## Table of Contents

APPLICATIONS LIST xii

PREFACE xiv

AVAILABLE SUPPLEMENTS AND MEDIA xxii

NOTES TO STUDENTS (AND INSTRUCTORS) ON THE FORMAT xxiv

COLOR USE: VECTORS, FIELDS, AND SYMBOLS xxv

1 INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT,1 ESTIMATING 1

1–1 The Nature of Science 2

1–2 Models, Theories, and Laws 2

1–3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures 3

1–4 Units, Standards, and the SI System 6

1–5 Converting Units 8

1–6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating 9

*1–7 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis 12

SUMMARY 14

QUESTIONS 14

PROBLEMS 14

GENERAL PROBLEMS 16

2 DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS2 IN ONE DIMENSION 18

2–1 Reference Frames and Displacement 19

2–2 Average Velocity 20

2–3 Instantaneous Velocity 22

2–4 Acceleration 24

2–5 Motion at Constant Acceleration 28

2–6 Solving Problems 30

2–7 Freely Falling Objects 34

*2–8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus 39

*2–9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical Integration 40

SUMMARY 43

QUESTIONS 43

PROBLEMS 44

GENERAL PROBLEMS 48

3 KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE3 DIMENSIONS; VECTORS 51

3–1 Vectors and Scalars 52

3–2 Addition of Vectors—Graphical Methods 52

3–3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 54

3–4 Adding Vectors by Components 55

3–5 Unit Vectors 59

3–6 Vector Kinematics 59

3–7 Projectile Motion 62

3–8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion 64

3–9 Relative Velocity 71

SUMMARY 74

QUESTIONS 75

PROBLEMS 75

GENERAL PROBLEMS 80

4 DYNAMICS: NEWTON’S LAWS4 OF MOTION 83

4–1 Force 84

4–2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 84

4–3 Mass 86

4–4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 86

4–5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 89

4–6 Weight—the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force 92

4–7 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws: Free-Body Diagrams 95

