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Philosopher's Way, The: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition

By John Chaffee

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 13, 2010

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The Philosopher's Way:Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas, 3/e,  inspires students to think like a philosopher. Integrated readings, interspersed with commentary, guide students in their understanding of the topics, while critical thinking activities challenge students to go beyond their reading and explore the connections philosophy has on their everyday lives. Full-color visuals bring topics to life, and writing examples give students a foundation for their own philosophical exploration.

Table of Contents

Bold sections are new to this edition:


what is philosophy?
1.1 Why Study Philosophy?  4
1.2 Defining Philosophy  6
     Philosophy Is the Pursuit of Wisdom  6
     Philosophy Begins with Wonder  8
     Philosophy Is a Dynamic Process  8
     The Ultimate Aim of Philosophy  9
1.3 Thinking Philosophically: Becoming a Critical Thinker  9
     Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Philosophy of Life?  11
    Qualities of a Critical Thinker  12
     Thinking Philosophically Who Are Your Models of Critical Thinking?  12
     The Process of Critical Thinking  13
     Thinking Philosophically Applying the Critical Thinking Model  16
1.4 Understanding Arguments  16
     The Structure of Arguments  17
     Evaluating Arguments  18
     Deductive Arguments  20
     Inductive Arguments  21
     Informal Fallacies  22
     Thinking Philosophically Evaluating Arguments  24
1.5 Branches of Philosophy  24
     Metaphysics  26
     Thinking Philosophically Are You Willing to Question Your Beliefs?  27
     Thinking Philosophically How Do You Know What Is True?  28
     Epistemology  28
     Ethics  28
     Thinking Philosophically Do You Have a Moral Philosophy?  29
     Political and Social Philosophy  30
     Aesthetics  31
1.6 Reading Critically: Working with Primary Sources  31
     Bertrand Russell, from The Value of Philosophy  32
     Reading Critically Analyzing Russell on the Value of Philosophy  34
1.7 Making Connections: The Search for a Meaningful Life  34
     Thinking Philosophically What Do You Hope to Learn?  37
     Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Your Beliefs  37
     visual summary  38
     chapter review  38
     for further reading, viewing & research  38
what is the philosopher’s way?
2.1 Socrates: A Model for Humanity  42
     A Man of Greece  42
     A Midwife of Ideas  45
     The Wisest of Men?  46
     Plato, from The Apology  47
     Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Wisdom and Humility  48
2.2 The Socratic Method  48
     Plato, from The Republic  50
     Reading Critically Analyzing a Socratic Dialogue  54
2.3 Socrates’ Central Concern: The Soul  55
     Plato, from The Apology  55
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Core Teachings of Socrates  59
2.4 The Trial and Death of Socrates  59
     Plato, from The Apology  60
     Thinking Philosophically Countering Personal Attacks  62
     Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on Trial  70
2.5 Making Connections: Socrates’ Legacy  78
     Thinking Philosophically Is Socrates Relevant Today?  79
     Writing About Philosophy A Socratic Dialogue  80
     visual summary  84
     chapter review  84
     for further reading, viewing & research  84
who are you?
3.1 Know Thyself?  88
     Thinking Philosophically Do You Know Yourself?  89
3.2 The Soul Is Immortal: Socrates and Plato  89
     Plato, from Phaedo  90
     Reading Critically Analyzing Socrates on the Self  92
     Plato, from Phaedrus, The Chariot Analogy  94
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Chariot Analogy  95
     A Feminist Critique of Plato’s View of the Self  95
     Elizabeth V. Spelman, from Woman as Body  96
     Reading Critically Analyzing Spelman’s Critique of Plato  97
3.3 Descartes’ Modern Perspective on the Self  97
     René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy  99
     Thinking Philosophically Are You a Seeker After Truth?  101
     Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes on the Mind/Body Problem  105
3.4 The Self Is Consciousness: Locke  105
     John Locke, from On Personal Identity  106
     Thinking Philosophically Applying Locke’s Ideas  107
     Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on the Conscious Self  110
3.5 There Is No Self: Hume  110
     David Hume, from On Personal Identity  110
     Reading Critically Analyzing Hume on the Absence of Self  113
3.6 We Construct the Self: Kant  113
     Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics  114
     Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason  116
     Thinking Philosophically Sense, Perception, and Your Self  116
     Reading Critically Analyzing Kant’s Unity of Consciousness  119
3.7 The Self Is Embodied Subjectivity: Husserl and Merleau-Ponty  119
     Marcel Proust, from In Search of Time Lost  122
     Thinking Philosophically Applying Phenomenology  122
     Marcel Proust, from Within a Budding Grove  122
3.8 The Self Is the Brain: Materialism  123
     Churchland, from On Eliminative Materialism  124
     Reading Critically Analyzing Churchland’s Materialism  128
