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Philosopher's Way, The: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas, 4th Edition

By John Chaffee

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 31, 2012

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Description

Students learn to critically think about philosophy.

 

The Philosopher’s Way inspires students to think like a philosopher, helping them become more accomplished critical thinkers and develop the analytical tools needed to think philosophically about important issues.

 

This text features readings from major philosophical texts and commentary to guide students in their understanding of the topics. It is organized by questions central to the main branches of philosophy and examines the ideas of philosophers past and present.

 

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Table of Contents

Found in this section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents

 


1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life

Chapter 2 What is the Philosopher’s Way? Socrates and the Examined Life

Chapter 3 Who are You? Consciousness, Identity, and the Self

Chapter 4 Are You Free? Freedom and Determinism

Chapter 5 How Can We Know the Nature of Reality? Philosophical Foundations

Chapter 6 What is Real? What is True? Further Explorations

Chapter 7 Is there a Spiritual Reality? Exploring the Philosophy of Religion

Chapter 8 Are there Moral Truths?Thinking About Ethics

Chapter 9 What are Right Actions? Constructing an Ethical Theory

Chapter 10 What is Social Justice? Creating a Just State

 


2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Preface

 

Chapter 1: What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life

1.1 Why Study Philosophy?

1.2 Defining Philosophy 

Philosophy Is the Pursuit of Wisdom

Philosophy Begins with Wonder 

Philosophy Is a Dynamic Process 

The Ultimate Aim of Philosophy 

1.3 Thinking Philosophically: Becoming a Critical Thinker 

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Philosophy of Life? 

Qualities of a Critical Thinker 

Thinking Philosophically Who Are Your Models of Critical Thinking? 

The Process of Critical Thinking 

Thinking Philosophically Applying the Critical Thinking Model

Stages in Critical Thinking

1.4 Understanding Arguments 

The Structure of Arguments 

Evaluating Arguments 

Deductive Arguments 

Inductive Arguments 

Informal Fallacies 

Thinking Philosophically Evaluating Arguments 

1.5 Branches of Philosophy 

Metaphysics 

Thinking Philosophically Are You Willing to Question Your Beliefs? 

Thinking Philosophically How Do You Know What Is True? 

Epistemology 

Ethics 

Thinking Philosophically Do You Have a Moral Philosophy? 

Political and Social Philosophy 

Aesthetics 

1.6 Reading Critically: Working with Primary Sources 

Bertrand Russell, from The Value of Philosophy 

Reading Critically Analyzing Russell on the Value of Philosophy 

1.7 Making Connections: The Search for a Meaningful Life 

Thinking Philosophically What Do You Hope to Learn? 

Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Your Beliefs 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 2: What is the Philosopher’s Way? Socrates and the Examined Life

2.1 Socrates: A Model for Humanity 

Hesiod, Homer, and the Birth of Philosophy

Karl Jaspers, The Axial Period

A Man of Greece 

A Midwife of Ideas 

The Wisest of Men? 

Plato, from The Apology 

Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Wisdom and Humility 

2.2 The Socratic Method 

Plato, from The Republic 

Reading Critically Analyzing a Socratic Dialogue 

2.3 Socrates’ Central Concern: The Soul 

Plato, from The Apology 

Reading Critically Analyzing the Core Teachings of Socrates 

2.4 The Trial and Death of Socrates 

Plato, from The Apology 

Thinking Philosophically Countering Personal Attacks 

Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Trial 

2.5 Making Connections: Socrates’ Legacy 

Thinking Philosophically Is Socrates Relevant Today? 

Writing About Philosophy A Socratic Dialogue 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 3: Who are You? Consciousness, Identity, and the Self

3.1 Know Thyself? 

Thinking Philosophically Do You Know Yourself? 

3.2 The Soul Is Immortal: Socrates and Plato 

Plato, from Phaedo 

Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on the Self 

Plato, from Phaedrus, The Chariot Analogy 

3.3 St. Augustine’s Synthesis of Plato and Christianity

Thinking Philosophically Do you believe in an immortal soul?

3.4 Descartes’ Modern Perspective on the Self

Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy

Thinking Philosophically Are you a Seeker After Truth?

