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People of the Earth: An Introduction to World History, CourseSmart eTextbook, 13th Edition

By Brian M. Fagan

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Aug 11, 2009

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Description

For one semester/quarter courses in introduction to world prehistory offered in the anthropology department.

 

This internationally renowned text provides the only truly global account of human prehistory from the earliest times through the earliest civilizations.  Written in an accessible way for beginning students, People of the Earth shows how today's diverse humanity developed biologically and culturally over millions of years against a background of constant climatic change.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS:

Preface 

Author’s Note 

About the Author 

 

CHAPTER 1 Introducing World Prehistory 

Archaeology and Prehistory 

< Site: The Amesbury Archer 

The Beginnings of World Prehistory 

Who Needs the Past? 

< Science: Dating the Past 

Cyclical and Linear Time 

Written Records, Oral Traditions, and Archaeology 

Studying Culture and Culture Change 

Primary Cultural Processes

Theoretical Approaches: Culture as Adaptation 

Climatic Change 

Culture as Adaptation 

Cultural Evolution and Cultural Ecology 

Multilinear Evolution: Prestate and State-Organized Societies 

Theoretical Approaches: Evolutionary Ecology and Hunter-Gatherers

Theoretical Approaches: People as Agents of Change 

External and Internal Constraints 

Interactions

Gender: Men and Women 

Trade and Exchange

Ideologies and Beliefs 

Summary

 

PART I           BEGINNINGS

7 MILLION TO 40,000 YEARS AGO

CHAPTER 2 Human Origins 

7 MILLION TO 1.9 MILLION YEARS AGO

The Great Ice Age 

The Origins of the Human Line 

Aegyptopithecus 

Miocene Primates 

Molecular Biology and Human Evolution 

The Ecological Problems Faced by Early Hominins

Adaptive Problems 

Fossil Evidence: 7 to 3 MYA

< Dating the Past: Potassium-Argon Dating 

Toumaï: Sahelanthropus tchadensis 

Ardipithecus ramidus 

Australopithecus anamensis 

Australopithecus afarensis 

Laetoli: Footprints of A. afarensis 

Fossil Evidence: 3 to 2.5 MYA 

Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus 

Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus

Australopithecus garhi 

Early Homo: 2.5 to 2.0 MYA 

Homo habilis

A Burst of Rapid Change? 

Who Was the First Human? 

Early Hominin Evolution: 7 to 1 MYA

Archaeological Evidence for Early Human Behavior 

Evidence for “Central Places”? 

< Site: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, East Africa 

Hunting and Scavenging

Plant Foraging and “Grandmothering”

Toolmaking 

The Oldowan Industry 

The Mind of the Earliest Humans 

The Development of Language 

Social Organization

Summary

 

Chapter 3   Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens 

1.9 MILLION TO 40,000 YEARS AGO

Pleistocene Background 

Lower Pleistocene (1.6 Million to c. 780,000 Years Ago) 

Middle Pleistocene (c. 780,000 to 128,000 Years Ago) 

Homo ergaster in Africa 

The Radiation of Homo ergaster 

The Archaic World 

Fire 

Homo erectus in Asia 

Southeast Asia 

China 

Early Asian Technology 

The Settlement of Temperate Latitudes

Earliest Human Settlement in Southwest Asia and Europe 

Southwest Asia 

Europe 

Archaic Human Technology 

Hand Axes and Other Tools  Hand Axes and the Evolution of the Human Mind 

Evidence for Behavior: Boxgrove, Schöningen, and Torralba 

< Site: A 400,000-Year-Old Hunt at Schöningen, Germany 

Language 

The Neanderthals 

< Dating the Past: Radiocarbon Dating 

A More Complex Technology 

Levallois and Disk-Core-Reduction Strategies 

Tool Forms and Variability 

The Origins of Burial and Religious Belief 

The Origins of Modern Humans 

Continuity or Replacement? 

