis ....................................................................................174

    Clostridium Difficile......................................................................................................175

    Food-Borne Illnesses .....................................................................................................175

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................176

    Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................177

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................178

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................180

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................181

Chapter 11 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System................183

    Fractures.........................................................................................................................184

        Treating Fractures ................................................................................................184

        Compartment Syndrome......................................................................................187

        Osteomyelitis ........................................................................................................188

    Osteoporosis...................................................................................................................189

        Treatment of Osteoporosis...................................................................................190

    Gout ...............................................................................................................................190

        Treatment of the Client with Gout .....................................................................191

    Rheumatoid Arthritis .....................................................................................................192

        Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis .....................................................................192

    Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures ............................................................................193

        Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement ..................................................................193

        Total Knee Replacement ......................................................................................194

        Amputations..........................................................................................................195

    Assistive Devices for Ambulation..................................................................................196

        Crutches ................................................................................................................197

        Canes.....................................................................................................................197

        Walkers .................................................................................................................198

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................198

    Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................199

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................201

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................203

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................204

Chapter 12 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Endocrine System........................205

    The Endocrine System..................................................................................................206

    Pituitary Disorders.........................................................................................................206

        Tumors of the Pituitary........................................................................................207

    Thyroid Disorders .........................................................................................................209

        Hypothyroidism....................................................................................................209

        Hyperthyroidism ..................................................................................................210

    Parathyroid Disorders ...................................................................................................212

        Hypoparathyroidism.............................................................................................212

        Hyperparathyroidism ...........................................................................................213

    Adrenal Gland Disorders...............................................................................................214

        Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease) ................................................214

        Adrenocortical Hypersecretion (Cushing’s Syndrome) or Cushing’s Disease....215

    Diabetes Mellitus ...........................................................................................................215

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................219

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................219

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................220

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................222

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................223

Chapter 13 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Cardiovascular System..................225

    Hypertension..................................................................................................................226

        Medications Used to Treat Hypertension ...........................................................227

    Heart Block ....................................................................................................................227

        Toxicity to Medications ........................................................................................229

        Malfunction of the Conduction System ..............................................................229

    Myocardial Infarction ....................................................................................................230

        Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction .....................................................................231

        Management of Myocardial Infarction Clients ...................................................232

    Inflammatory Diseases of the Heart .............................................................................235

        Infective Endocarditis...........................................................................................235

        Pericarditis ............................................................................................................235

    Buerger’s Disease ...........................................................................................................236

    Thrombophlebitis ..........................................................................................................236

    Raynaud’s Syndrome......................................................................................................237

    Aneurysms ......................................................................................................................237

    Congestive Heart Failure ..............................................................................................238

        Diagnostic Tests for Review.................................................................................238

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................239

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................240

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................242

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................243

Chapter 14 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System ....................245

    Seizures...........................................................................................................................246

        Types of Seizures ..................................................................................................246

        Treatment of Seizure Clients ...............................................................................248

    Status Epilepticus...........................................................................................................249

    Brain Injuries..................................................................................................................249

        Epidural Hematomas............................................................................................250

        Subdural Hematoma.............................................................................................250

        Treatment of Epidural and Subdural Hematomas ..............................................250

    Increased Intracranial Pressure .....................................................................................251

        Treatment of ICP .................................................................................................253

    Neurological Assessment ...............................................................................................253

        Cranial Nerve Assessment....................................................................................254

        Glasgow Coma Scale ............................................................................................255

        Intracranial Pressure Monitors ............................................................................256

    Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy) ........................................256

    Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke..................................................................................257

    Spinal Cord Injury .........................................................................................................258

        Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries.......................................................................259

        Potential Complications with SCI Clients ..........................................................260

    Guillain-Barré ................................................................................................................261

        Treating Clients with Guillian-Barré...................................................................261

    Degenerative Neurological Disorders ..........................................................................261

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................263

    Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................263

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................265

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................267

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................268

Chapter 15 Caring for the Client with Psychiatric Disorders ........................................269

    Anxiety-Related Disorders ............................................................................................270

        Generalized Anxiety Disorder..............................................................................270

        Post-traumatic Stress Disorder ............................................................................271

        Dissociative Identity Disorder .............................................................................271

        Somatoform Disorder...........................................................................................272

        Panic Disorder ......................................................................................................272

        Phobic Disorders ..................................................................................................273

        Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ..........................................................................273

    Personality Disorders ....................................................................................................274

        Cluster A...............................................................................................................274

        Cluster B...............................................................................................................275

        Cluster C...............................................................................................................276

        Managing Clients with Personality Disorders ....................................................277

    Psychotic Disorders .......................................................................................................277

        Schizophrenia .......................................................................................................277