Reading Critically  Analyzing Descartes on the Mind/Body Problem

3.5 The Self Is Consciousness: Locke 

John Locke, from On Personal Identity 

Thinking Philosophically Applying Locke’s Ideas 

Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on the Conscious Self 

3.6 There Is No Self: Hume 

David Hume, from On Personal Identity 

Reading Critically Analyzing Hume on the Absence of Self 

3.7 We Construct the Self: Kant 

Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics 

Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason 

Thinking Philosophically Sense, Perception, and Your Self 

Reading Critically Analyzing Kant’s Unity of Consciousness 

3.8 The Self Is Multi-Layered:  Freud

Sigmund Freud, from An Outline of Psychoanalysis

Reading Critically Analyzing Freud’s Ideas about Mind

3.9 The Self Is How You Behave:  Ryle

Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind

Reading Critically Analyzing Ryle’s View of Self as Behavior

3.10 The Self Is the Brain: Materialism 

Churchland, from On Eliminative Materialism 

Reading Critically Analyzing Churchland’s Materialism 

3.11 The Self is Embodied Subjectivity:  Husserl and Merleau-Ponty

Marcel Proust, from In Search of Time Lost

Thinking Philosophically Applying Phenomenology

Marcel Proust, from Within a Budding Grove

3.12 Buddhist Concepts of Self

Milindaphanha, The Simile of the Chariot

Reading Critically Analyzing the Buddhist Chariot Analogy

3.13 Making Connections: In Search of the Self 

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of the Self? 

Writing About Philosophy Defining the Self 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 4: Are You Free? Freedom and Determinism

4.1 Are You the Master of Your Fate? 

Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Assumptions About Freedom? 

4.2 Determinism 

Baron d’Holbach, from The System of Nature 

Thinking Philosophically Do You Choose Freely? 

Reading Critically Analyzing Baron d’Holbach on the Illusion of Freedom 

4.3 Compatibilism 

External Constraints May Limit Freedom: Stace 

W. T. Stace, from Religion and the Modern Mind

Internal Constraints May Also Limit Freedom: Schlick 

Free Will Is a Human Creation: Dennett 

Reading Critically Evaluating Compatibilism 

4.4 Indeterminism and Libertarianism 

We Live in a World of Possibilities: James 

William James, from The Will to Believe 

Reading Critically Analyzing James on Free Will 

We Create Ourselves Through Our Choices: Sartre 

Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism 

Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Freedom, Choice, and Responsibility 

4.5 A Feminist Analysis of Freedom 

Jean Grimshaw, from Autonomy and Identity in Feminist Thinking 

Reading Critically Analyzing Jean Grimshaw on Autonomy 

4.6 Making Connections: Creating a Synthesis 

Overcoming Limitations to Your Freedom 

Confronting External Constraints 

Confronting Internal Constraints 

Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limitations to Your Freedom? 

Writing About Philosophy Understanding Personal Freedom 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 5: How Can We Know the Nature of Reality? Philosophical Foundations
5.1 What Is the Nature of Reality? 

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of Reality? 

5.2 Reality Is the Eternal Realm of the Forms: Plato 

The Divided Line 

The Theory of Innate Ideas 

Plato, from Meno 

Reading Critically Analyzing Plato’s Theory of Innate Ideas 

The Path to Knowledge of Reality: The Cave Allegory 

Plato, from The Republic 

Reading Critically Analyzing Plato’s Allegory of the Cave 

5.3 Reality Is the Natural World: Aristotle 

Aristotle’s Two Categories: Matter and Form 

Entelechy 

The Four Causes 

Aristotle, from Metaphysics 

Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle’s Concept of Reality 

5.4 Can Reality Be Known? Descartes 

René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy 

Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes’ Radical Doubt 

5.5 Making Connections: Your Beliefs About the World 

Thinking Philosophically Evaluating the Accuracy of Your Beliefs 

Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Philosophical Themes in a Fictional Work 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 6: What is Real? What is True? Further Explorations

6.1 Questioning Independent Reality 

Bertrand Russell, from Appearance and Reality 

Reading Critically How Do You Know What Is “Real”? 

6.2 All Knowledge Comes from Experience: Locke 

Locke’s Critique of “Universality” 

John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 

Leibniz’s Case Against Locke 

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays Concerning Human Understanding 

Locke’s Causal Theory of Perception 

John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 

Reading Critically Analyzing Locke’s Empirical View 

6.3 Reality Depends on Perception: Berkeley 

George Berkeley, from A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 

Reading Critically Analyzing Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism 

6.4 Understanding Reality Demands Skepticism: Hume 

David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 

Reading Critically Analyzing Hume’s Case for Skepticism 

6.5 We Constitute Our World: Kant 

Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics 

Hume’s Challenge to Philosophy 

Kant’s Solution: Transcendental Idealism 

Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason 

Two Realities: Phenomenal and Noumenal 

Reading Critically Analyzing Kant’s Synthesizing Project 

Applying Kant’s Theory 

Three Accounts of the Assassination of Malcolm X 

Reading Critically How Is Knowledge Constructed? 