Homo sapiens in Africa 

Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens 

Ecology and Homo sapiens 

The Spread of Homo sapiens 

The Issue of Cognitive Ability 

Homo sapiens in East Asia 

Summary 

 

PART II          THE GREAT DIASPORA: THE SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANS 

45,000 YEARS AGO TO MODERN TIMES

Chapter 4  Europe and Eurasia 

c. 40,000 TO 8000 B.C.

The Spread of Modern Humans to 12,000 Years Ago 

The Upper Pleistocene (c. 126,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.) 

Modern Humans in Southwest Asia 

The Upper Paleolithic Transition 

A Cultural Explosion? 

Modern Humans in Europe 

European Hunter-Gatherers (45,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.) 

Settlement Strategies and Lifeways 

Social Life and Group Size 

Upper Paleolithic Art 

< Site: Grotte de Chauvet, France 

Paintings and Engravings 

Explaining Upper Paleolithic Art 

Human Settlement in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

Siberia (?33,000 to 13,000 Years Ago) 

The Settlement of Far Northeast Asia 

Bifaces, Microblades, and the First Americans 

Summary 

 

Chapter 5 The First Americans 

14,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

The First Settlement of the Americas 

Ice Sheets and the Bering Land Bridge

The First Settlement of Alaska 

Biological and Linguistic Evidence for the First Americans 

The Earliest Sites South of the Ice Sheets 

Settlement Routes: Ice-Free Corridors and Seacoasts 

Late Wisconsin Settlement in North America?

Central and South America?

A Scenario for First Settlement

The Paleo-Indians: Clovis and Others 

Big-Game Extinctions 

Later Hunters and Gatherers

Plains Hunters

The Desert West 

Eastern North America 

< Site: Koster, Illinois 

Specialized Foraging Societies in Central and South America 

Aleuts and Inuit (Eskimo)

Summary 

 

Chapter 6  Africans and Australians 

45,000 YEARS AGO TO MODERN TIMES

African Hunter-Gatherers, Past and Present 

Sunda and Sahul: The First Settlement of Island Southeast Asia

< Site: Exotic Islanders: Homo floresiensis 

New Guinea and Adjacent Islands 

Australia

Ice Age Wallaby Hunters in Tasmania 

Later Australian Cultures 

Summary 

 

Chapter 7  Intensification and Complexity 

BEFORE 10,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

The Holocene (After 10,000 B.C.) 

Coping with Environmental Variation

Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in Europe 

< Site: Star Carr, England

Mesolithic Complexity in Scandinavia 

The Maglemose Period (7500 to 5700 B.C.)

The Kongemose Period (5700 to 4600 B.C.) 

The Ertebølle Period (4600 to 3200 B.C.) 

Hunter-Gatherer Complexity

Conditions for Greater Complexity

Attributes of Greater Complexity

Debates About Social Complexity 

Hunter-Gatherer Societies in Southwest Asia

Summary 

PART III          FIRST FARMERS  211

c. 10,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

 

Chapter 8  A Plenteous Harvest 

THE ORIGINS

Theories About the Origins of Food Production 

Early Hypotheses 

Multivariate Theories 

< Site: Guilá Naquitz, Mexico 

Differing Dates for Food Production 

Studying Early Food Production 

< Dating the Past: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Radiocarbon Dating

Why Did Food Production Take Hold So Late? 

Consequences of Food Production 

Nutrition and Early Food Production 

Herding: Domestication of Animals 

Plant Cultivation 

Technology and Domestication 

Early Food Production 

Summary 

 

Chapter 9  The Origins of Food Production in Southwest Asia 

A Scenario for Early Agriculture 

The First Farmers: Netiv Hagdud, Abu Hureyra, and Jericho 

Netiv Hagdud 

Abu Hureyra

Jericho 

Diverse Farming Economies and Trade 

The Zagros and Mesopotamia 

Zawi Chemi Shanidar 

Ganj Dareh 

Jarmo 

Ali Kosh and the Lowlands

< Site: Ritual Buildings in Southeastern Turkey 

Early Farmers in Anatolia 

Haçilar and Çatalhöyük 

Two Stages of Farming Development 

Summary 

 

