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NCLEX-RN Exam Prep, 3rd Edition

By Wilda Rinehart, Diann Sloan, Clara Hurd

Published by Pearson IT Certification

Published Date: Dec 11, 2013

Description

Score Higher on the NCLEX-RN® Exam!

 

We provide you with the proven study tools and expert insight that will help you score higher on your exam

 

www.pearsonITcertification.com

 

  • Study Tips like the advice and instruction that a personal tutor might provide
  • Notes, Tips, and Cautions provide you with hints and strategies that will help you reduce your mistakes on the exam
  • Comprehensive discussion of all subject areas covered on the NCLEX-RN® Exam
  • Practice Questions that include detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers–so you can learn the material from your success and mistakes

 

COMPREHENSIVE! Succeed with comprehensive learning and practice tests

 

  • Master the NCLEX-RN® exam materials in all tested subject areas
  • Prepare with four comprehensive practice tests
  • Analyze your test readiness and areas for further study with topic-focused chapter tests
  • CD-ROM—based practice exam includes an interactive Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) engine for a meaningful exam experience with approximately 400 questions
  • Learn important test-taking strategies to maximize your score and diminish your anxiety

 

Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Organization . . . . . . . . 2

    Instructional Features . . . . . . . . 2

    Extensive Practice Test Options. . . . . . . 3

    Final Review . . . . . . . . . 3

        Other Valuable Tools . . . . . . . 4

    About the NCLEX Exam . . . . . . . 4

        Advice for Preparing for the Exam . . . . . . 6

        Advice for Test Day . . . . . . . 6

        Hints for Using This Book . . . . . . . 7

    Contact the Author . . . . . . . . 8

Study and Exam Preparation Tips . . . . . . . 9

    Study Tips . . . . . . . . . 9

    Exam Prep Tips . . . . . . . . 10

        Read the Question Carefully . . . . . . 11

        Look for Keywords . . . . . . . 11

        Watch for Specific Details . . . . . . . 11

        Eliminate Options That Are Clearly Wrong or Incorrect . . . 11

        Look for Similar Options . . . . . . . 12

        Look for Opposite Answers . . . . . . 13

Part I: Exam Preparation

Chapter 1: Pharmacology . . . . . . . . . 15

    Three Areas of Pharmacology . . . . . . . 15

    How Nurses Work with Pharmacology . . . . . . 16

    Time-released Drugs. . . . . . . . 17

    Administering Medications. . . . . . . 18

        The Seven Rights of Administering Medication . . . . 18

    Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs . . . . . 19

        Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors . . . . . 19

        Beta Adrenergic Blockers . . . . . . . 20

        Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides) . . . . . . 21

        Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety). . . . 23

        Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic) . . . . . 24

        Glucocorticoids . . . . . . . . 25

        Antivirals . . . . . . . . 27

        Cholesterol-Lowering Agents . . . . . . 28

        Angiotensin Receptor Blockers . . . . . . 29

        Histamine 2 Antagonists . . . . . . . 30

        Proton Pump Inhibitors . . . . . . . 31

        Anticoagulants . . . . . . . . 32

        More Drug Identification Helpers . . . . . . 33

    Herbals . . . . . . . . . 34

    Drug Schedules . . . . . . . . 35

    Pregnancy Categories for Drugs . . . . . . . 35

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 36

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 36

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . 37

        Answer Rationales . . . . . . . 39

Chapter 2: Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid/Base Balance . . . . . . 41

    Total Body Water Calculation . . . . . . . 41

    Management of the Client with Imbalances in Fluid and Electrolytes . . . 43

        Types of Intravenous Fluids . . . . . . 43

        How the Body Regulates Electrolytes. . . . . 44

        How the Body Regulates pH . . . . . . 52

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 60

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 60

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 60

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Treatment of Clients with Alterations in Fluids and Electrolytes . . . . . . . 60