3.9 Buddhist Concepts of the Self  128
     Milindapanha, The Simile of the Chariot  129
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Buddhist Chariot Analogy  130
3.10 Making Connections: In Search of the Self  130
     Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of the Self?  131
     Writing About Philosophy Defining the Self  132
     visual summary  136
     chapter review  136
     for further reading, viewing & research  136
are you free?
4.1 Are You the Master of Your Fate?  140
     Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Assumptions About Freedom?  143
4.2 Determinism  144
     Baron d’Holbach, from The System of Nature  146
     Thinking Philosophically Do You Choose Freely?  152
     Reading Critically Analyzing Baron d’Holbach on the Illusion of Freedom  153
4.3 Compatibilism  153
     External Constraints May Limit Freedom: Stace  153
     W. T. Stace, from Religion and the Modern Mind  154
     Internal Constraints May Also Limit Freedom: Schlick  159
     Free Will Is a Human Creation: Dennett  160
     Reading Critically Evaluating Compatibilism  161
4.4 Indeterminism and Libertarianism  161
     We Live in a World of Possibilities: James  162
     William James, from The Will to Believe  163
     Reading Critically Analyzing James on Free Will  171
     We Create Ourselves Through Our Choices: Sartre  172
     Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism  172
     Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Freedom, Choice, and Responsibility  182
4.5 A Feminist Analysis of Freedom  182
     Jean Grimshaw, from Autonomy and Identity in Feminist Thinking  182
     Reading Critically Analyzing Jean Grimshaw on Autonomy  186
4.6 Making Connections: Creating a Synthesis  186
     Overcoming Limitations to Your Freedom  187
     Confronting External Constraints  189
     Confronting Internal Constraints  189
     Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limitations to Your Freedom?  191
     Writing About Philosophy Understanding Personal Freedom  191
     visual summary  192
     chapter review  192
     for further reading, viewing & research  192
how can we know the nature of reality?
5.1 What Is the Nature of Reality?  196
     Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Concept of Reality?  198
5.2 Reality Is the Eternal Realm of the Forms: Plato  199
     The Divided Line  201
     The Theory of Innate Ideas  202
     Plato, from Meno  203
     Reading Critically Analyzing Plato’s Theory of Innate Ideas  205
     The Path to Knowledge of Reality: The Cave Allegory  205
     Plato, from The Republic  205
     Reading Critically Analyzing Plato’s Allegory of the Cave  209
5.3 Reality Is the Natural World: Aristotle  209
     Aristotle’s Two Categories: Matter and Form  210
     Entelechy  211
     The Four Causes  212
     Aristotle, from Metaphysics  212
     Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle’s Concept of Reality  214
5.4 Can Reality Be Known? Descartes  215
     René Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy  216
     Reading Critically Analyzing Descartes’ Radical Doubt  227
5.5 Making Connections: Your Beliefs About the World  227
     Thinking Philosophically Evaluating the Accuracy of Your Beliefs  230
     Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Philosophical Themes in a Fictional Work  231
     visual summary  236
     chapter review  236
     for further reading, viewing & research  236
what is real? what is true?
6.1 Questioning Independent Reality  240
     Bertrand Russell, from Appearance and Reality  241
     Reading Critically How Do You Know What Is “Real”?  245
6.2 All Knowledge Comes from Experience: Locke  245
     Locke’s Critique of “Universality”  246
     John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding  246
     Leibniz’s Case Against Locke  248
     Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays Concerning Human Understanding  248
     Locke’s Causal Theory of Perception  250
     John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding  251
     Reading Critically Analyzing Locke’s Empirical View  257
6.3 Reality Depends on Perception: Berkeley  258
     George Berkeley, from A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge  258
     Reading Critically Analyzing Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism  263
6.4 Understanding Reality Demands Skepticism: Hume  263
     David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding  265
     Reading Critically Analyzing Hume’s Case for Skepticism  273
6.5 We Constitute Our World: Kant  273
     Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics  274
     Hume’s Challenge to Philosophy  275
     Kant’s Solution: Transcendental Idealism  278
     Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason  283
     Two Realities: Phenomenal and Noumenal  289
     Reading Critically Analyzing Kant’s Synthesizing Project  291
     Applying Kant’s Theory  291
     Three Accounts of the Assassination of Malcolm X  292
     Reading Critically How Is Knowledge Constructed?  294
6.6 Emotions Shape Our Understanding: Jaggar  294
     Alison M. Jaggar, from Love and Knowledge: Emotion in Epistemology  295
     Reading Critically Analyzing Jaggar on the Role of Emotions  302
6.7 Making Connections: Developing Informed Beliefs  303
