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Network Basics Companion Guide, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Cisco Networking Academy

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Nov 8, 2013

Description

This is the only Cisco-authorized companion guide to the official Cisco Networking Academy curriculum for the new CCNA Version 5 certification. An invaluable resouce for hundreds of thousands of Cisco Networking Academy students worldwide, this portable desk reference is ideal for anytime/anywhere take-home study and reference. Fully aligned to CNA’s online course chapters, it offers additional book-based pedagogy to reinforce key concepts, enhance student comprehension, and promote retention. Using it, students can focus scarce study time, organize review for quizzes and exams, and get the day-to-day reference answers they’re looking for. The Companion Guide also offers instructors additional opportunities to assign take-home reading or vocabulary homework, helping students prepare more for in-class lab work and discussions. A companion CD-ROM contains additional visual and interactive learning aids designed to accelerate mastery and deepen understanding.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv

Chapter 1 Exploring the Network 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Communicating in a Network-Centric World (1.1) 4

    Interconnecting Our Lives (1.1.1) 4

        Networks in Our Daily Lives (1.1.1.1) 4

        Technology Then and Now (1.1.1.2) 5

        The Global Community (1.1.1.3) 6

        Networks Support the Way We Learn (1.1.1.4) 6

        Networks Support the Way We Communicate (1.1.1.5) 7

        Networks Support the Way We Work (1.1.1.6) 9

        Networks Support the Way We Play (1.1.1.7) 9

    Supporting Communication (1.1.2) 10

        What Is Communication? (1.1.2.1) 10

        Quality of Communication (1.1.2.2) 12

The Network as a Platform (1.2) 13

    Converged Networks (1.2.1) 13

        Traditional Service Networks (1.2.1.1) 13

        Planning for the Future (1.2.1.2) 14

    Reliable Network (1.2.2) 15

        The Supporting Network Architecture (1.2.2.1) 15

        Fault Tolerance in Circuit-Switched Networks (1.2.2.2) 15

        Packet-Switched Networks (1.2.2.3) 17

        Scalable Networks (1.2.2.4) 18

        Providing QoS (1.2.2.5) 20

        Providing Network Security (1.2.2.6) 21

LANs, WANs, and the Internet (1.3) 23

    Components of a Network (1.3.1) 23

    Components of the Network (1.3.1.1) 23

        End Devices (1.3.1.2) 24

        Intermediary Devices (1.3.1.3) 25

        Network Media (1.3.1.4) 25

        Network Representations (1.3.1.5) 26

        Topology Diagrams (1.3.1.6) 28

        LANs and WANs (1.3.2) 28

        Types of Networks (1.3.2.1) 28

        Local-Area Networks (1.3.2.2) 29

        Wide-Area Networks (1.3.2.3) 30

    The Internet (1.3.3) 30

        The Internet (1.3.3.1) 30

        Intranet and Extranet (1.3.3.2) 31

    Connecting to the Internet (1.3.4) 32

        Internet Access Technologies (1.3.4.1) 32

        Connecting Remote Users to the Internet (1.3.4.2) 33

        Connecting Businesses to the Internet (1.3.4.3) 34

The Expanding Network (1.4) 35

    Network Trends (1.4.1) 36

        New Trends (1.4.1.1) 36

        Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (1.4.1.2) 36

        BYOD Considerations (1.4.1.3) 37

        Online Collaboration (1.4.1.4) 38

        Collaboration Considerations (1.4.1.5) 38

        Video Communication (1.4.1.6) 39

        Cloud Computing (1.4.1.7) 40

        Types of Clouds (1.4.1.8) 41

        Data Centers (1.4.1.9) 41

    Network Security (1.4.2) 42

        Security Threats (1.4.2.1) 42

        Security Solutions (1.4.2.2) 44

    Network Architectures (1.4.3) 45

        Cisco Network Architectures (1.4.3.1) 45

        Cisco Borderless Network (1.4.3.2) 46

        Collaboration Architecture (1.4.3.3) 46

        Data Center Architecture (1.4.3.4) 47

        CCNA (1.4.3.5) 47

Summary (1.5) 49

Practice 50

    Class Activities 50

    Labs 50

    Packet Tracer Activity 50

Check Your Understanding 50

Chapter 2 Configuring a Network Operating System 55

Objectives 55

Key Terms 55

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 56

IOS Bootcamp (2.1) 56

    Cisco IOS (2.1.1) 56

        Purpose of OS (2.1.1.1) 56

        Location of the Cisco IOS (2.1.1.2) 57

        IOS Functions (2.1.1.3) 58

    Accessing a Cisco IOS Device (2.1.2) 59

        Console Access Method (2.1.2.1) 59

        Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods (2.1.2.2) 60

        Terminal Emulation Programs (2.1.2.3) 61

    Navigating the IOS (2.1.3) 61

        Cisco IOS Modes of Operation (2.1.3.1) 62

        Primary Modes (2.1.3.2) 63

        Global Configuration Mode and Submodes (2.1.3.3) 64

        Navigating Between IOS Modes (2.1.3.4, 2.1.3.5) 65

    The Command Structure (2.1.4) 66

        IOS Command Structure (2.1.4.1) 67

        Cisco IOS Command Reference (2.1.4.2) 68

        Context-Sensitive Help (2.1.4.3) 70

        Command Syntax Check (2.1.4.4) 71

        Hot Keys and Shortcuts (2.1.4.5) 72

        IOS Examination Commands (2.1.4.6) 74

        The show version Command (2.1.4.7) 75

Getting Basic (2.2) 76

    Hostnames (2.2.1) 76

        Why the Switch (2.2.1.1) 76

        Device Names (2.2.1.2) 76

        Hostnames (2.2.1.3) 78

        Configuring Hostnames (2.2.1.4) 78

    Limiting Access to Device Configurations (2.2.2) 79

        Securing Device Access (2.2.2.1) 79

        Securing Privileged EXEC Access (2.2.2.2) 80

        Securing User EXEC Access (2.2.2.3) 81

        Encrypting Password Display (2.2.2.4) 82

        Banner Messages (2.2.2.5) 83

        Saving Configurations (2.2.3) 84

        Configuration Files (2.2.3.1) 84

        Capturing Text (2.2.3.2) 87

Address Schemes (2.3) 88

    Ports and Addresses (2.3.1) 88

        IP Addressing of Devices (2.3.1.1) 88

        Interfaces and Ports (2.3.1.2) 89

    Addressing Devices (2.3.2) 90

        Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface (2.3.2.1) 90

        Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.2) 91

        Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.3) 91

        IP Address Conflicts (2.3.2.4) 92

    Verifying Connectivity (2.3.3) 93

        Test the Loopback Address on an End Device (2.3.3.1) 93

        Testing the Interface Assignment (2.3.3.2) 94

        Testing End-to-End Connectivity (2.3.3.3) 94

Summary (2.4) 96

Practice 97

    Class Activities 97

    Labs 97

    Packet Tracer Activities 97

Check Your Understanding 97