Chapter 10   The First European Farmers 

Mesolithic Prelude 

The Transition to Farming in Europe

Farming in Greece and Southern Europe 

The Spread of Agriculture into Temperate Europe 

The Balkans 

Bandkeramik Cultures 

Frontiers and Transitions 

Social Changes, Lineages, and the Individual 

The Introduction of the Plow 

Plains Farmers: Tripolye 

Mediterranean and Western Europe 

The Megaliths 

< Site: Easton Down and the Avebury Landscape 

Summary 

 

Chapter 11  First Farmers in Egypt and Tropical Africa

Hunter-Gatherers on the Nile 

Agricultural Origins Along the Nile 

Saharan Pastoralists 

Early Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa 

Summary 

 

Chapter 12  Asia and the Pacific 

Rice, Roots and Ocean Voyages

The Origins of Rice Cultivation 

Early Farming in China 

Southern and Eastern China 

Northern China 

Jomon and Early Agriculture in Japan 

Early Agriculture in Southeast Asia 

< Site: The Princess of Khok Phanom Di, Thailand 

Rice and Root Cultivation in Island Southeast Asia 

Agriculture in the Pacific Islands 

The Lapita Cultural Complex and the Settlement of Melanesia   and Western Polynesia 

Long-Distance Voyaging in the Pacific 

< Science: Indigenous Pacific Navigation 

The Settlement of Micronesia and Eastern Polynesia 

The Settlement of New Zealand 

Summary

 

Chapter 13  The Story of Maize: Early Farmers in the Americas

The First Plant Domestication 

The Origins of Maize Agriculture 

Beans and Squash 

Early Food Production in the Andes 

The Highlands 

The Peruvian Coast

Early Farmers in Southwestern North America 

Hohokam 

Mogollon 

Ancestral Pueblo 

< Site: The Chaco Phenomenon

Preagricultural and Agricultural Societies   in Eastern North America 

Moundbuilder Cultures 

Early Woodland (Adena) 

Hopewell 

Mississippian 

Human Settlement in the Caribbean 

First Settlement (Preceramic Cultures) 

Saladoid Migrations 

Taíno Chiefdoms 

Summary 

 

PART IV        OLD WORLD CIVILIZATIONS 

c. 3000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

Chapter 14 The Development of Civilization 

Civilization 

Cities 

Six Classic Theories of the Emergence of States 

1. V. Gordon Childe and the “Urban Revolution” 

2. Ecology and Irrigation 

3. Technology and Trade 

4. Warfare 

5. Cultural Systems and Civilization

6. Environmental Change 

Social Theories 

Power in Three Domains 

< Site: The Lord of Sicán at Huaca Loro, Peru 

Chiefly Cycling: Processes and Agents 

Old World Civilizations 

The Collapse of Civilizations 

Summary

 

Chapter 15  Early Civilizations in Southwest Asia 

Upland Villages 

Settlement of the Lowlands 

Environmental Change 

Archaeological Evidence 

< Site: The Temple at Eridu, Iraq 

Uruk: The Mesopotamian City 

Sumerian Civilization 

Exchange on the Iranian Plateau 

The Widening of Political Authority 

The Akkadians 

Babylon 

The Assyrians

Summary

 

Chapter 16  Egypt, Nubia, and Africa

The Origins of the Egyptian State 

Ancient Monopoly?

Naqada, Nekhen, and Maadi 

Writing 

A Scenario for Unification 

Intensification of Agriculture and Irrigation 

Archaic Egypt and the Creation of the Great Culture (2920 to 2575 B.C.) 

The Old Kingdom and the Pyramids (c. 2575 to 2180 B.C.) 

< Site: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt 

The Egyptian State 

The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom (2180 to 1640 B.C.) 

The Second Intermediate Period (1640 to 1530 B.C.) 

