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Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices & Applications, CourseSmart eTextbook, 4th Edition

By Muhammad H. Rashid

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Jun 25, 2013

Description

For junior or senior undergraduate students in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.

This text covers the basics of emerging areas in power electronics and a broad range of topics such as power switching devices, conversion methods, analysis and techniques, and applications. Its unique approach covers the characteristics of semiconductor devices first, then discusses the applications of these devices for power conversions. Four main applications are included: flexible ac transmissions (FACTs), static switches, power supplies, dc drives, and ac drives.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii

About the Author xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Applications of Power Electronics 2

1.2 History of Power Electronics 4

1.3 Types of Power Electronic Circuits 6

1.4 Design of Power Electronics Equipment 10

1.5 Determining the Root-Mean-Square Values of Waveforms 11

1.6 Peripheral Effects 12

1.7 Characteristics and Specifications of Switches 15

1.7.1 Ideal Characteristics 15

1.7.2 Characteristics of Practical Devices 16

1.7.3 Switch Specifications 18

1.8 Power Semiconductor Devices 19

1.9 Control Characteristics of Power Devices 25

1.10 Device Choices 25

1.11 Power Modules 29

1.12 Intelligent Modules 29

1.13 Power Electronics Journals and Conferences 31

Summary 32

References 32

Review Questions 33

Problems 33

 

PART I Power Diodes and Rectifiers 35

Chapter 2 Power Diodes and Switched RLC Circuits 35

2.1 Introduction 36

2.2 Semiconductor Basics 36

2.3 Diode Characteristics 38

2.4 Reverse Recovery Characteristics 41

2.5 Power Diode Types 44

2.5.1 General-Purpose Diodes 44

2.5.2 Fast-Recovery Diodes 45

2.5.3 Schottky Diodes 46

2.6 Silicon Carbide Diodes 46

2.7 Silicon Carbide Schottky Diodes 47

2.8 Spice Diode Model 48

2.9 Series-Connected Diodes 49

2.10 Parallel-Connected Diodes 53

2.11 Diode Switched RC Load 54

2.12 Diode Switched RL Load 56

2.13 Diode Switched LC Load 58

2.14 Diode Switched RLC Load 61

2.15 Frewheeling Diodes With Switched RL Load 65

2.16 Recovery of Trapped Energy with a Diode 68

Summary 72

References 72

Review Questions 73

Problems 73

 

Chapter 3 Diode Rectifiers 79

3.1 Introduction 80

3.2 Performance Parameters 80

3.3 Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifiers 82

3.4 Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier with RL Load 85

3.5 Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier with a Highly Inductive Load 92

3.6 Multiphase Star Rectifiers 94

3.7 Three-Phase Bridge Rectifiers 98

3.8 Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier with RL Load 102

3.9 Three-Phase Rectifier With A Highly Inductive Load 106

3.10 Comparisons of Diode Rectifiers 108

3.11 Rectifier Circuit Design 108

3.12 Output Voltage with LC Filter 120

3.13 Effects of Source and Load Inductances 124

3.14 Practical Considerations for Selecting Inductors and Capacitors 127

3.14.1 AC Film Capacitors 127

3.14.2 Ceramic Capacitors 128

3.14.3 Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors 128

3.14.4 Solid Tantalum Capacitors 129

3.14.5 Supercapacitors 129

Summary 129

References 129

Review Questions 130

Problems 130

 

PART II Power Transistors and DC–DC Converters 134

Chapter 4 Power Transistors 134

4.1 Introduction 135

4.2 Silicon Carbide Transistors 136

4.3 Power MOSFETs 137

4.3.1 Steady-State Characteristics 140

4.3.2 Switching Characteristics 143

4.3.3 Silicon Carbide MOSFETs 145

4.4 COOLMOS 147

4.5 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs) 149

4.5.1 Operation and Characteristics of JFETs 149

4.5.2 Silicon Carbide JFET Structures 153

4.6 Bipolar Junction Transistors 156

4.6.1 Steady-State Characteristics 157

4.6.2 Switching Characteristics 161

4.6.3 Switching Limits 168

4.6.4 Silicon Carbide BJTs 169

4.7 IGBTs 170

4.7.1 Silicon Carbide IGBTs 173

4.8 SITs 174

4.9 Comparisons of Transistors 175

4.10 Power Derating of Power Transistors 175

4.11 di/dt and dv/dt Limitations 179

4.12 Series and Parallel Operation 182

4.13 SPICE Models 184

4.13.1 BJT SPICE Model 184

4.13.2 MOSFET SPICE Model 186

4.13.3 IGBT SPICE Model 187

4.14 MOSFET Gate Drive 189

4.15 JFET Gate Drives 191

4.16 BJT Base Drive 192

4.17 Isolation of Gate and Base Drives 197

4.17.1 Pulse Transformers 199

4.17.2 Optocouplers 199

4.18 GATE-DRIVE ICs 200

Summary 202

References 203

Review Questions 206

Problems 208

 