Chapter 3 Network Protocols and Communications 101

Objectives 101

Key Terms 101

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 103

Network Protocols and Standards (3.1) 103

    Protocols (3.1.1) 103

        Protocols: Rules that Govern Communications (3.1.1.1) 103

        Network Protocols (3.1.1.2) 105

        Interaction of Protocols (3.1.1.3) 105

    Protocol Suites (3.1.2) 106

        Protocol Suites and Industry Standards (3.1.2.1) 106

        Creation of the Internet and Development of TCP/IP (3.1.2.2) 107

        TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Process (3.1.2.3) 108

    Standards Organizations (3.1.3) 109

        Open Standards (3.1.3.1) 109

        ISOC, IAB, and IETF (3.1.3.2) 110

        IEEE (3.1.3.3) 111

        ISO (3.1.3.4) 112

        Other Standards Organizations (3.1.3.5) 112

    Reference Models (3.1.4) 113

        The Benefits of Using a Layered Model (3.1.4.1) 113

        The OSI Reference Model (3.1.4.2) 115

        The TCP/IP Protocol Model (3.1.4.3) 116

        Comparing the OSI Model with the TCP/IP Model (3.1.4.4) 116

Using Requests for Comments (3.2) 118

    Why RFCs (3.2.1) 118

        Request for Comments (RFC) (3.2.1.1) 118

        History of RFCs (3.2.1.2) 119

        Sample RFC (3.2.1.3) 119

    RFC Processes (3.2.2) 120

    RFC Process (3.2.2.1) 120

    RFC Types (3.2.2.2) 121

Moving Data in the Network (3.3) 123

    Data Encapsulation (3.3.1) 123

        Elements of Communication (3.3.1.1) 123

        Communicating the Messages (3.3.1.2) 124

        Protocol Data Units (PDUs) (3.3.1.3) 125

        Encapsulation (3.3.1.4) 126

        De-encapsulation (3.3.1.5) 127

        Accessing Local Resources (3.3.2) 127

        Network Addresses and Data Link Addresses (3.3.2.1) 127

        Communicating with a Device on the Same Network (3.3.2.2) 128

        MAC and IP Addresses (3.3.2.3) 129

    Accessing Remote Resources (3.3.3) 130

        Default Gateway (3.3.3.1) 130

        Communicating with a Device on a Remote Network (3.3.3.2) 131

Summary (3.4) 134

Practice 135

    Class Activities 135

    Labs 135

    Packet Tracer Activities 135

Check Your Understanding 135

Chapter 4 Application Layer 139

Objectives 139

Key Terms 139

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 140

Application Layer Protocols (4.1) 140

    Application, Session, and Presentation (4.1.1) 140

        OSI and TCP/IP Models Revisited (4.1.1.1) 140

        Application Layer (4.1.1.2) 141

        Presentation and Session Layers (4.1.1.3) 141

        TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols (4.1.1.4) 143

        Services at the Application Layer (4.1.1.5; 4.1.1.6) 144

        Applications Interface with People and Other Applications (4.1.1.7) 145

    How Application Protocols Interact with End-User Applications (4.1.2) 145

        Peer-to-Peer Networks (4.1.2.1) 145

        Peer-to-Peer Applications (4.1.2.2) 146

        Common P2P Applications (4.1.2.3) 147

        Client-Server Model (4.1.2.5) 148

Well-Known Application Layer Protocols and Services (4.2) 149

    Everyday Application Layer Protocols (4.2.1) 149

        Application Layer Protocols Revisited (4.2.1.1) 149

        Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Hypertext Markup Language (4.2.1.2) 150