4–8 Problem Solving—A General Approach 102

SUMMARY 102

QUESTIONS 103

PROBLEMS 104

GENERAL PROBLEMS 109

5 USING NEWTON’S LAWS:5 FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES 112

5–1 Applications of Newton’s Laws Involving Friction 113

5–2 Uniform Circular Motion—Kinematics 119

5–3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 122

5–4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked 126

*5–5 Nonuniform Circular Motion 128

*5–6 Velocity-Dependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity 129

SUMMARY 130

QUESTIONS 131

PROBLEMS 132

GENERAL PROBLEMS 136

6 GRAVITATION AND NEWTON’S6 SYNTHESIS 139

6–1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 140

6–2 Vector Form of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 143

6–3 Gravity Near the Earth’s Surface; Geophysical Applications 143

6–4 Satellites and “Weightlessness” 146

6–5 Kepler’s Laws and Newton’s Synthesis 149

*6–6 Gravitational Field 154

6–7 Types of Forces in Nature 155

*6–8 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes 155

SUMMARY 157

QUESTIONS 157

PROBLEMS 158

GENERAL PROBLEMS 160

7 WORK AND ENERGY 163

7–1 Work Done by a Constant Force 164

7–2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors 167

7–3 Work Done by a Varying Force 168

7–4 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle 172

SUMMARY 176

QUESTIONS 177

PROBLEMS 177

GENERAL PROBLEMS 180

8 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 183

8–1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 184

8–2 Potential Energy 186

8–3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation 189

8–4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy 190

8–5 The Law of Conservation of Energy 196

8–6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems 197

8–7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity 199

8–8 Power 201

*8–9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium 204

SUMMARY 205

QUESTIONS 205

PROBLEMS 207

GENERAL PROBLEMS 211

9 LINEAR MOMENTUM 214

9–1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force 215

9–2 Conservation of Momentum 217

9–3 Collisions and Impulse 220

9–4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions 222

9–5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 222

9–6 Inelastic Collisions 225

9–7 Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions 227

9–8 Center of Mass (CM) 230

9–9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion 234

*9–10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion 236

SUMMARY 239

QUESTIONS 239

PROBLEMS 240

GENERAL PROBLEMS 245

10 ROTATIONAL MOTION 248

10–1 Angular Quantities 249

10–2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities 254

10–3 Constant Angular Acceleration 255

10–4 Torque 256

10–5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia 258

10–6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics 260

10–7 Determining Moments of Inertia 263

10–8 Rotational Kinetic Energy 265

10–9 Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling 267

*10–10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down? 273

SUMMARY 274

QUESTIONS 275

PROBLEMS 276

GENERAL PROBLEMS 281

11 ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION 284

11–1 Angular Momentum—Object Rotating About a Fixed Axis 285

11–2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector 289

11–3 Angular Momentum of a Particle 291

11–4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion 292

11–5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object 294

11–6 Conservation of Angular Momentum 297

*11–7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope 299

*11–8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces 300

*11–9 The Coriolis Effect 301

SUMMARY 302

QUESTIONS 303

PROBLEMS 303

GENERAL PROBLEMS 308

12 STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE 311

12–1 The Conditions for Equilibrium 312

12–2 Solving Statics Problems 313

12–3 Stability and Balance 317

12–4 Elasticity; Stress and Strain 318

12–5 Fracture 322

*12–6 Trusses and Bridges 324

*12–7 Arches and Domes 327

SUMMARY 329

QUESTIONS 329

PROBLEMS 330

GENERAL PROBLEMS 334

13 FLUIDS 339

13–1 Phases of Matter 340

13–2 Density and Specific Gravity 340

13–3 Pressure in Fluids 341

13–4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure 345

13–5 Pascal’s Principle 346

13–6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer 346

13–7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle 348

13–8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity 352

13–9 Bernoulli’s Equation 354

13–10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, TIA 356

*13–11 Viscosity 358

*13–12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow 358

*13–13 Surface Tension and Capillarity 359

*13–14 Pumps, and the Heart 361

SUMMARY 361

QUESTIONS 362

PROBLEMS 363

GENERAL PROBLEMS 367

14 OSCILLATIONS 369

14–1 Oscillations of a Spring 370

14–2 Simple Harmonic Motion 372

14–3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 377

14–4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion 379

14–5 The Simple Pendulum 379

*14–6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum 381

14–7 Damped Harmonic Motion 382

14–8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance 385

SUMMARY 387

QUESTIONS 388

PROBLEMS 388

GENERAL PROBLEMS 393

15 WAVE MOTION 396

15–1 Characteristics of Wave Motion 397

15–2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal 398

15–3 Energy Transported by Waves 403

15–4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave 405

*15–5 The Wave Equation 407

15–6 The Principle of Superposition 409

15–7 Reflection and Transmission 410

15–8 Interference 412

15–9 Standing Waves; Resonance 413

*15–10 Refraction 416

*15–11 Diffraction 418

SUMMARY 419

QUESTIONS 419 PROBLEMS 420 GENERAL PROBLEMS 424

16 SOUND 426

16–1 Characteristics of Sound 427

16–2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves 428

16–3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels 429

16–4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns 433

*16–5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition 438

16–6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 439

16–7 Doppler Effect 441

*16–8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom 445

*16–9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging 446

SUMMARY 448

QUESTIONS 449

PROBLEMS 450

GENERAL PROBLEMS 453

17 TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW 456

17–1 Atomic Theory of Matter 457

17–2 Temperature and Thermometers 458

17–3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 461

17–4 Thermal Expansion 461

*17–5 Thermal Stresses 464

17–6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature 465

17–7 The Ideal Gas Law 467

17–8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law 468

17–9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number 470

*17–10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale—a Standard 471

SUMMARY 472

QUESTIONS 473

PROBLEMS 473

GENERAL PROBLEMS 476

18 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 478

18–1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature 478

18–2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 482

18–3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase 484

18–4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity 486

*18–5 Van der Waals Equation of State 488

*18–6 Mean Free Path 489

*18–7 Diffusion 491

SUMMARY 492

QUESTIONS 493

PROBLEMS 494

GENERAL PROBLEMS 496

19 HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 498

19–1 Heat as Energy Transfer 499

19–2 Internal Energy 500

19–3 Specific Heat 501

19–4 Calorimetry—Solving Problems 502

19–5 Latent Heat 504

19–6 The First Law of Thermodynamics 507

19–7 Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work 509

19–8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy 513

19–9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 516

19–10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation 517

SUMMARY 522

QUESTIONS 523

PROBLEMS 524

GENERAL PROBLEMS 528

20 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 530

20–1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics—Introduction 531

20–2 Heat Engines 532

20–3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; the Carnot Engine 535

20–4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 538

20–5 Entropy 541

20–6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 543

20–7 Order to Disorder 546

20–8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death 547

*20–9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law 548

*20–10 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 550

*20–11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources 551

SUMMARY 554

QUESTIONS 554

PROBLEMS 555

GENERAL PROBLEMS 559

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