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Organic Chemistry, 7th Edition

By Paula Yurkanis Bruice

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Dec 29, 2012

Description

All of Paula Bruice’s extensive revisions to the Seventh Edition of Organic Chemistry follow a central guiding principle: support what modern students need in order to understand and retain what they learn in organic chemistry for successful futures in industry, research, and medicine.

 

In consideration of today’s classroom dynamics and the changes coming to the 2015 MCAT, this revision offers a completely new design with enhanced art throughout, reorganization of materials to reinforce fundamental skills and facilitate more efficient studying. 

 

Table of Contents

Part 1 An Introduction to the Study of Organic Chemistry

 

1 Remembering General Chemistry: Electronic Structure and Bonding

1.1 The Structure of an Atom

1.2 How the Electrons in an Atom Are Distributed

1.3 Ionic and Covalent Bonds

1.4 How the Structure of a Compound Is Represented

1.5 Atomic Orbitals

1.6 An Introduction to Molecular Orbital Theory

1.7 How Single Bonds Are Formed in Organic Compounds

1.8 How a Double Bond Is Formed: The Bonds in Ethene

1.9 How a Triple Bond Is Formed: The Bonds in Ethyne

1.10 The Bonds in the Methyl Cation, the Methyl Radical, and the Methyl Anion

1.11 The Bonds in Ammonia and In the Ammonium Ion

1.12 The Bonds in Water

1.13 The Bond in a Hydrogen Halide

1.14 Hybridization and Molecular Geometry

1.15 Summary: Hybridization, Bond Lengths, Bond Strengths, and Bond Angles

1.16 The Dipole Moments of Molecules

 

2 Acids and Bases: Central to Understanding Organic Chemistry

2.1 An Introduction to Acids and Bases

2.2 pka and pH

2.3 Organic Acids and Bases

2.4 How to Predict the Outcome of an Acid—Base Reaction

2.5 How to Determine the Position of Equilibrium

2.6 How the Structure of an Acid affects its pKa Value

2.7 How Substituent’s affect the Strength of an Acid

2.8 An Introduction to Delocalized Electrons

2.9 A Summary of the Factors That Determine Acid Strength

2.10 How pH affects the Structure of an Organic Compound

2.11 Buffer Solutions

2.12 Lewis Acids and Bases

 

Tutorial: Acids and Bases

 

3 An Introduction to Organic Compounds: Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Representation of Structure

3.1 How Alkyl Substituents Are Named

3.2 The Nomenclature of Alkanes

3.3 The Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes • Skeletal Structures

3.4 The Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides

3.5 The Nomenclature of Ethers

3.6 The Nomenclature of Alcohols

3.7 The Nomenclature of Amines

3.8 The Structures of Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines

3.9 The Physical Properties of Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines

3.10 Rotation Occurs about Carbon—Carbon single Bonds

3.11 Some Cycloalkanes Have Angle Strain

3.12 The Conformers of Cyclohexane

3.13 Conformers of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes

3.14 Conformers of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes

3.15 Fused Cyclohexane Rings

 

Part Two Electrophilic Addition Reactions, Stereochemistry, and Electron Delocalization

 

Tutorial: Using Molecular Models

 

4 Isomers: The Arrangement of Atoms in Space

4.1 Cis—Trans Isomers Result from Restricted Rotation

4.2 A Chiral Object Has a Nonsuperimposable Mirror Image

4.3 An Asymmetric Center is a Cause of Chirality in a Molecule

4.4 Isomers with One Asymmetric Center

4.5 Asymmetric Centers and Stereocenters

4.6 How to Draw Enantiomers

4.7 Naming Enantiomers by the R, S System

4.8 Chiral Compounds Are Optically Active

4.9 How Specific Rotation Is Measured

4.10 Enantiomeric Excess

4.11 Compounds with More than One Asymmetric Center

4.12 Stereoisomers of Cyclic Compounds

4.13 Meso Compounds Have Asymmetric Centers but Are Optically Inactive

4.14 How to Name Isomers with More than One Asymmetric Center

4.15 How Enantiomers Can be Separated

4.16 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Atoms Can Be Asymmetric Centers

 

Tutorial: Interconverting Structural Representations

 

5 Alkenes: Structure, Nomenclature, and an Introduction to Reactivity • Thermodynamics and Kinetics

5.1 Molecular Formulas and the Degree of Unsaturation

5.2 The Nomenclature of Alkenes

5.3 The Structure of Alkenes

5.4 Naming Alkenes Using the E,Z System

5.5 How an Organic Compound Reacts Depends On Its Functional Group

5.6 How Alkenes React • Curved Arrows Show the Flow of Electrons

5.7 Thermodynamics and Kinetics

5.8 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

5.9 The Difference between the Rate of a Reaction and the Rate Constant for a Reaction

5.10 A Reaction Coordinate Diagram Describes the Energy Changes that Take Place during a Reaction

5.11 Catalysis

5.12 Catalysis by Enzymes

 

Tutorial: An Exercise in Drawing Curved Arrows: Pushing Electrons

 

6 The Reactions of Alkenes: The Stereochemistry of Addition Reactions

6.1 The Addition of a Hydrogen Halide to an Alkene

6.2 Carbocation Stability Depends on the Number of Alkyl Groups Attached to the Positively Charged Carbon

6.3 What Does the Structure of the Transition State Look Like?

6.4 Electrophilic Addition Reactions Are Regioselective

6.5 The Addition of Water to an Alkene

6.6 The Addition of an Alcohol to an Alkene

6.7 A Carbocation will rearrange if it can Form a More Stable Carbocation

6.8 Oxymercuration—Demercuration Is another Way to Add Water to an Alkene

6.9 The Addition of Borane to an Alkene: Hydroboration—Oxidation

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