     Thinking Philosophically What Are the Limits of Your Knowledge?  305
     Writing About Philosophy Constructing Knowledge  305
     visual summary  306
     chapter review  306
     for further reading, viewing & research  306
is there a spiritual reality?
7.1 Thinking Philosophically About Religious Beliefs  310
     Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Religious Beliefs?  311
7.2 What Is Religion?  313
     Ways of Defining Religion  313
     Frederick Streng, from What Is Religion?  314
     Reading Critically Analyzing Streng on Definitions of Religion  317
     God Is a Human Projection: Feuerbach  318
     Ludwig Feuerbach, from The Essence of Christianity  318
     Reading Critically Analyzing Feuerbach on Religion as Anthropomorphism  320
     Religion Is Vital Quest: Nishitani  321
     Keiji Nishitani, from Religion and Nothingness  321
     Reading Critically Analyzing Nishitani on the Religious Quest  324
7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions  325
     Hinduism  325
     Buddhism  327
     Daoism (Taoism)  328
     Judaism  329
     Christianity  330
     Islam  331
     Indigenous Sacred Ways  332
     Thinking Philosophically Expanding Your Religious Understanding  334
7.4 Can We Prove the Existence of God?  334
     The Ontological Argument  335
     Saint Anselm and Gaunilo, from The Ontological Argument  335
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Ontological Argument  338
     The Cosmological Argument  338
     Saint Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica  339
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Cosmological Argument  341
     The Argument from Gradations of Perfection  341
     The Argument from Design  341
     William Paley, from Natural Theology  342
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Design  342
     The Argument from Morality  343
     Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Practical Reason  344
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Argument from Morality  345
7.5 The Problem of Evil  346
     John Hick, from Philosophy of Religion  347
     Reading Critically Analyzing Hick on the Problem of Evil  350
7.6 Faith and Religious Experience  351
     Religious Faith as a Wager: Pascal  352
     Blaise Pascal, “A Wager” from Thoughts on Religion  352
     Reading Critically Analyzing “Pascal’s Wager”  354
     Religious Beliefs Require Sufficient Evidence: Clifford  355
     W. K. Clifford, from The Ethics of Belief  355
     Reading Critically Analyzing Clifford on the Ethics of Belief  359
     Religious Belief Is Legitimate and Compelling: James  359
     William James, from The Will to Believe  361
     Reading Critically Analyzing James on the Will to Believe  368
     Subjective Knowing: The Leap of Faith  368
     Søren Kierkegaard, from The Leap of Faith and the Limits of Reason  369
     Søren Kierkegaard, from Concluding Unscientific Postscript  370
     Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Faith and Reason  371
7.7 Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion  372
     visual summary  374
     chapter review  374
     for further reading, viewing & research  374
are there moral truths?
8.1 Your Moral Compass  378
     Ethics and Values  379
     Thinking Philosophically What Are Your Moral Values?  381
     Thinking Philosophically About Ethics  381
     Thinking Philosophically Making Moral Decisions  383
8.2 Ethical Relativism  385
     Ethical Subjectivism: Each Person Determines What Is Morally Right  385
     Thinking Philosophically How Subjective Are Your Ethics?  389
     Cultural Relativism: Each Culture Determines What Is Morally Right  390
     Ruth Benedict, from Anthropology and the Abnormal  391
     Thinking Philosophically Cultural Relativism and Your Moral Perspective  393
     Reading Critically Analyzing Benedict on Culture and Values  394
8.3 Ethical Absolutism: Some Moral Values Are Universal  395
     Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Universal Values?  395
     W. T. Stace, from The Concept of Morals  396
     Reading Critically Analyzing Stace’s Critique of Ethical Relativism  400
8.4 Egoism as a Universal Principle  400
     Arguments for Egoism  401
     Plato, from The Republic, “The Myth of Gyges”  401
     Reading Critically Analyzing “The Myth of Gyges”  403
     Ayn Rand, from The Virtue of Selfishness  404
     Reading Critically Analyzing Rand on the Virtue of Selfishness  406
     Arguments Against Egoism  407
     James Rachels, from Egoism and Moral Skepticism  407
     Reading Critically Analyzing Rachels’s Critique of Egoism  412
8.5 Religion and Universal Values  412
     Divine Command Theory  412
     Thinking Philosophically Religion and Your Ethical Values  413
     The Story of Abraham and Isaac, from the Bible  414
     Natural Law Theory  415
     Thinking Philosophically Do You Believe in Natural Laws?  417
     Martin Luther King Jr., from Letter from a Birmingham Jail  418
     Reading Critically Analyzing King on Universal Values  419
8.6 Making Connections: On Becoming an Ethical Person  420
     Robert Coles, from The Disparity Between Intellect and Character  420
     Thinking Philosophically Can Morality Be Learned in College?  422
     Writing About Philosophy Moral Issues in Multiculturalism  423
     visual summary  424
     chapter review  424
