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Philosophical Foundations of Education, 8th Edition

By Howard A. Ozmon, Samuel M. Craver

Published by Pearson

Published Date: May 1, 2007

Table of Contents

Introduction    1

The Need for Philosophy of Education    1

Branches of Philosophy    2

Theory and Practice in Education    6

The Quest in Philosophy in Education    10

Developing a Philosophical Perspective on Education    12

Selected Readings    13

1      Idealism and Education    14

Development of Idealism    14

Platonic Idealism    15    •    Religious Idealism    18

Development of Modern Idealism    20

Idealism as a Philosophy of Education    27

Aims of Education    28    •    Methods of Education    32     •    Curriculum    35    •    Role of the Teacher    36

Critique of Idealism in Education    37

Plato: The Republic    41

Kant: Education    44

2      Realism and Education    48

Classical Traditions    48

Aristotelian Realism    48    •    Religious Realism    53

Development of Modern Realism    56

Contemporary Realism    59

Realism as a Philosophy of Education    65

Aims of Education    65    •    Methods of Education    71    •    Curriculum    74    •    Role of the Teacher    75

Critique of Realism in Education    77

Aristotle: The Politics and Ethics of Aristotle    81

Locke: Some Thoughts Concerning Education    86

3      Eastern Philosophy, Religion, and Education    91

The Development of Eastern Thought    92

Far Eastern and Indian Thought    92

Indian Thought    93    •    Chinese Thought    102 •    Japanese Thought    106

Middle Eastern Thought    108

Eastern Thought and Philosophy of Education    113

Aims of Education    113    •    Methods and  Curriculum    115    •    Role of the Teacher    116

Critique of Eastern Philosophy in Education    116

Bhagavad-Gita    118

Suzuki: Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind    122

4      Pragmatism and Education    127

Roots of the Pragmatist Worldview    127

Induction: A New Way of Thinking    128    •    Centrality of Experience    129    •    Science and Society    132

American Pragmatists    134

Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Education    144

Aims of Education    145    •    Methods of  Education    148    •    Curriculum    150 •    Role of the Teachers    151

Critique of Pragmatism in Education    154

James: Talks to Teachers    156

Dewey: Democracy and Education    161

5      Reconstructionism and Education    167

Historical Background of Reconstructionism    167

Philosophy of Reconstructionism    171

Reconstructionism as a Philosophy of Education    180

Education and the Human Crisis    180    •    Role of the School    183    •    Aims of Education    185    •      Methods of Education    186    •    Curriculum    187      •    Role of the Teacher    189

Critique of Reconstructionism in Education    190

Counts: Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order?    193

Shane and Shane: Educating the Youngest for Tomorrow    196

6      Behaviorism and Education    200

Philosophical Bases of Behaviorism    201

Realism    201    •    Materialism    202    •    Early Behaviorists    203    •    Behaviorism and  Positivism    204

Philosophical Aspects of Behaviorism    206

Behaviorism as a Philosophy of Education    212

Aims of Education    212    •    Methods and Curriculum    215    •    Role of the Teacher    219

Critique of Behaviorism in Education    220

Hobbes: The Leviathan    224

Skinner: Beyond Freedom and Dignity    228

7      Existentialism, Phenomenology, and Education    234

Existentialist Philosophers and Their Thought    234

Existentialism in Modern Life    241

Phenomenological Philosophers and Their Thought    243

Heidegger and Phenomenology    244    •      Phenomenology and Hermeneutics    246

Existentialism and Phenomenology in Philosophy of Education    247

Aims of Education    247    •    Methods of  Education    252    •    Curriculum    255    •    Role of the Teacher    255

Critique of Existentialism and Phenomenology in Education    258

Sartre: Existentialism and Humanism    261

Greene: Landscapes of Learning    264

8      Analytic Philosophy and Education    269

Analytic Movement in Philosophy    269

Realism and the Early Analytic Movement    270    •    Logical Positivism and Analysis    274    •    Linguistic Analysis    277

Philosophical Analysis and Philosophy of Education    282

Aims of Education    286    •    Methods of  Education    289    •    Curriculum    291    •    Role of the Teacher    291

Critique of Analytic Philosophy in Education    292

Martin: On the Reduction of “Knowing That” to “Knowing How”    295

Barrow: Does the Question “What Is Education?” Make Sense?    298

9      Marxism and Education    304

Origins of Marxism    304

Materialism    304    •    Socialism    306    •    Political Economy    306

The Philosophy of Karl Marx    307

Western Marxism and the Origins of “Critical Theory”    314

The Frankfurt School    315

Marxism as a Philosophy of Education    317

Aims of Education    317    •    Methods and  Curriculum    322    •    Role of the Teacher    325

Critique of Marxism in Education    326

Marx: On Education    330

10   Philosophy, Education, and the Challenge of Postmodernism    337

Postmodern Variety    337

Postmodernism and Philosophy    339

Postmodern Philosophy and Its European Backgrounds    340    •    Criticisms of Postmodernism    345

Postmodern Philosophy and Education    346

Aims of Education    348    •    Methods and  Curriculum    351    •    Role of the Teacher    353

Critique of Postmodernism in Education    355

Giroux: Border Pedagogy as Postmodern Resistance    358

Nuyen: Lyotard as Moral Educator    363

Useful Web Sites and Internet Links    370

Selected Bibliography    373

Index    384

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