        HTTP and HTTPS (4.2.1.3) 151

        SMTP and POP (4.2.1.4–4.2.1.7) 152

    Providing IP Addressing Services (4.2.2) 154

        Domain Name Service (4.2.2.1) 154

        DNS Message Format (4.2.2.2) 155

        DNS Hierarchy (4.2.2.3) 156

        nslookup (4.2.2.4) 157

        Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (4.2.2.6) 158

        DHCP Operation (4.2.2.7) 159

    Providing File Sharing Services (4.2.3) 161

        File Transfer Protocol (4.2.3.1) 161

        Server Message Block (4.2.3.4) 162

Summary (4.3) 164

Practice 165

    Class Activities 165

    Labs 165

    Packet Tracer Activities 165

Check Your Understanding 166

Chapter 5 Transport Layer 169

Objectives 169

Key Terms 169

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 170

Transport Layer Protocols (5.1) 170

    Transportation of Data (5.1.1) 170

        Role of the Transport Layer (5.1.1.1, 5.1.1.2) 170

        Conversation Multiplexing (5.1.1.3) 173

        Transport Layer Reliability (5.1.1.4) 174

        TCP (5.1.1.5) 175

        UDP (5.1.1.6) 176

        The Right Transport Layer Protocol for the Right

        Application (5.1.1.7) 176

    Introducing TCP and UDP (5.1.2) 178

        Introducing TCP (5.1.2.1) 178

        Role of TCP (5.1.2.2) 179

        Introducing UDP (5.1.2.3) 180

        Role of UDP (5.1.2.4) 181

        Separating Multiple Communications (5.1.2.5) 181

        TCP and UDP Port Addressing (5.1.2.6–5.1.2.9) 183

        TCP and UDP Segmentation (5.1.2.10) 187

TCP and UDP (5.2) 188

    TCP Communication (5.2.1) 188

        TCP Reliable Delivery (5.2.1.1) 188

        TCP Server Processes (5.2.1.2) 189

        TCP Connection Establishment (5.2.1.3) 189

        TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis: Step 1 (5.2.1.4) 191

        TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis: Step 2 (5.2.1.5) 192

        TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis: Step 3 (5.2.1.6) 193

        TCP Session Termination Analysis (5.2.1.7) 194

    Protocol Data Units (5.2.2) 195

        TCP Reliability—Ordered Delivery (5.2.2.1) 195

        TCP Reliability—Acknowledgement and Window Size (5.2.2.2) 196

        TCP Reliability—Data Loss and Retransmission (5.2.2.3) 197

        TCP Flow Control—Window Size and Acknowledgements (5.2.2.4) 198

        TCP Flow Control—Congestion Avoidance (5.2.2.5) 199

    UDP Communication (5.2.3) 201

        UDP Low Overhead Versus Reliability (5.2.3.1) 201

        UDP Datagram Reassembly (5.2.3.2) 201

        UDP Server Processes and Requests (5.2.3.3) 202

        UDP Client Processes (5.2.3.4) 202

    TCP or UDP—That Is the Question (5.2.4) 203

        Applications That Use TCP (5.2.4.1) 203

        Applications That Use UDP (5.2.4.2) 203

Summary (5.3) 205

Practice 206

    Class Activities 206

    Labs 206

    Packet Tracer Activity 206

Check Your Understanding 206

Chapter 6 Network Layer 211

Objectives 211

Key Terms 211

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 213

Network Layer Protocols (6.1) 213

    Network Layer in Communication (6.1.1) 213

        The Network Layer (6.1.1.1) 213

        Network Layer Protocols (6.1.1.2) 214

    Characteristics of the IP Protocol (6.1.2) 215

        Characteristics of IP (6.1.2.1) 215

        IP – Connectionless (6.1.2.2) 215

        IP – Best-Effort Delivery (6.1.2.3) 216

        IP – Media Independent (6.1.2.4) 217

        Encapsulating IP (6.1.2.5) 217

    IPv4 Packet (6.1.3) 218

        IPv4 Packet Header (6.1.3.1) 218

        IPv4 Header Fields (6.1.3.2) 220

        Sample IPv4 Headers (6.1.3.3) 221

    IPv6 Packet (6.1.4) 221

        Limitations of IPv4 (6.1.4.1) 221

        Introducing IPv6 (6.1.4.2) 222

        Encapsulating IPv6 (6.1.4.3) 223

        IPv6 Packet Header (6.1.4.4) 224

        Sample IPv6 Headers (6.1.4.5) 225

Routing (6.2) 226

    Host Routing Tables (6.2.1) 226

        Host Packet Forwarding Decision (6.2.1.1) 226

        IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.2) 227

        IPv4 Host Routing Entries (6.2.1.3) 228