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . 61

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 62

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 64

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 65

Chapter 3: Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . . . 67

    Hypertension . . . . . . . . . 68

        Diagnosing the Client with Hypertension . . . . . 69

        Managing the Client with Hypertension . . . . . 69

    Coronary Artery Disease. . . . . . . 71

        Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis . . . . . . 71

    Conduction System of the Heart. . . . . . . 72

        Heart Block. . . . . . . . 73

    Cardiac Monitoring . . . . . . . . 74

        Reading an Electrocardiogram. . . . . . 76

    Cardiac Dysrhythmias . . . . . . . . 76

        Ventricular Tachycardia. . . . . . . 78

        Ventricular Fibrillation . . . . . . . 79

        Internal Pacemaker/Internal Cardiac Defibrillators . . . . 79

        Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation . . . . . . 80

    Angina Pectoris . . . . . . . . 81

    Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . 82

        Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . 82

        Management of a Client with Myocardial Infarction . . . . 83

    Aneurysms. . . . . . . . . 89

    Inflammatory Diseases of the Heart . . . . . . 90

        Infective Endocarditis . . . . . . . 90

        Pericarditis . . . . . . . . 91

        Peripheral Vascular Disease . . . . . . 91

    Varicose Veins/Thrombophlebitis . . . . . . 92

    Raynaud’s Phenomenon . . . . . . . 93

    Buerger’s Disease . . . . . . . . 93

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 94

    Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 94

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . 95

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Treatment of Clients with Cardiovascular Disorders. . . . . . . . 96

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 101

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 101

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 103

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 104

Chapter 4: Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . . . 105

    Pituitary Gland. . . . . . . . 106

        Hypopituitarism . . . . . . . . 106

        Hyperpituitarism . . . . . . . 106

        Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland . . . . . 107

    Thyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . 108

        Hypothyroidism . . . . . . . . 108

        Hyperthyroidism . . . . . . . 110

    Parathyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . 112

        Hypoparathyroidism . . . . . . . 112

        Hyperparathyroidism. . . . . . . 113

    Diabetes Mellitus . . . . . . . . 114

        Hyperglycemia . . . . . . . . 116

        Hypoglycemia. . . . . . . . 117

        Managing Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia. . . . 117

    Adrenal Gland . . . . . . . . 118

        Adrenal Gland Disorders . . . . . . . 119

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 123

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 123

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 124

        Pharmacological Agents Used to Treat Clients with Endocrine Disorders. 124

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 128

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 128

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 130

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 131

Chapter 5: Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders. . . . . . 133

    Noninfectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract . . . . 133

        Chronic Bronchitis. . . . . . . 133

        Emphysema. . . . . . . . 134

        Asthma. . . . . . . . . 135

        Pleurisy . . . . . . . . 137

        Pulmonary Hypertension . . . . . . . 138

        Interstitial Pulmonary Disease . . . . . . 139

        Sarcoidosis. . . . . . . . 139

        Pulmonary Fibrosis . . . . . . . 140

        Occupational Pulmonary Disease . . . . . . 140

    Infectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract. . . . 142

        Pneumonia . . . . . . . . 142

        Tuberculosis . . . . . . . . 145

        Influenza . . . . . . . . 147

    Life-Threatening Pulmonary Disorders. . . . . . 148

        Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. . . . . 148

        Pulmonary Embolus . . . . . . . 152

        Pneumothorax . . . . . . . . 154

        Hemothorax . . . . . . . . 155

    Emerging Infections . . . . . . . . 158

        SARS . . . . . . . . . 158

        Legionnaires’ Disease . . . . . . . 159

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 161

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 161

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 161

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System . . . . . . . 162

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 165

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 166

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 168

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 169

Chapter 6: Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders . . . . . . 171