        Bipolar Disorders..................................................................................................280

    Substance Abuse.............................................................................................................282

        Alcoholism ............................................................................................................282

        Other Commonly Abused Substances .................................................................285

    Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence.....................................................................287

        Conduct Disorder.................................................................................................287

        Oppositional Defiant Disorder ............................................................................287

        Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder..............................................................288

        Autistic Disorder...................................................................................................288

        Eating Disorders...................................................................................................289

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................289

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................290

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................291

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................293

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................294

Chapter 16 Caring for the Maternal/Infant Client......................................................295

    Signs of Pregnancy ........................................................................................................296

        Presumptive Signs ................................................................................................296

        Probable Signs ......................................................................................................296

        Positive Signs ........................................................................................................297

    Prenatal Care .................................................................................................................297

        Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance ..............................................................297

        Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening...............................................................................297

        Other Prenatal Diagnostic Tests ..........................................................................298

        Assessing Fetal Heart Tones.................................................................................299

        Ultrasonography ...................................................................................................299

    Signs of Complications of Pregnancy ...........................................................................299

    Types of Abortions.........................................................................................................300

    Complications Affecting Pregnancy..............................................................................301

        Diabetes in Pregnancy..........................................................................................301

        Preeclampsia .........................................................................................................302

        Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation .............................................................303

        Cord Prolapse .......................................................................................................303

        Abruptio Placenta .................................................................................................303

        Placenta Previa......................................................................................................303

    Maternal Infections........................................................................................................304

    Preterm Labor ...............................................................................................................306

    Intrapartal Care..............................................................................................................307

        Stages of Labor .....................................................................................................307

        Phases of Labor ....................................................................................................308

        Important Terms You Should Know....................................................................308

    Prelabor Testing.............................................................................................................309

    Fetal Monitoring............................................................................................................310

    Pharmacologic Management of Labor .........................................................................312

    Postpartum Care............................................................................................................313

    Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn ..............................................................313

    Rh Incompatibility.........................................................................................................314

    Contraception ................................................................................................................315

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................316

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................317

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................318

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................320

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................321

Chapter 17 Caring for the Pediatric Client .............................................................323

    Growth and Development.............................................................................................324

        Infant (28 Days to 1 Year) ....................................................................................324

        Toddler (1–3 Years)...............................................................................................326

        Preschooler (3–5 Years) ........................................................................................327

        School Age (6–12 Years) .......................................................................................328

        Adolescence (12–18 Years)....................................................................................329

    Congenital Anomalies....................................................................................................329

        Anomalies of the Gastrointestinal System...........................................................330

        Anomalies of the Musculoskeltal System.............................................................334

        Anomalies of the Cardiovascular System.............................................................336

        Inborn Errors of Metabolism...............................................................................339

    Respiratory Disorders....................................................................................................340

        Acute Otitis Media ...............................................................................................341

        Tonsillitis...............................................................................................................342

        Laryngotracheobronchitis ....................................................................................343

        Acute Epiglottitis..................................................................................................343

        Bronchiolitis..........................................................................................................344

        Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) ..........................................................................345

    Gastrointestinal Disorders.............................................................................................345

        Gastroenteritis ......................................................................................................346

        Pyloric Stenosis.....................................................................................................346

        Intussusception .....................................................................................................346

        Celiac (Gluten-Induced Enteropathy, Celiac Sprue) ..........................................347

    Cardiovascular Disorders ..............................................................................................347

        Rheumatic Fever...................................................................................................347

        Kawasaki’s Disease (Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome) .........................348

    Musculoskeletal Disorders.............................................................................................350

        Scoliosis.................................................................................................................350

        Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) ..........................................................351

        Muscular Dystrophies...........................................................................................351

    Childhood Cancer .........................................................................................................352

        Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma) ........................................................................352

        Leukemia...............................................................................................................352

        Osteogenic Sarcoma (Osteosarcoma) ..................................................................352

    Ingestion of Hazardous Substances...............................................................................353

        Salicylate Overdose...............................................................................................353

        Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Overdose ....................................................................353

        Lead (Plumbism) ..................................................................................................353

        Iron Poisoning ......................................................................................................354

    Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................354

    Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................355

    Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................356

        Answer Rationales.................................................................................................358

    Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................359

Practice Exam 1 .............................................................................................361

Answers to Practice Exam 1 ...............................................................................405

Practice Exam 2 .............................................................................................427

Answers to Practice Exam 2 ...............................................................................469

Appendix A Things You Forgot............................................................................491

Appendix B Need to Know More? ........................................................................499

Appendix C Calculations...................................................................................507

Glossary ......................................................................................................511

TOC, 9780789753151, 5/1/2014

 

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