        Sample IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.4) 229

        Sample IPv6 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.5) 231

    Router Routing Tables (6.2.2) 232

        Router Packet Forwarding Decision (6.2.2.1) 232

        IPv4 Router Routing Table (6.2.2.2) 233

        Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.3) 234

        Remote Network Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.4) 235

        Next-Hop Address (6.2.2.5) 236

        Sample Router IPv4 Routing Table (6.2.2.6) 236

Routers (6.3) 240

    Anatomy of a Router (6.3.1) 240

        A Router Is a Computer (6.3.1.1) 240

        Router CPU and OS (6.3.1.2) 241

        Router Memory (6.3.1.3) 241

        Inside a Router (6.3.1.4) 243

        Router Backplane (6.3.1.5) 244

        Connecting to a Router (6.3.1.6) 245

        LAN and WAN Interfaces (6.3.1.7) 245

    Router Bootup (6.3.2) 247

        Cisco IOS (6.3.2.1) 247

        Bootset Files (6.3.2.2) 247

        Router Bootup Process (6.3.2.3) 248

        Show Version Output (6.3.2.4) 249

Configuring a Cisco Router (6.4) 251

    Configure Initial Settings (6.4.1) 251

        Router Configuration Steps (6.4.1.1) 251

    Configure Interfaces (6.4.2) 252

        Configure LAN Interfaces (6.4.2.1) 252

        Verify Interface Configuration (6.4.2.2) 253

    Configuring the Default Gateway (6.4.3) 254

        Default Gateway on a Host (6.4.3.1) 254

        Default Gateway on a Switch (6.4.3.2) 255

Summary (6.5) 258

Practice 259

    Class Activities 259

    Labs 259

    Packet Tracer Activities 259

Check Your Understanding 260

Chapter 7 IP Addressing 265

Objectives 265

Key Terms 265

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 267

IPv4 Network Addresses (7.1) 267

    IPv4 Address Structure (7.1.1) 267

        Binary Notation (7.1.1.1) 267

        Binary Number System (7.1.1.2) 269

        Converting a Binary Address to Decimal (7.1.1.3) 271

        Converting from Decimal to Binary (7.1.1.5, 7.1.1.6) 272

        IPv4 Subnet Mask (7.1.2) 278

        Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address (7.1.2.1) 278

        Examining the Prefix Length (7.1.2.2) 279

        IPv4 Network, Host, and Broadcast Addresses (7.1.2.3) 281

        First Host and Last Host Addresses (7.1.2.4) 284

        Bitwise AND Operation (7.1.2.5) 286

        Importance of ANDing (7.1.2.6) 288

    IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast (7.1.3) 290

        Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host (7.1.3.1) 290

        Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host (7.1.3.2) 292

        Unicast Transmission (7.1.3.3) 293

        Broadcast Transmission (7.1.3.4) 294

        Multicast Transmission (7.1.3.5) 296

    Types of IPv4 Addresses (7.1.4) 298

        Public and Private IPv4 Addresses (7.1.4.1) 298

        Special-Use IPv4 Addresses (7.1.4.3) 299

        Legacy Classful Addressing (7.1.4.4) 301

        Assignment of IP Addresses (7.1.4.5, 7.1.4.6) 304

IPv6 Network Addresses (7.2) 307

    IPv4 Issues (7.2.1) 307

        The Need for IPv6 (7.2.1.1) 307

        IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence (7.2.1.2) 309

    IPv6 Addressing (7.2.2) 310

        Hexadecimal Number System (7.2.2.1) 310

        IPv6 Address Representation (7.2.2.2) 312

        Rule 1: Omitting Leading 0s (7.2.2.3) 313

        Rule 2: Omitting All 0 Segments (7.2.2.4) 315

    Types of IPv6 Addresses (7.2.3) 317

        IPv6 Address Types (7.2.3.1) 317

        IPv6 Prefix Length (7.2.3.2) 318

        IPv6 Unicast Addresses (7.2.3.3) 319

        IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses (7.2.3.4) 321

        IPv6 Unicast Addresses (7.2.4) 322

        Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (7.2.4.1) 322

        Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address (7.2.4.2) 324

        Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Using SLAAC (7.2.4.3) 326

        Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Using DHCPv6 (7.2.4.4) 329

        EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated (7.2.4.5) 330

        Dynamic Link-Local Addresses (7.2.4.6) 332

        Static Link-Local Addresses (7.2.4.7) 333

        Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration (7.2.4.8) 334

    IPv6 Multicast Addresses (7.2.5) 337

        Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses (7.2.5.2) 338

Connectivity Verification (7.3) 340

    ICMP (7.3.1) 340

        ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages (7.3.1.1) 340

        ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages (7.3.1.2) 342

        ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor

        Advertisement Messages (7.3.1.3) 343

    Testing and Verification (7.3.2) 344

        Ping: Testing the Local Stack (7.3.2.1) 344

        Ping: Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN (7.3.2.2) 345

        Ping: Testing Connectivity to Remote Device (7.3.2.3) 346

        Traceroute: Testing the Path (7.3.2.4) 347

Summary (7.4) 349

Practice 350

    Class Activities 350

    Labs 350

    Packet Tracer Activities 350

Check Your Understanding 351

Chapter 8 Subnetting IP Networks 355

Objectives 355

Key Terms 355

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 356

Subnetting an IPv4 Network (8.1) 357

    Network Segmentation (8.1.1) 357

        Reasons for Subnetting (8.1.1.1) 357

        Communication Between Subnets (8.1.1.2) 358

    Subnetting an IPv4 Network (8.1.2) 359

        Basic Subnetting (8.1.2.1) 359

        Subnets in Use (8.1.2.2) 361

        Subnetting Formulas (8.1.2.3) 364

        Creating 4 Subnets (8.1.2.4) 365

        Creating 8 Subnets (8.1.2.5) 368

        Creating 100 Subnets with a /16 Prefix (8.1.2.10) 372

        Calculating the Hosts (8.1.2.11) 374

        Creating 1000 Subnets with a /8 Prefix (8.1.2.12) 375

    Determining the Subnet Mask (8.1.3) 378

        Subnetting Based on Host Requirements (8.1.3.1) 378

        Subnetting Network-Based Requirements (8.1.3.2) 379

        Subnetting to Meet Network Requirements (8.1.3.3, 8.1.3.4) 380

    Benefits of Variable Length Subnet Masking (8.1.4) 384

        Traditional Subnetting Wastes Addresses (8.1.4.1) 384

        VLSM (8.1.4.2) 386

        Basic VLSM (8.1.4.3) 387

        VLSM in Practice (8.1.4.4) 389

        VLSM Chart (8.1.4.5) 391

Addressing Schemes (8.2) 393

    Structured Design (8.2.1) 393

        Planning to Address the Network (8.2.1.1) 393

        Assigning Addresses to Devices (8.2.1.2) 394

Design Considerations for IPv6 (8.3) 397

    Subnetting an IPv6 Network (8.3.1) 397

        Subnetting Using the Subnet ID (8.3.1.1) 397

        IPv6 Subnet Allocation (8.3.1.2) 399

        Subnetting into the Interface ID (8.3.1.3) 400

Summary (8.4) 402

Practice 404

    Class Activities 404

    Labs 404

    Packet Tracer Activities 404

Check Your Understanding 405

Chapter 9 Network Access 409

Objectives 409

Key Terms 409

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 411

Data Link Layer (9.1) 412

        The Data Link Layer (9.1.1.1) 412

        Data Link Sublayers (9.1.1.2) 413

        Media Access Control (9.1.1.3) 414

        Providing Access to Media (9.1.1.4) 415

    Layer 2 Frame Structure (9.1.2) 416

        Formatting Data for Transmission (9.1.2.1) 416

        Creating a Frame (9.1.2.2) 417

    Layer 2 Standards (9.1.3) 418

        Data Link Layer Standards (9.1.3.1) 418

Media Access Control (9.2) 419

    Topologies (9.2.1) 419

        Controlling Access to the Media (9.2.1.1) 419

        Physical and Logical Topologies (9.2.1.2) 420

    WAN Topologies (9.2.2) 421

        Common Physical WAN Topologies (9.2.2.1) 421

        Physical Point-to-Point Topology (9.2.2.2) 422

        Logical Point-to-Point Topology (9.2.2.3) 423

        Half and Full Duplex (9.2.2.4) 424

    LAN Topologies (9.2.3) 425

        Physical LAN Topologies (9.2.3.1) 425

        Logical Topology for Shared Media (9.2.3.2) 426

        Contention-Based Access (9.2.3.3) 427

        Multi-Access Topology (9.2.3.4) 429

        Controlled Access (9.2.3.5) 429