Chapter 5 DC–DC Converters 210

5.1 Introduction 211

5.2 Performance Parameters of DC–DC Converters 211

5.3 Principle of Step-Down Operation 212

5.3.1 Generation of Duty Cycle 216

5.4 Step-Down Converter with RL Load 217

5.5 Principle of Step-Up Operation 222

5.6 Step-Up Converter With a Resistive Load 225

5.7 Frequency Limiting Parameters 227

5.8 Converter Classification 228

5.9 Switching-Mode Regulators 232

5.9.1 Buck Regulators 233

5.9.2 Boost Regulators 237

5.9.3 Buck–Boost Regulators 241

5.9.4 Cúk Regulators 245

5.9.5 Limitations of Single-Stage Conversion 251

5.10 Comparison of Regulators 252

5.11 Multioutput Boost Converter 253

5.12 Diode Rectifier-Fed Boost Converter 256

5.13 Averaging Models of Converters 258

5.14 State–Space Analysis of Regulators 264

5.15 Design Considerations For Input Filter And Converters 268

5.16 Drive IC for Converters 273

Summary 275

References 277

Review Questions 279

Problems 279

 

PART III Inverters 282

Chapter 6 DC–AC Converters 282

6.1 Introduction 283

6.2 Performance Parameters 283

6.3 Principle of Operation 285

6.4 Single-Phase Bridge Inverters 289

6.5 Three-Phase Inverters 295

6.5.1 180-Degree Conduction 296

6.5.2 120-Degree Conduction 303

6.6 Voltage Control of Single-Phase Inverters 306

6.6.1 Multiple-Pulse-Width Modulation 306

6.6.2 Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation 309

6.6.3 Modified Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation 312

6.6.4 Phase-Displacement Control 315

6.7 Voltage Control of Three-Phase Inverters 316

6.7.1 Sinusoidal PWM 317

6.7.2 60-Degree PWM 320

6.7.3 Third-Harmonic PWM 320

6.7.4 Space Vector Modulation 323

6.7.5 Comparison of PWM Techniques 335

6.8 Harmonic Reductions 335

6.9 Current-Source Inverters 340

6.10 Variable DC-Link Inverter 342

6.11 Boost Inverter 344

6.12 Inverter Circuit Design 349

Summary 354

References 354

Review Questions 356

Problems 356

 

Chapter 7 Resonant Pulse Inverters 361

7.1 Introduction 362

7.2 Series Resonant Inverters 362

7.2.1 Series Resonant Inverters with Unidirectional Switches 363

7.2.2 Series Resonant Inverters with Bidirectional Switches 372

7.3 Frequency Response of Series Resonant Inverters 378

7.3.1 Frequency Response for Series Loaded 378

7.3.2 Frequency Response for Parallel Loaded 381

7.3.3 Frequency Response for Series–Parallel Loaded 383

7.4 Parallel Resonant Inverters 384

7.5 Voltage Control of Resonant Inverters 388

7.6 Class E Resonant Inverter 390

7.7 Class E Resonant Rectifier 394

7.8 Zero-Current-Switching Resonant Converters 398

7.8.1 L-Type ZCS Resonant Converter 399

7.8.2 M-Type ZCS Resonant Converter 402

7.9 Zero-Voltage-Switching Resonant Converters 402

7.10 Comparisons Between ZCS and ZVS Resonant Converters 406

7.11 Two-Quadrant ZVS Resonant Converters 407

7.12 Resonant DC-Link Inverters 409

Summary 413

References 414

Review Questions 414

Problems 415

 