    Renal Disorders . . . . . . . . 172

        Acute Glomerulonephritis . . . . . . 172

        Chronic Glomerulonephritis . . . . . . 173

        Goodpasture’s Syndrome . . . . . . . 174

        Nephrotic Syndrome . . . . . . . 175

        Polycystic Kidney Disease . . . . . . 176

        Hydronephrosis/Hydroureteronephrosis . . . . . 177

        Pyelonephritis. . . . . . . . 178

    Acute and Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . 179

        Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . . 180

        Peritoneal Dialysis . . . . . . . 181

        Hemodialysis. . . . . . . . 182

        Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. . . . . 183

        Renal Transplantation . . . . . . . 184

    Urinary Disorders . . . . . . . . 185

        Cystitis. . . . . . . . . 185

        Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . . 187

        Urolithiasis . . . . . . . . 188

    Genitourinary Disorders. . . . . . . 189

        Prostatitis . . . . . . . . 190

        Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy . . . . . . 190

        Erectile Dysfunction . . . . . . . 191

        Epididymitis . . . . . . . . 193

        Priapism. . . . . . . . 193

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 195

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 195

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 195

        Pharmacologic Agents for the Client with Genitourinary Disorders. . 196

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 200

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 200

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 202

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 203

Chapter 7: Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . . . 205

    Common Infections of the Integumentary System . . . . . 205

        Viral Infections . . . . . . . . 205

        Fungal Infections . . . . . . . 207

        Bacterial Infections . . . . . . . 208

    Psoriasis. . . . . . . . . 208

    Pressure Ulcers. . . . . . . . 209

    Burns . . . . . . . . . 212

        Burn Classifications . . . . . . . 213

        Burn Measurement with TBSA . . . . . . 214

        Nursing Care for Burn Victims . . . . . . 215

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 223

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 223

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 223

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders. . . . . . . . 224

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 226

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 226

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 228

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 229

Chapter 8: Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders. . . . . . 231

    Disorders of the Eyes . . . . . . . . 231

        Intraocular Disorders . . . . . . . 232

        Uveitis . . . . . . . . . 236

        Corneal Dystrophy and Corneal Transplantation . . . . 236

        Retinal Disorders . . . . . . . 236

        Refractive Errors . . . . . . . 239

        Traumatic Injuries . . . . . . . 240

        Ocular Melanoma . . . . . . . 240

    Disorders of the Ears. . . . . . . . 242

        Otitis Externa . . . . . . . . 243

        Otitis Media . . . . . . . . 243

        Mastoiditis. . . . . . . . 244

        Ménière’s Disease. . . . . . . 244

        Acoustic Neuroma . . . . . . . 245

        Otosclerosis. . . . . . . . 245

        Presbycusis . . . . . . . . 246

        Ear Trauma . . . . . . . . 246

        Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss . . . . . 247

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 250

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 250

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 251

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Eyes and Ears . . . . . . . . 251