The New Kingdom (1530 to 1070 B.C.) 

The “Estate of Amun”

Amarna and Akhenaten 

< Mummies and Mummification 

The Restoration of Amun 

The Late Period (1070 to 332 B.C.) 

Egypt and Africa 

Nubia: The Land of Kush 

Meroe and Aksum 

North Africa 

Jenne-jeno and the Rise of African States 

Ghana 

Mali 

Songhay 

Farmers and Traders in Eastern and Southern Africa 

Towns and Trade on the East African Coast

Great Zimbabwe

Europe and Africa 

Summary 

 

Chapter 17  Early States in South and Southeast Asia  

The Roots of South Asian Civilization 

Highlands and Lowlands: The Kulli Complex 

A Rapid Transition 

Mature Harappan Civilization 

Who Were the Harappans? 

Harappan Beliefs 

South Asia After the Harappans 

Southeast Asian States 

Dong Son

Trade and Kingdoms 

The Rise of the God-Kings 

The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430) 

< Site: Angkor Wat, Cambodia 

Summary 

 

Chapter 18  Early Chinese Civilization 

The Origins of Chinese Civilization 

Longshan and Liangzhu

Shoulder Blades and Oracles 

Xia and Shang 

Capitals and Sepulchers

The Shang Royal Burials 

The Bronze Smiths 

The Warlords 

< Site: The Burial Mound of Emperor Shihuangdi, China 

Summary 

Chapter 19  Hittites, Minoans, and Mycenaeans 

Early Towns in Anatolia

Balance of Power: The Hittites 

The Sea Peoples and the Rise of Israel 

The Phoenicians

The Aegean and Greece 

The Minoans 

The Mycenaeans  449

< Site: The Mycenaean Shrine at Phylakopi, Melos Island, Greece 

Greek City-States After Mycenae 

The Etruscans and the Romans 

The Etruscans 

The Romans 

Summary 

 

Chapter 20 Europe Before the Romans 

Early Copper Working 

Battle Axes and Beakers 

< Site: Ötzi the Iceman, Similaun Glacier, Italian Alps 

The European Bronze Age 

ÿ Site: Stonehenge, England

Bronze Age Warriors 

The Scythians and Other Steppe Peoples 

The First Ironworking 

The Hallstatt Culture 

La Tène Culture 

Summary 

 

PART V         NATIVE AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 

2000 B.C. TO A.D. 1534

Chapter 21  Mesoamerican Civilizations 

Village Farming 

Native American Civilizations

Preclassic Peoples in Mesoamerica 

Early Preclassic 

Middle Preclassic: The Olmec 

Late Preclassic 

The Rise of Complex Society in Oaxaca

Monte Albán 

Teotihuacán 

Maya Civilization 

Maya Origins 

Water Management 

Kingship: Sacred Space and Time 

Political Organization 

Classic and Late Classic Maya Political History 

< Site: Architecture as a Political Statement: The Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copán, Honduras 

The Ninth-Century Collapse 

The Toltecs 

Aztec Civilization and the Spanish Conquest 

Summary

 

Chapter 22  Andean Civilizations

The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization 

Coastal Foundations: The Initial Period 

Caral 

El Paraíso and Huaca Florida

Chavín de Huántar 

Paracas: Textiles and Coastal Prehistory 

Complex Society in the Southern Highlands: Chiripa and Pukara 

The Early Intermediate Period

The Moche State 

< Site: The Lords of Sipán, Peru 

The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari 

Tiwanaku 

Wari 

The Late Intermediate Period: Sicán and Chimor

The Late Horizon: The Inca State 

Amazonia 

The Spanish Conquest (1532 to 1534) 

Summary 

 

Glossary of Cultures and Sites 

Glossary of Technical Terms 

Bibliography of World Prehistory 

Credits 

Index

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People of the Earth: An Introduction to World History, CourseSmart eTextbook, 13th Edition
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$59.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-205-73570-9