Chapter 8 Multilevel Inverters 417

8.1 Introduction 417

8.2 Multilevel Concept 418

8.3 Types of Multilevel Inverters 420

8.4 Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter 420

8.4.1 Principle of Operation 421

8.4.2 Features of Diode-Clamped Inverter 422

8.4.3 Improved Diode-Clamped Inverter 424

8.5 Flying-Capacitors Multilevel Inverter 426

8.5.1 Principle of Operation 426

8.5.2 Features of Flying-Capacitors Inverter 428

8.6 Cascaded Multilevel Inverter 429

8.6.1 Principle of Operation 429

8.6.2 Features of Cascaded Inverter 431

8.7 Applications 433

8.7.1 Reactive Power Compensation 433

8.7.2 Back-to-Back lntertie 435

8.7.3 Adjustable Speed Drives 435

8.8 Switching Device Currents 436

8.9 DC-Link Capacitor Voltage Balancing 437

8.10 Features of Multilevel Inverters 438

8.11 Comparisons of Multilevel Converters 439

Summary 440

References 440

Review Questions 441

Problems 441

 

PART IV Thyristors and Thyristorized Converters 443

Chapter 9 Thyristors 443

9.1 Introduction 443

9.2 Thyristor Characteristics 444

9.3 Two-Transistor Model of Thyristor 447

9.4 Thyristor Turn-On 449

9.5 Thyristor Turn-Off 451

9.6 Thyristor Types 453

9.6.1 Phase-Controlled Thyristors 453

9.6.2 Bidirectional Phase-Controlled Thyristors 454

9.6.3 Fast-Switching Asymmetrical Thyristors 455

9.6.4 Light-Activated Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers 456

9.6.5 Bidirectional Triode Thyristors 456

9.6.6 Reverse-Conducting Thyristors 457

9.6.7 Gate Turn-off Thyristors 457

9.6.8 FET-Controlled Thyristors 462

9.6.9 MTOs 463

9.6.10 ETOs 464

9.6.11 IGCTs 465

9.6.12 MCTs 466

9.6.13 SITHs 469

9.6.14 Comparisons of Thyristors 470

9.7 Series Operation of Thyristors 475

9.8 Parallel Operation of Thyristors 478

9.9 di/dt Protection 479

9.10 dv/dt Protection 480

9.11 SPICE Thyristor Model 482

9.11.1 Thyristor SPICE Model 482

9.11.2 GTO SPICE Model 484

9.11.3 MCT SPICE Model 486

9.11.4 SITH SPICE Model 486

9.12 DIACs 486

9.13 Thyristor Firing Circuits 489

9.14 Unijunction Transistor 492

9.15 Programmable Unijunction Transistor 494

Summary 496

References 497

Review Questions 500

Problems 501

 

Chapter 10 Controlled Rectifiers 503

10.1 Introduction 504

10.2 Single-Phase Full Converters 504

10.2.1 Single-Phase Full Converter with RL Load 508

10.3 Single-Phase Dual Converters 511

10.4 Three-Phase Full Converters 514

10.4.1 Three-Phase Full Converter with RL Load 518

10.5 Three-Phase Dual Converters 520

10.6 Pulse-Width-Modulation Control 523

10.6.1 PWM Control 524

10.6.2 Single-Phase Sinusoidal PWM 526

10.6.3 Three-Phase PWM Rectifier 527

10.7 Single-Phase Series Converters 531

10.8 Twelve-Pulse Converters 534

10.9 Design of Converter Circuits 536

10.10 Effects of Load and Source Inductances 542

Summary 544

References 544

Review Questions 546

Problems 546

 

Chapter 11 AC Voltage Controllers 552

11.1 Introduction 553

11.2 Performance Parameters of AC Voltage Controllers 554

11.3 Single-Phase Full-Wave Controllers with Resistive Loads 555

11.4 Single-Phase Full-Wave Controllers with Inductive Loads 559

11.5 Three-Phase Full-Wave Controllers 563

11.6 Three-Phase Full-Wave Delta-Connected Controllers 568

11.7 Single-Phase Transformer Connection Changers 572

11.8 Cycloconverters 577

11.8.1 Single-Phase Cycloconverters 577

11.8.2 Three-Phase Cycloconverters 580

11.8.3 Reduction of Output Harmonics 581

11.9 AC Voltage Controllers with PWM Control 584

11.10 Matrix Converter 586

11.11 Design of AC Voltage-Controller Circuits 588

11.12 Effects of Source and Load Inductances 596

Summary 597

References 597

Review Questions 598

Problems 598

 