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 253

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 253

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 255

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 256

Chapter 9: Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . . 257

    Peptic Ulcer Disease . . . . . . . . 258

        Types of Ulcers. . . . . . . . 259

        Diagnosis of Ulcers . . . . . . . 259

        Treatment of Ulcers. . . . . . . 260

    Inflammatory Bowel Disorders . . . . . . . 263

        Crohn’s Disease . . . . . . . . 263

        Ulcerative Colitis . . . . . . . 263

        Management of the Client with Inflammatory Bowel Disease . . . 264

    Diverticular Disease. . . . . . . . 265

        Management of the Client with Diverticulitis . . . . 265

    Hemorrhoids . . . . . . . . 266

    Appendicitis . . . . . . . . . 266

    Peritonitis . . . . . . . . . 268

    Intestinal Obstruction . . . . . . . . 269

    Esophageal Disorders . . . . . . . . 270

        GERD . . . . . . . . . 270

        Hiatal Hernia . . . . . . . . 274

    Diseases Associated with the Liver . . . . . . 275

        Hepatitis . . . . . . . . 275

        Cirrhosis . . . . . . . . 281

    Acute Pancreatitis . . . . . . . . 285

        Diagnosis of Pancreatitis. . . . . . . 286

        Treatment of Pancreatitis . . . . . . . 286

    Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis . . . . . . . 287

        Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis . . . . 288

        Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis . . . . . 288

        Treatment of Cholecystitis . . . . . . 289

        Treatment of Cholethiasis. . . . . . . 289

    Clostridium Difficile . . . . . . . . 290

    Food-Borne Illnesses. . . . . . . . 291

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 294

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 294

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 295

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System . . . . . . . 295

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 297

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 298

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 300

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 301

Chapter 10: Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . . . 303

    Anemia. . . . . . . . . 303

        Pernicious Anemia . . . . . . . 304

        Aplastic Anemia . . . . . . . . 304

        Sickle Cell Anemia. . . . . . . 305

        Iron Deficiency Anemia . . . . . . . 309

    Thalassemia . . . . . . . . . 311

    Polycythemia Vera . . . . . . . . 312

    Hemophilia . . . . . . . . . 313

    Transfusion Therapy . . . . . . . . 315

        Transfusion Reactions . . . . . . . 317

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 319

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 319

        Diagnostic Tests for Review . . . . . . 319

        Pharmacological Agents Used in Hematological Disorders . . . 320

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 321

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 321

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 323

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 324

Chapter  11:Care of the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System. . . . 325

    Neurological Assessment . . . . . . . 326

        Cranial Nerve Assessment . . . . . . 326

        Glasgow Coma Scale . . . . . . . 327

        Intracranial Pressure Monitors. . . . . . 328

    Brain Injuries . . . . . . . . 329

        Epidural Hematomas. . . . . . . 332

        Subdural Hematoma . . . . . . . 332

        Intracerebral Hematomas . . . . . . . 332

        Treatment of Hematomas . . . . . . . 332

        Increased Intracranial Pressure . . . . . . 332

    Brain Tumors . . . . . . . . 336

        Treatment of Brain Tumors . . . . . . 337

    Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy) . . . . 338

    Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke . . . . . . 342

        Ischemic Stroke . . . . . . . . 342

        Hemorrhagic Stroke . . . . . . . 344

    Seizures . . . . . . . . . 347

        Types of Seizures . . . . . . . 347

        Treatment of Seizure Clients . . . . . . 350

    Parkinson’s Disease . . . . . . . . 350

    Meningitis . . . . . . . . . 352

    Autoimmune Neurological Disorders. . . . . . 354

        Multiple Sclerosis. . . . . . . 354

        Myasthenia Gravis . . . . . . . 355

        Guillain-Barré. . . . . . . . 357

    Degenerative Neurological Disorders . . . . . . 358

    Cranial Nerve Disorders. . . . . . . 359

        Trigeminal Neuralgia . . . . . . . 359

        Bell’s Palsy. . . . . . . . 359

    Spinal Cord Injuries . . . . . . . . 360

        Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries. . . . . . 361

        Potential Complications with SCI Clients . . . . . 362

    Intervertebral Disk Disease . . . . . . . 363

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 366

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 366

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 367

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of Clients with Neurological Disorders. . . . . . . . 368

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 373

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 373

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 376

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 377

Chapter 12: Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders . . . . . . 379

    Immunodeficiency Syndrome . . . . . . . 380

    Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . 381

    HIV Prevention . . . . . . . . 383

        Standard Precautions. . . . . . . 383

        Airborne Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 384

        Droplet Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 384

        Contact Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 385

        Treatments After Occupational Exposure. . . . . 385

    Management of the Client with HIV . . . . . . 385

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 389

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 389

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 389

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders. . . . . . . . 390

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 393

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 394

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 396

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 397

Chapter 13: Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . . 399

    American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer. . . . 399

    The Four Major Categories of Cancer. . . . . . 400

    Risk Factors for Specific Cancers . . . . . . 400

    Cancer Prevention . . . . . . . . 402

    Major Types of Cancer . . . . . . . 403

        Colorectal Cancer . . . . . . . 403

        Lung Cancer. . . . . . . . 407

        Prostate Cancer . . . . . . . . 409

        Breast Cancer . . . . . . . . 411

        Other Major Cancers. . . . . . . 416

    General Interventions for Clients with Cancer . . . . . 421

        Radiation . . . . . . . . 421

        Chemotherapy . . . . . . . . 423

        Total Parenteral Nutrition . . . . . . 424

    Neoplastic-Associated Disorders and Emergencies . . . . 426

    Bone Marrow and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation . . . . 427

        Types of Transplants . . . . . . . 428

        Nursing Care After Transplantation . . . . . 428

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 431

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 431

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 432

        Pharmacologic Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Specific Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . . . . 433