        Ring Topology (9.2.3.6) 431

    Data Link Frame (9.2.4) 431

        The Frame (9.2.4.1) 431

        The Header (9.2.4.2) 433

        Layer 2 Address (9.2.4.3) 433

        The Trailer (9.2.4.4) 435

        LAN and WAN Frames (9.2.4.5) 435

        Ethernet Frame (9.2.4.6) 436

        Point-to-Point (PPP) Frame (9.2.4.7) 437

        802.11 Wireless Frame (9.2.4.8) 438

Physical Layer (9.3) 441

    Purpose of the Physical Layer (9.3.1) 441

        The Physical Layer (9.3.1.1) 441

        Physical Layer Media (9.3.1.2) 442

        Physical Layer Standards (9.3.1.3) 443

    Characteristics of the Physical Layer (9.3.2) 444

        Physical Layer Functions (9.3.2.1) 445

        Physical Components (9.3.2.2) 445

        Frame Encoding Techniques (9.3.2.3) 446

        Signaling Method (9.3.2.4) 447

        Bandwidth (9.3.2.5) 449

        Throughput (9.3.2.6) 450

Network Media (9.4) 451

    Copper Cabling (9.4.1) 452

        Characteristics of Copper Media (9.4.1.1) 452

        Copper Media (9.4.1.2) 453

        UTP Cable (9.4.1.3) 454

        STP Cable (9.4.1.4) 454

        Coaxial Cable (9.4.1.5) 455

        Copper Media Safety (9.4.1.6) 457

    UTP Cabling (9.4.2) 458

        Properties of UTP Cabling (9.4.2.1) 458

        UTP Cabling Standards (9.4.2.2) 459

        UTP Connectors (9.4.2.3) 460

        Types of UTP Cable (9.4.2.4) 461

        LAN Cabling Areas (9.4.2.5) 462

        Testing UTP Cables (9.4.2.6) 464

    Fiber Optic Cabling (9.4.3) 465

        Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling (9.4.3.1) 465

        Fiber Media Cable Design (9.4.3.2) 466

        Types of Fiber Media (9.4.3.3) 466

        Network Fiber Connectors (9.4.3.4) 468

        Testing Fiber Cables (9.4.3.5) 470

        Fiber Versus Copper (9.4.3.6) 471

    Wireless Media (9.4.4) 472

        Properties of Wireless Media (9.4.4.1) 472

        Types of Wireless Media (9.4.4.2) 473

        Wireless LAN (9.4.4.3) 475

        802.11 Wi-Fi Standards (9.4.4.4) 476

Summary (9.5) 478

Practice 480

    Class Activities 480

    Labs 480

    Packet Tracer Activity 480

Check Your Understanding 481

Chapter 10 Ethernet 485

Objectives 485

Key Terms 485

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 486

Ethernet Protocol (10.1) 487

    Ethernet Operation (10.1.1) 487

        LLC and MAC Sublayers (10.1.1.1) 487

        MAC Sublayer (10.1.1.2) 489

        Media Access Control (10.1.1.3) 490

        MAC Address: Ethernet Identity (10.1.1.4) 492

        Frame Processing (10.1.1.5) 493

    Ethernet Frame Attributes (10.1.2) 494

        Ethernet Encapsulation (10.1.2.1) 494

        Ethernet Frame Size (10.1.2.2) 495

        Introduction to the Ethernet Frame (10.1.2.3) 496

    Ethernet MAC (10.1.3) 497

        MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal (10.1.3.1) 497

        MAC Address Representations (10.1.3.2) 500

        Unicast MAC Address (10.1.3.3) 500

        Broadcast MAC Address (10.1.3.4) 501

        Multicast MAC Address (10.1.3.5) 501

    Mac and IP (10.1.4) 502

        MAC and IP (10.1.4.1) 502

        End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP (10.1.4.2) 503

Address Resolution Protocol (10.2) 504

        Introduction to ARP (10.2.1.1) 504

        ARP Functions (10.2.1.2) 504

        ARP Operation (10.2.1.3) 505

        ARP Role in Remote Communication (10.2.1.4) 508

        Removing Entries from an ARP Table (10.2.1.5) 512

        ARP Tables on Networking Devices (10.2.1.6) 512

    ARP Issues (10.2.2) 514

        How ARP Can Create Problems (10.2.2.1) 514

        Mitigating ARP Problems (10.2.2.2) 515

LAN Switches (10.3) 516

    Switching (10.3.1) 516

        Switch Port Fundamentals (10.3.1.1) 516

        Switch MAC Address Table (10.3.1.2) 517

        Duplex Settings (10.3.1.3) 521

        Auto-MDIX (10.3.1.4) 522

        Frame Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches (10.3.1.5) 523

        Cut-Through Switching (10.3.1.6) 524

        Memory Buffering on Switches (10.3.1.8) 525

    Fixed or Modular (10.3.2) 526