     for further reading, viewing & research  424
what are right actions?
9.1 Expanding Your Knowledge of Moral Philosophy  428
9.2 Character: Virtue Ethics  428
     Thinking Philosophically What Is Your Moral Character?  429
     Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics  429
     Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics  438
9.3 Maxims: Duty to Moral Laws  439
     Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals  441
     Thinking Philosophically The Categorical Imperative and Your Moral Compass  446
     Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals  447
     Reading Critically Analyzing Kant on Duty and Reason  452
9.4 Consequences: Utilitarianism  452
     The Greatest Happiness for the Greatest Number: Bentham 453
     Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation  454
     Thinking Philosophically Applying the Hedonistic Calculus  459
     Higher Pleasures Have Greater Worth: Mill  460
     John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism  462
     Reading Critically Analyzing Utilitarianism  464
     Consider the Interests of Animals: Singer  464
     Peter Singer, from Animal Liberation  465
     Reading Critically Analyzing Singer on Animal Rights  468
9.5 Authenticity: Existentialist Ethics  469
     “The Crowd Is Untruth”: Kierkegaard  470
     Søren Kierkegaard, from On the Dedication to ‘That Single Individual’  471
     Søren Kierkegaard, from The Present Age  474
     Reading Critically Analyzing Kierkegaard on Authenticity  476
     Beyond Good and Evil: Nietzsche  476
     Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science  478
     Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil  479
     Reading Critically Analyzing Nietzsche on Morality  480
     Authenticity and Ethical Responsibility: Sartre  481
     Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism  481
     Reading Critically Analyzing Sartre on Moral Responsibility  486
     Our Interplay with Others Defines Us: de Beauvoir  486
     Simone de Beauvoir, from Ethics of Ambiguity  486
     Reading Critically Analyzing de Beauvoir on Moral Choices  488
     Courage Is the Highest Value: Camus  489
     Camus, from The Myth of Sisyphus  489
     Reading Critically Analyzing the Myth of Sisyphus  491
9.6 Empathy: The Ethics of Care  491
     Nel Noddings, from Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education  492
     Reading Critically Analyzing Noddings on the Ethics of Care  495
9.7 Making Connections: Your Moral Compass Revisited  495
     Thinking Philosophically Constructing an Ethical Theory  496
     Writing About Philosophy Analyzing Moral Choices in a Film or Novel  497
     visual summary  498
     chapter review  498
     for further reading, viewing & research  498
what is social justice?
10.1 Elements of a Just Society  502
     Thinking Philosophically Examining Our Society  504
10.2 Classical Theories of Society: Confucius, Plato, and Aristotle  504
     Society Should Be Based on Virtue: Confucius  504
     Reading Critically Analyzing Confucius on the Social Order  507
     Society Should Be Based on Function and Harmony: Plato  507
     Plato, from The Republic  508
     Reading Critically Analyzing Plato on Social Harmony  511
     Society Is the Natural State of Humanity: Aristotle  511
     Aristotle, from Politics  511
     Reading Critically Analyzing Aristotle on Community  514
10.3 Justice Depends on a Social Contract: From Hobbes and Locke to Rawls  514
     We Need a Social Contract to Coexist: Hobbes  515
     Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan  516
     Reading Critically Analyzing Hobbes on the Social Contract  520
     The Social Contract Protects Natural Rights: Locke  520
     John Locke, from The Second Treatise of Civil Government  521
     Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription  526
     Reading Critically Analyzing Locke on Natural Rights  527
     The State of Nature: Assumptions and Questions  527
     The State of Nature Is a Conceptual Tool: Rawls  529
     John Rawls, from A Theory of Justice  530
     Thinking Philosophically Creating a Just Society  531
     Reading Critically Analyzing Rawls on Justice and Equality  533
10.4 Justice Is Based on Need and Ability: Marx and Engels  533
     Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, from Manifesto of the Communist Party  535
     Reading Critically Analyzing Marx and Engels on Social Justice  543
10.5 Justice Is What Promotes the General Welfare: Mill  543
     Thinking Philosophically Analyzing Mill’s Concept of Justice  545
     John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty  546
     Reading Critically Analyzing Mill on Liberty  551
10.6 Justice Is What Promotes Gender Equality: Okin  551
     Susan Moller Okin, from Justice, Gender, and the Family  552
     Reading Critically Analyzing Okin on Gender Equality  559
10.7 Making Connections: An Ideal Society  560
     Thinking Philosophically Your Ideal Society  560
     Writing About Philosophy Your Ideal Society  561
     visual summary  568
     chapter review  568
     for further reading, viewing & research  568
     Credits  571
     Index  585


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Philosopher's Way, The: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition
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