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 440

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 440

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 443

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 445

Chapter 14: Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . . . 447

    Fractures . . . . . . . . . 448

        Major Fracture Sites . . . . . . . 450

        General Treatment for Fractures. . . . . . 450

        Common Complications Associated with Fractures . . . . 454

    Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . 457

    Osteoarthritis . . . . . . . . 458

        Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis. . . . . . 459

        Treatment of the Client with Osteoarthritis . . . . . 459

    Fibromyalgia. . . . . . . . . 460

    Ankylosing Spondylitis . . . . . . . 460

    Gout. . . . . . . . . 461

    Rheumatoid Arthritis. . . . . . . . 462

    Lupus Erythematosus . . . . . . . . 464

    Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures . . . . . . 466

        Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement . . . . . 466

        Total Knee Replacement. . . . . . . 467

        Amputations . . . . . . . . 468

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 474

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 474

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 474

        Pharmacologic Agents Used in Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders. . . . . . . . 475

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 479

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 479

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 481

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 482

Chapter 15: Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client . . . . . 483

    Prenatal Care . . . . . . . . 483

        Signs of Pregnancy. . . . . . . 483

        Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance . . . . . 484

        Measuring Fetal Heart Tones. . . . . . 486

        Measuring Fundal Height. . . . . . . 486

        Prelabor Testing . . . . . . . . 486

    Intrapartal Care . . . . . . . . 488

        Stages of Labor. . . . . . . . 489

        Important Terms You Should Know . . . . . 489

    Complications Associated with Pregnancy. . . . . 490

        Cardiac Disease During Pregnancy. . . . . . 490

        Diabetes in Pregnancy. . . . . . . 493

        Preeclampsia . . . . . . . . 494

        Ectopic Pregnancy . . . . . . . 495

        Hydatidiform Mole . . . . . . . 495

        Incompetent Cervix . . . . . . . 496

        Types of Abortions. . . . . . . 496

        Placenta Previa . . . . . . . . 497

        Abruptio Placenta. . . . . . . 497

    Complications Associated with Labor and Delivery . . . . 498

        Fetal Malpresentation . . . . . . . 499

        Post-term Labor and Birth . . . . . . 499

        Precipitate Delivery . . . . . . . 500

        Cord Prolapse. . . . . . . . 500

        Cesarean Birth . . . . . . . . 500

        Assisted Birth . . . . . . . . 501

        Fetal Monitoring . . . . . . . 501

    Pharmacologic Management of Labor . . . . . . 503

    Postpartum Care . . . . . . . . 504

    Newborn Care . . . . . . . . 505

        Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn . . . . 506

        Rh Incompatibility . . . . . . . 507

    Women’s Health Issues . . . . . . . 508

        Pelvic Inflammatory Disease . . . . . . 508

        Menopause . . . . . . . . 508

        Maternal Infections . . . . . . . 508

        Methods of Contraception . . . . . . 511

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 514

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 514

        Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 515

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Obstetric Client . . 516

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 517

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 518

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 520

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 521

Chapter 16: Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . . . 523

    Growth and Development . . . . . . . 523

        Infant (28 Days to 1 Year). . . . . . . 523

        Toddler (1–3 Years) . . . . . . . 524

        Preschooler (3–5 Years) . . . . . . . 525

        School Age (6–12 Years) . . . . . . . 527

        Adolescence (12–18 Years) . . . . . . 527

    Caring for the Child with Respiratory Disorders . . . . . 528

        Upper Airway Infections. . . . . . . 529

        Lower Airway Infections. . . . . . . 533

        Long-Term Respiratory Disorders . . . . . . 535

        Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) . . . . . . 536

    Caring for the Child with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 537

        Disorders of Motility. . . . . . . 538

        Structural Defects . . . . . . . 540

        Obstructive Disorders . . . . . . . 542

        Inflammatory and Parasitic Disorders. . . . . 544

        Malabsorptive/Metabolic Syndromes . . . . . 545

        Ingestion of Hazardous Substances . . . . . . 547

    Caring for the Child with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . 549