6.6 Emotions Shape Our Understanding: Jaggar 

Alison M. Jaggar, from Love and Knowledge: Emotion in Epistemology 

Reading Critically Analyzing Jaggar on the Role of Emotions 

6.7 Making Connections: Developing Informed Beliefs 

Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limits of Your Knowledge? 

Writing About Philosophy Constructing Knowledge 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 7: Is there a Spiritual Reality? Exploring the Philosophy of Religion

7.1 Thinking Philosophically About Religious Beliefs 

Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Religious Beliefs? 

7.2 What Is Religion? 

Ways of Defining Religion 

Frederick Streng, from What Is Religion? 

Reading Critically Analyzing Streng on Definitions of Religion 

God Is a Human Projection: Feuerbach 

Ludwig Feuerbach, from The Essence of Christianity 

Reading Critically Analyzing Feuerbach on Religion as Anthropomorphism 

Religion Is Vital Quest: Nishitani 

Keiji Nishitani, from Religion and Nothingness 

Reading Critically Analyzing Nishitani on the Religious Quest 

7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions 

Hinduism 

Buddhism 

Daoism (Taoism) 

Judaism 

Christianity 

Islam 

Indigenous Sacred Ways 

Thinking Philosophically Expanding Your Religious Understanding 

7.4 Can We Prove the Existence of God? 

The Ontological Argument 

Saint Anselm and Gaunilo, from The Ontological Argument 

Reading Critically Analyzing the Ontological Argument 

The Cosmological Argument 

Saint Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica 

Reading Critically Analyzing the Cosmological Argument 

The Argument from Gradations of Perfection 

The Argument from Design 

William Paley, from Natural Theology 

Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Design 

The Argument from Morality 

Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Practical Reason 

Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Morality 

7.5 The Problem of Evil 

J.L. Mackie, from Evil and Omnipotence

Reading Critically Analyzing Mackie on the Problem of Evil

John Hick, from Philosophy of Religion 

Reading Critically Analyzing Hick on the Problem of Evil 

Edward H. Madden and Peter H. Hare, A Critique of Hick’s Theodicy

Reading Critically Analyzing Madden and Hare’s Critique of John Hick’s Theodicy

7.6 Faith and Religious Experience 

Religious Faith as a Wager: Pascal 

Blaise Pascal, “A Wager” from Thoughts on Religion 

Reading Critically Analyzing “Pascal’s Wager” 

Religious Beliefs Require Sufficient Evidence: Clifford 

W. K. Clifford, from The Ethics of Belief 

Reading Critically Analyzing Clifford on the Ethics of Belief 

Religious Belief Is Legitimate and Compelling: James 

William James, from The Will to Believe 

Reading Critically Analyzing James on the Will to Believe 

Subjective Knowing: The Leap of Faith 

Søren Kierkegaard, from The Leap of Faith and the Limits of Reason 

Søren Kierkegaard, from Concluding Unscientific Postscript 

Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Faith and Reason 

7.7 Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 8: Are there Moral Truths? Thinking About Ethics

8.1 Your Moral Compass 

Ethics and Values       

Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Moral Values? 

Thinking Critically About Ethics

Thinking Philosophically Making Moral Decisions 

8.2 Ethical Relativism 

Ethical Subjectivism: Each Person Determines What Is Morally Right 

Thinking Philosophically How Subjective Are Your Ethics? 

Cultural Relativism: Each Culture Determines What Is Morally Right 

Ruth Benedict, from Anthropology and the Abnormal 

Thinking Philosophically Cultural Relativism and Your Moral Perspective 

Reading Critically Analyzing Benedict on Culture and Values 

8.3 Ethical Absolutism: Some Moral Values Are Universal 

Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Universal Values? 

W. T. Stace, from The Concept of Morals 

Reading Critically Analyzing Stace’s Critique of Ethical Relativism 

8.4 Egoism as a Universal Principle 

Arguments for Egoism 

Plato, from The Republic, “The Myth of Gyges” 

Reading Critically Analyzing “The Myth of Gyges” 

Ayn Rand, from The Virtue of Selfishness 

Reading Critically Analyzing Rand on the Virtue of Selfishness 

Arguments Against Egoism 

James Rachels, from Egoism and Moral Skepticism 

Reading Critically Analyzing Rachels’s Critique of Egoism 

8.5 Religion and Universal Values 

Divine Command Theory 

Thinking Philosophically Religion and Your Ethical Values 

The Story of Abraham and Isaac, from the Bible 

Natural Law Theory 

Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Natural Laws? 

