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OpenGL Programming Guide: The Official Guide to Learning OpenGL, Version 4.3, 8th Edition

By Dave Shreiner, Graham Sellers, John Kessenich, Bill Licea-Kane

Published by Addison-Wesley Professional

Published Date: Mar 19, 2013


Includes Complete Coverage of the OpenGL® Shading Language!


Today’s OpenGL software interface enables programmers to produce extraordinarily high-quality computer-generated images and interactive applications using 2D and 3D objects, color images, and programmable shaders.


OpenGL® Programming Guide: The Official Guide to Learning OpenGL®, Version 4.3, Eighth Edition, has been almost completely rewritten and provides definitive, comprehensive information on OpenGL and the OpenGL Shading Language. This edition of the best-selling “Red Book” describes the features through OpenGL version 4.3. It also includes updated information and techniques formerly covered in OpenGL® Shading Language (the “Orange Book”).


For the first time, this guide completely integrates shader techniques, alongside classic, functioncentric techniques. Extensive new text and code are presented, demonstrating the latest in OpenGL programming techniques.


OpenGL® Programming Guide, Eighth Edition, provides clear explanations of OpenGL functionality and techniques, including processing geometric objects with vertex, tessellation, and geometry shaders using geometric transformations and viewing matrices; working with pixels and texture maps through fragment shaders; and advanced data techniques using framebuffer objects and compute shaders.


New OpenGL features covered in this edition include

  • Best practices and sample code for taking full advantage of shaders and the entire shading pipeline (including geometry and tessellation shaders)
  • Integration of general computation into the rendering pipeline via compute shaders
  • Techniques for binding multiple shader programs at once during application execution
  • Latest GLSL features for doing advanced shading techniques
  • Additional new techniques for optimizing graphics program performance

Table of Contents

Figures xxiii

Tables xxix

Examples xxxiii

About This Guide xli


Chapter 1: Introduction to OpenGL 1

What Is OpenGL? 2

Your First Look at an OpenGL Program 3

OpenGL Syntax 8

OpenGL’s Rendering Pipeline 10

Our First Program: A Detailed Discussion 14


Chapter 2: Shader Fundamentals 33

Shaders and OpenGL 34

OpenGL’s Programmable Pipeline 35

An Overview of the OpenGL Shading Language 37

Interface Blocks 60

Compiling Shaders 70

Shader Subroutines 76

Separate Shader Objects 81


Chapter 3: Drawing with OpenGL 85

OpenGL Graphics Primitives 86

Data in OpenGL Buffers 92

Vertex Specification 108

OpenGL Drawing Commands 115

Instanced Rendering 128


Chapter 4: Color, Pixels, and Framebuffers 141

Basic Color Theory 142

Buffers and Their Uses 144

Color and OpenGL 148

Multisampling 153

Testing and Operating on Fragments 156

Per-Primitive Antialiasing 178

Framebuffer Objects 180

Writing to Multiple Renderbuffers Simultaneously 193

Reading and Copying Pixel Data 200

Copying Pixel Rectangles 203


Chapter 5: Viewing Transformations, Clipping, and Feedback 205

Viewing 206

User Transformations 212

OpenGL Transformations 236

Transform Feedback 239


Chapter 6: Textures 259

Texture Mapping 261

Basic Texture Types 262

Creating and Initializing Textures 263

Proxy Textures 276

Specifying Texture Data 277

Sampler Objects 292

Using Textures 295

Complex Texture Types 306

Texture Views 321

Compressed Textures 326

Filtering 329

Advanced Texture Lookup Functions 340

Point Sprites 346

Rendering to Texture Maps 351

Chapter Summary 356


Chapter 7: Light and Shadow 359

Lighting Introduction 360

Classic Lighting Model 361

Advanced Lighting Models 384

Shadow Mapping 400


Chapter 8: Procedural Texturing 411

Procedural Texturing 412

Bump Mapping 433

Antialiasing Procedural Textures 442

Noise 460

Further Information 483


Chapter 9: Tessellation Shaders 485

Tessellation Shaders 486

Tessellation Patches 487

Tessellation Control Shaders 488

Tessellation Evaluation Shaders 496

A Tessellation Example: The Teapot 500

Additional Tessellation Techniques 504


Chapter 10: Geometry Shaders 509

Creating a Geometry Shader 510

Geometry Shader Inputs and Outputs 514

Producing Primitives 525

Advanced Transform Feedback 532

Geometry Shader Instancing 549

Multiple Viewports and Layered Rendering 550

Chapter Summary 559


Chapter 11: Memory 563

Using Textures for Generic Data Storage 564

Shader Storage Buffer Objects 576

Atomic Operations and Synchronization 578

Example 609


Chapter 12: Compute Shaders 623

Overview 624

Workgroups and Dispatch 625

Communication and Synchronization 632

Examples 636

Chapter Summary 647


Appendix A: Basics of GLUT: The OpenGL Utility Toolkit 651

Initializing and Creating a Window 652

Accessing Functions 654

Handling Window and Input Events 655

Managing a Background Process 658

Running the Program 658


Appendix B: OpenGL ES and WebGL 659

OpenGL ES 660

WebGL 662


Appendix C: Built-in GLSL Variables and Functions 673

Built-in Variables 674

Built-in Constants 684

Built-in Functions 686


Appendix D: State Variables 737

The Query Commands 738

OpenGL State Variables 745


Appendix E: Homogeneous Coordinates and Transformation Matrices 829

Homogeneous Coordinates 830

Transformation Matrices 831


Appendix F: OpenGL and Window Systems 835

Accessing New OpenGL Functions 836

GLX: OpenGL Extension for the X Window System 838

WGL: OpenGL Extensions for Microsoft Windows 845

OpenGL in MacOSX: The Core OpenGL (CGL) API and the NSOpenGL Mac OS X’s Core OpenGL Library . 851

The NSOpenGL Classes 854


Appendix G: Floating-Point Formats for Textures, Framebuffers, and Renderbuffers 857

Reduced-Precision Floating-Point Values 858

16-bit Floating-Point Values 858

10- and 11-bit Unsigned Floating-Point Values 860


Appendix H: Debugging and Profiling OpenGL 865

Creating a Debug Context 866

Debug Output 868

Debug Groups 875

Profiling 879


Appendix I: Buffer Object Layouts 885

Using Standard Layout Qualifiers 886

The std140 Layout Rules. 886

The std430 Layout Rules 887


Glossary 889

Index 919