        Congenital Heart Defects. . . . . . . 550

        Acquired Heart Disease. . . . . . . 557

    Caring for the Child with Genitourinary Disorders. . . . 560

        Obstructive Uropathy . . . . . . . 561

        External Defects (Hypospadias, Epispadias, Exstrophy of the Bladder). . 561

        Epispadias/Exstrophy of the Bladder . . . . . 562

    Caring for the Child with Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . 563

        Leukemia. . . . . . . . 563

        Wilms’ Tumor (Nephroblastoma) . . . . . . 563

        Retinoblastoma. . . . . . . . 564

        Neuroblastoma . . . . . . . . 564

        Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s Sarcoma . . . . . 564

        Rhabdomyosarcoma. . . . . . . 565

        Surviving Childhood Cancer . . . . . . 565

    Caring for the Child with Cerebral Disorders . . . . . 566

        Intracranial Infections (Encephalitis and Bacterial Meningitis) . . . 566

        Reye’s Syndrome . . . . . . . 567

    Caring for the Child with Integumentary Disorders . . . . 568

        Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) . . . . . . 568

        Scabies . . . . . . . . . 569

        Pediculosis Capitis (Head Lice) . . . . . . 569

        Lyme Disease . . . . . . . . 570

        Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever . . . . . . 570

    Caring for the Child with Communicable Disease. . . . . 571

    Caring for the Child with Musculoskeletal Disorders . . . . 573

        Congenital Clubfoot . . . . . . . 573

        Developmental Hip Dysplasia . . . . . . 573

        Osteogenesis Imperfecta . . . . . . . 574

        Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) . . . . . 575

        Scoliosis . . . . . . . . 576

        Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis) . . . 576

    Caring for the Child with Neuromuscular Disorders . . . . 577

        Cerebral Palsy. . . . . . . . 577

        Neural Tube Defects . . . . . . . 578

        Spina Bifida. . . . . . . . 578

        Muscular Dystrophies . . . . . . . 579

    Caring for the Abused and Neglected Child . . . . . 580

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 583

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 583

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 584

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of Pediatric Clients . . . 584

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 584

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 585

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 587

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 588

Chapter 17: Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders . . . . . . 589

    Anxiety-related Disorders. . . . . . . 589

        Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . . . . 590

        Post-traumatic Stress Disorder . . . . . . 590

        Dissociative Identity Disorder . . . . . . 591

        Somatoform Disorder . . . . . . . 591

        Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . 591

        Phobic Disorders . . . . . . . 592

        Obsessive-compulsive Disorder . . . . . . 592

    Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . 593

        Cluster A . . . . . . . . 593

        Cluster B . . . . . . . . 594

        Cluster C. . . . . . . . 595

        Managing Clients with Personality Disorders . . . . 596

    Psychotic Disorders. . . . . . . . 597

        Schizophrenia . . . . . . . . 597

        Bipolar Disorders . . . . . . . 599

    Substance Abuse. . . . . . . . 602

        Alcoholism . . . . . . . . 602

        Chemical Dependence. . . . . . . 604

    Psychological Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence . . . . 606