Martin Luther King Jr., from Letter from a Birmingham Jail 

Reading Critically Analyzing King on Universal Values 

8.6 Making Connections: On Becoming an Ethical Person 

Robert Coles, from The Disparity Between Intellect and Character 

Thinking Philosophically Can Morality Be Learned in College? 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 9: What are Right Actions? Constructing an Ethical Theory

9.1 Expanding Your Knowledge of Moral Philosophy 

9.2 Character: Virtue Ethics 

Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Moral Character? 

Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics 

Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics 

9.3 Maxims: Duty to Moral Laws 

Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals 

Thinking Philosophically The Categorical Imperative and Your Moral Compass 

Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals 

Reading Critically Analyzing Kant on Duty and Reason 

9.4 Consequences: Utilitarianism 

The Greatest Happiness for the Greatest Number: Bentham

Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation 

Thinking Philosophically Applying the Hedonistic Calculus 

Higher Pleasures Have Greater Worth: Mill 

John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism 

Reading Critically Analyzing Utilitarianism 

Consider the Interests of Animals: Singer 

Peter Singer, from Animal Liberation 

Reading Critically Analyzing Singer on Animal Rights 

9.5 Authenticity: Existentialist Ethics 

“The Crowd Is Untruth”: Kierkegaard 

Søren Kierkegaard, from On the Dedication to ‘That Single Individual’ 

Søren Kierkegaard, from The Present Age 

Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Authenticity 

Beyond Good and Evil: Nietzsche 

Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science 

Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil 

Reading Critically Analyzing Nietzsche on Morality 

Authenticity and Ethical Responsibility: Sartre 

Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism 

Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Moral Responsibility 

Our Interplay with Others Defines Us: de Beauvoir 

Simone de Beauvoir, from Ethics of Ambiguity 

Reading Critically Analyzing de Beauvoir on Moral Choices 

Courage Is the Highest Value: Camus 

Camus, from The Myth of Sisyphus 

Reading Critically Analyzing the Myth of Sisyphus 

9.6 Empathy: The Ethics of Care 

Nel Noddings, from Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education 

Reading Critically Analyzing Noddings on the Ethics of Care 

9.7 Making Connections: Your Moral Compass Revisited 

Thinking Philosophically Constructing an Ethical Theory 

Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Moral Choices in a Film or Novel 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Chapter 10: What is Social Justice? Creating a Just State

10.1 Elements of a Just Society 

Thinking Philosophically Examining Our Society 

10.2 Classical Theories of Society: Confucius, Plato, and Aristotle 

Society Should Be Based on Virtue: Confucius 

Reading Critically Analyzing Confucius on the Social Order 

Society Should Be Based on Function and Harmony: Plato 

Plato, from The Republic 

Reading Critically Analyzing Plato on Social Harmony 

Society Is the Natural State of Humanity: Aristotle 

Aristotle, from Politics 

Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle on Community 

10.3 Justice Depends on a Social Contract: From Hobbes and Locke to Rawls 

We Need a Social Contract to Coexist: Hobbes 

Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan 

Reading Critically Analyzing Hobbes on the Social Contract 

The Social Contract Protects Natural Rights: Locke 

John Locke, from The Second Treatise of Civil Government 

Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription 

Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on Natural Rights 

The State of Nature: Assumptions and Questions 

The State of Nature Is a Conceptual Tool: Rawls 

John Rawls, from A Theory of Justice 

Thinking Philosophically Creating a Just Society 

Reading Critically Analyzing Rawls on Justice and Equality 

10.4 Justice Is Based on Need and Ability: Marx and Engels 

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, from Manifesto of the Communist Party 

Reading Critically Analyzing Marx and Engels on Social Justice 

10.5 Justice Is What Promotes the General Welfare: Mill 

Thinking Philosophically Analyzing Mill’s Concept of Justice 

John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty 

Reading Critically Analyzing Mill on Liberty 

10.6 Justice Is What Promotes Gender Equality: Okin 

Susan Moller Okin, from Justice, Gender, and the Family 

Reading Critically Analyzing Okin on Gender Equality 

10.7 Making Connections: An Ideal Society 

Thinking Philosophically Your Ideal Society 

Writing About Philosophy Your Ideal Society 

visual summary 

chapter review 

for further reading, viewing & research 

 

Credits 

Index 

 

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