        Fixed Versus Modular Configuration (10.3.2.1) 526

        Fixed Configuration Cisco Switches (10.3.2.2) 528

        Modular Configuration Cisco Switches (10.3.2.3) 531

        Module Options for Cisco Switch Slots (10.3.2.4) 533

    Layer 3 Switching (10.3.3) 535

        Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Switching (10.3.3.1) 535

        Cisco Express Forwarding (10.3.3.2) 536

        Types of Layer 3 Interfaces (10.3.3.3) 537

        Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch (10.3.3.4) 538

Summary (10.4) 540

Practice 541

    Class Activities 542

    Labs 542

    Packet Tracer Activities 542

Check Your Understanding 542

Chapter 11 It’s a Network 545

Objectives 545

Key Terms 545

Introduction (11.0.1.1) 547

Create and Grow (11.1) 547

    Devices in a Small Network (11.1.1) 547

        Small Network Topologies (11.1.1.1) 547

        Device Selection for a Small Network (11.1.1.2) 548

        IP Addressing for a Small Network (11.1.1.3) 550

        Redundancy in a Small Network (11.1.1.4) 551

        Design Considerations for a Small Network (11.1.1.5) 552

    Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2) 553

        Common Applications in a Small Network (11.1.2.1) 554

        Common Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2.2) 555

        Real-Time Applications for a Small Network (11.1.2.3) 556

    Growing to Larger Networks (11.1.3) 557

        Scaling a Small Network (11.1.3.1) 557

        Protocol Analysis of a Small Network (11.1.3.2) 558

        Evolving Protocol Requirements (11.1.3.3) 559

Keeping the Network Safe (11.2) 560

    Network Device Security Measures (11.2.1) 560

        Categories of Threats to Network Security (11.2.1.1) 560

        Physical Security (11.2.1.2) 561

        Types of Security Vulnerabilities (11.2.1.3) 562

    Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks (11.2.2) 564

        Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses (11.2.2.1) 564

        Network Attacks (11.2.2.2) 565

    Mitigating Network Attacks (11.2.3) 567

        Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch (11.2.3.1) 567

        Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (11.2.3.2) 568

        Firewalls (11.2.3.3) 570

        Endpoint Security (11.2.3.4) 571

    Securing Devices (11.2.4) 572

        Introduction to Securing Devices (11.2.4.1) 572

        Passwords (11.2.4.2) 573

        Basic Security Practices (11.2.4.3) 574

        Enable SSH (11.2.4.4) 576

Basic Network Performance (11.3) 578

    Ping (11.3.1) 578

        Interpreting Ping Results (11.3.1.1) 578

        Extended Ping (11.3.1.2) 580

        Network Baseline (11.3.1.3) 581

    Tracert (11.3.2) 583

        Interpreting Tracert Messages (11.3.2.1) 583

        show Commands (11.3.3) 585

        Common show Commands Revisited (11.3.3.1) 585

        Viewing Router Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.2) 588

        Viewing Switch Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.3) 589

    Host and IOS Commands (11.3.4) 590

        ipconfig Command Options (11.3.4.1) 590

        arp Command Options (11.3.4.2) 591

        show cdp neighbors Command Options (11.3.4.3) 592

        Using the show ip interface brief Command (11.3.4.4) 594

Managing IOS Configuration Files (11.4) 596

    Router and Switch File Systems (11.4.1) 596

        Router File Systems (11.4.1.1) 596

        Switch File Systems (11.4.1.2) 598

    Back Up and Restore Configuration Files (11.4.2) 599

        Backing Up and Restoring Using Text Files (11.4.2.1) 600

        Backing Up and Restoring Using TFTP (11.4.2.2) 601

        Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router (11.4.2.3) 602

        Backing Up and Restoring Using a USB (11.4.2.4) 603

Summary (11.5) 607

Practice 608

    Class Activities 609

    Labs 609

    Packet Tracer Activities 609

Check Your Understanding 609

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 613

Glossary 625

TOC, 9781587133176, MF

 

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