        Autistic Disorder . . . . . . . 607

        Conduct Disorder . . . . . . . 607

        Oppositional Defiant Disorder . . . . . . 608

        Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder . . . . . 608

        Eating Disorders . . . . . . . 608

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 611

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 611

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 612

        Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . . . . . 612

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 617

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 618

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 620

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 621

Chapter 18: Emergency Care. . . . . . . . . 623

    The ABCDs of Emergency Care. . . . . . 624

        Airway . . . . . . . . . 624

        Breathing. . . . . . . . 625

        Circulation . . . . . . . . 625

        Deficits . . . . . . . . 626

        Obtaining Client Information . . . . . . 627

    Trauma . . . . . . . . . 627

        Head Injuries . . . . . . . . 627

        Chest Injuries . . . . . . . . 628

        Abdominal Injuries. . . . . . . 628

        Documenting and Protecting Forensic Evidence . . . . 629

    Poisoning . . . . . . . . . 630

    Poisonous Stings and Bites . . . . . . . 631

    Bioterrorism . . . . . . . . . 632

        Chemical and Biological Agents . . . . . . 632

        Nuclear Warfare. . . . . . . . 634

        Triage Categories for Disaster Victims . . . . . 635

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 637

        Key Terms . . . . . . . . 637

        Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 637

        Pharmacological Agents Commonly Used in ER Treatment . . . 637

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 638

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 638

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 640

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 641

Chapter 19: Legal Issues in Nursing Practice . . . . . . . 643

    Types of Laws. . . . . . . . 644

        Statutory Laws/Regulatory Laws. . . . . . 644

        Civil Laws . . . . . . . . 644

        Criminal Laws . . . . . . . . 644

        Common Law. . . . . . . . 644

    Code of Ethical Behavior in Nursing Practice . . . . . 645

    Legal Theories That Affect Nursing Practice . . . . . 646

        Negligence . . . . . . . . 647

        Malpractice . . . . . . . . 647

        Witnessing Consent for Care. . . . . . 647

        Tort . . . . . . . . . 647

        Assault and Battery . . . . . . . 648

        Fraud . . . . . . . . . 648

    Managing Client Care. . . . . . . . 648

    Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 652

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 652

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 653

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 655

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 656

Chapter 20: Cultural Practices Influencing Nursing Care . . . . . . 657

    Cultural Assessment. . . . . . . . 657

        Understanding Client Beliefs . . . . . . 657

        Working with Clients Who Speak Different Languages . . . 658

    Healthcare of Hispanics/Latinos . . . . . . 659

        Time Considerations . . . . . . . 660

        Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 660

        Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 661

    Healthcare of Native Americans and Alaskan Natives . . . . 661

        Time Considerations . . . . . . . 661

        Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 662

        Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 662

    Healthcare of Asian-Americans . . . . . . . 662

        Time Considerations . . . . . . . 663

        Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 663

        Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 664

    Healthcare of Arab-Americans. . . . . . . 664

        Time Considerations . . . . . . . 665

        Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 665

        Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 665

    Nursing Plan Dietary Considerations Across Cultures . . . . 665

    Religious Beliefs and Refusal of Care Considerations . . . . 667

    Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 669

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 669

        Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 669

        Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 671

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 672

Part II: Final Review

Fast Facts The NCLEX RN Exam Prep . . . . . . . . 673

Practice Exam I . . . . . . . . . 681

    Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance. . . . . 682

    Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . . 686

    Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . . 693

    Care of the Client with Immunological Disorders . . . . . 700

    Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client . . . . 705

Practice Exam II. . . . . . . . . 717

    Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders . . . . . 718

    Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders. . . . . 723

    Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . . 728

    Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders . . . . . 731

    Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . . 736

    Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . . 744

    Emergency Care. . . . . . . . 749

Practice Exam III . . . . . . . . . 753

    Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . . 754

    Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 760

    Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . 767

    Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders. . . . . 777

    Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . . 786

Practice Exam IV Management and Alternative Item Exam Questions. . . . . 791

    Management Questions . . . . . . . 792

    Alternative Items . . . . . . . . 808

Answers to Practice Exam I . . . . . . . . 819

    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam I . . . . . . 819

    Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 821

    Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance . . . . 821

    Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . 823

    Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . 828

    Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders. . . . 832

    Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client. . . 835

Answers to Practice Exam II . . . . . . . . 843

    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam II . . . . . . 843

    Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 845

    Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders . . . . 845

    Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders . . . . 848

    Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . 851

    Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders . . . . . 853

    Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . 855

    Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . 859

    Emergency Care. . . . . . . . 862

Answers to Practice Exam III . . . . . . . . 865

    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam III . . . . . 865

    Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 867

    Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . 867

    Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 870

    Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . 873

    Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders . . . . 878

    Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . 883

Answers to Practice Exam IV: Management and Alternative Item Exam Questions. . . . . 885

    Answers to Management Questions . . . . . . 885

    Alternative Item Answers . . . . . . . 894

Part III: Appendixes

Appendix A: Things You Forgot . . . . . . . . . 899

Appendix B: Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . 905

Appendix C: Calculations . . . . . . . . . 911

Appendix D: Most Commonly-Prescribed Medications in the United States . . . . 915

TOC, 9780789751065, 11/21/2013

 

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