PART V Power Electronics Applications and Protection 602

Chapter 12 Flexible AC Transmission Systems 602

12.1 Introduction 603

12.2 Principle of Power Transmission 604

12.3 Principle of Shunt Compensation 606

12.4 Shunt Compensators 608

12.4.1 Thyristor-controlled Reactor 608

12.4.2 Thyristor-Switched Capacitor 609

12.4.3 Static VAR Compensator 612

12.4.4 Advanced Static VAR Compensator 613

12.5 Principle of Series Compensation 615

12.6 Series Compensators 617

12.6.1 Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor 617

12.6.2 Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor 619

12.6.3 Forced-Commutation-Controlled Series Capacitor 620

12.6.4 Series Static VAR Compensator 621

12.6.5 Advanced SSVC 621

12.7 Principle of Phase-Angle Compensation 624

12.8 Phase-Angle Compensator 627

12.9 Unified Power Flow Controller 628

12.10 Comparisons of Compensators 629

Summary 631

References 631

Review Questions 632

Problems 632

 

Chapter 13 Power Supplies 634

13.1 Introduction 635

13.2 DC Power Supplies 635

13.2.1 Switched-Mode DC Power Supplies 636

13.2.2 Flyback Converter 636

13.2.3 Forward Converter 640

13.2.4 Push–Pull Converter 645

13.2.5 Half-Bridge Converter 647

13.2.6 Full-Bridge Converter 650

13.2.7 Resonant DC Power Supplies 653

13.2.8 Bidirectional Power Supplies 655

13.3 AC Power Supplies 655

13.3.1 Switched-Mode AC Power Supplies 657

13.3.2 Resonant AC Power Supplies 657

13.3.3 Bidirectional AC Power Supplies 658

13.4 Multistage Conversions 659

13.5 Control Circuits 660

13.6 Magnetic Design Considerations 664

13.6.1 Transformer Design 664

13.6.2 DC Inductor 668

13.6.3 Magnetic Saturation 669

Summary 670

References 670

Review Questions 671

Problems 671

 

Chapter 14 DC Drives 675

14.1 Introduction 676

14.2 Basic Characteristics of Dc Motors 677

14.2.1 Separately Excited DC Motor 677

14.2.2 Series-Excited DC Motor 680

14.2.3 Gear Ratio 682

14.3 Operating Modes 684

14.4 Single-Phase Drives 686

14.4.1 Single-Phase Semiconverter Drives 688

14.4.2 Single-Phase Full-Converter Drives 689

14.4.3 Single-Phase Dual-Converter Drives 690

14.5 Three-Phase Drives 694

14.5.1 Three-Phase Semiconverter Drives 694

14.5.2 Three-Phase Full-Converter Drives 694

14.5.3 Three-Phase Dual-Converter Drives 695

14.6 Dc–Dc Converter Drives 698

14.6.1 Principle of Power Control 698

14.6.2 Principle of Regenerative Brake Control 700

14.6.3 Principle of Rheostatic Brake Control 703

14.6.4 Principle of Combined Regenerative and Rheostatic Brake Control 704

14.6.5 Two- and Four-Quadrant DC–DC Converter Drives 705

14.6.6 Multiphase DC–DC Converters 706

14.7 Closed-Loop Control of dc Drives 709

14.7.1 Open-Loop Transfer Function 709

14.7.2 Open-Loop Transfer Function of Separately Excited Motors 710

14.7.3 Open-Loop Transfer Function of Series Excited Motors 713

14.7.4 Converter Control Models 715

14.7.5 Closed-Loop Transfer Function 717

14.7.6 Closed-Loop Current Control 720

14.7.7 Design of Current Controller 723

14.7.8 Design of Speed Controller 723

14.7.9 DC–DC Converter-Fed Drive 729

14.7.10 Phase-Locked-Loop Control 730

14.7.11 Microcomputer Control of DC Drives 732

Summary 734

References 734

Review Questions 735

Problems 736

 

Chapter 15 AC Drives 740

15.1 Introduction 741

15.2 Induction Motor Drives 741

15.2.1 Performance Characteristics 743

15.2.2 Torque–Speed Characteristics 745

15.2.3 Stator Voltage Control 750

15.2.4 Rotor Voltage Control 754

15.2.5 Frequency Control 763

15.2.6 Voltage and Frequency Control 765

15.2.7 Current Control 770

15.2.8 Constant Slip-Speed Control 775

15.2.9 Voltage, Current, and Frequency Control 776

15.3 Closed-Loop Control of Induction Motors 778

15.4 Dimensioning the Control Variables 782

15.5 Vector Controls 784

15.5.1 Basic Principle of Vector Control 784

15.5.2 Direct and Quadrature-Axis Transformation 786

15.5.3 Indirect Vector Control 791

15.5.4 Direct Vector Control 795

15.6 Synchronous Motor Drives 797

15.6.1 Cylindrical Rotor Motors 798

15.6.2 Salient-Pole Motors 801

15.6.3 Reluctance Motors 802

15.6.4 Switched Reluctance Motors 803

15.6.5 Permanent-Magnet Motors 805

15.6.6 Closed-Loop Control of Synchronous Motors 808

15.6.7 Brushless DC and AC Motor Drives 810

15.7 Design of Speed Controller For Pmsm Drives 812

15.7.1 System Block Diagram 812

15.7.2 Current Loop 814

15.7.3 Speed Controller 815

15.8 Stepper Motor Control 818

15.8.1 Variable-Reluctance Stepper Motors 818

15.8.2 Permanent-Magnet Stepper Motors 821

15.9 Linear Induction Motors 825

15.10 High-Voltage IC for Motor Drives 828

Summary 833

References 834

Review Questions 835

Problems 836

 

Chapter 16 Introduction to Renewable Energy 840

16.1 Introduction 841

16.2 Energy and Power 842

16.3 Renewable Energy Generation System 843

16.3.1 Turbine 844

16.3.2 Thermal Cycle 845

16.4 Solar Energy Systems 847

16.4.1 Solar Energy 847

16.4.2 Photovoltaic 850

16.4.3 Photovoltaic Cells 850

16.4.4 PV Models 851

16.4.5 Photovoltaic Systems 857

16.5 Wind Energy 860

16.5.1 Wind Turbines 860

16.5.2 Turbine Power 861

16.5.3 Speed and Pitch Control 864

16.5.4 Power Curve 865

16.5.5 Wind Energy Systems 866

16.5.6 Doubly Fed Induction Generators 869

16.5.7 Squirrel-Cage Induction Generators 870

16.5.8 Synchronous Generators 871

16.5.9 Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generators 872

16.5.10 Switched Reluctance Generator 873

16.5.11 Comparisons of the Wind Turbine Power Configurations 873

16.6 Ocean Energy 874

16.6.1 Wave Energy 874

16.6.2 Mechanism of Wave Generation 875

16.6.3 Wave Power 876

16.6.4 Tidal Energy 879

16.6.5 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 881

16.7 Hydropower Energy 882

16.7.1 Large-Scale Hydropower 882

16.7.2 Small-Scale Hydropower 883

16.8 Fuel Cells 886

16.8.1 Hydrogen Generation and Fuel Cells 887

16.8.2 Types of Fuel Cells 888

16.8.3 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) 889

16.8.4 Direct-Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) 890

16.8.5 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) 892

16.8.6 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PCFC) 893

16.8.7 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) 894

16.8.8 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 895

16.8.9 Thermal and Electrical Processes of Fuel Cells 896

16.9 Geothermal Energy 900

16.10 Biomass Energy 900

Summary 901

References 901

Review Questions 902

Problems 903

 

Chapter 17 Protection of Devices and Circuits 907

17.1 Introduction 907

17.2 Cooling and Heat Sinks 908

17.3 Thermal Modeling of Power Switching Devices 913

17.3.1 Electrical Equivalent Thermal Model 914

17.3.2 Mathematical Thermal Equivalent Circuit 916

17.3.3 Coupling of Electrical and Thermal Components 917

17.4 Snubber Circuits 919

17.5 Reverse Recovery Transients 920

17.6 Supply- and Load-Side Transients 926

17.7 Voltage Protection by Selenium Diodes and Metaloxide Varistors 929

17.8 Current Protections 931

17.8.1 Fusing 931

17.8.2 Fault Current with AC Source 934

17.8.3 Fault Current with DC Source 936

17.9 Electromagnetic Interference 939

17.9.1 Sources of EMI 940

17.9.2 Minimizing EMI Generation 940

17.9.3 EMI Shielding 941

17.9.4 EMI Standards 941

Summary 942

References 943

Review Questions 943

Problems 944

 

Appendix A Three-Phase Circuits 947

Appendix B Magnetic Circuits 951

Appendix C Switching Functions of Converters 959

Appendix D DC Transient Analysis 965

Appendix E Fourier Analysis 969

Appendix F Reference Frame Transformation 972

Bibliography 976

Answers to Selected Problems

Index

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Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices & Applications, CourseSmart eTextbook, 4th Edition
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