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Power Integrity Analysis and Management for Integrated Circuits

By Raj Nair, Donald Bennett

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: May 7, 2010

Description

New Techniques and Tools for Ensuring On-Chip Power Integrity–Down to Nanoscale

 

As chips continue to scale, power integrity issues are introducing unexpected project complexity and cost. In this book, two leading industry innovators thoroughly discuss the power integrity challenges that engineers face in designing at nanoscale levels, introduce new analysis and management techniques for addressing these issues, and provide breakthrough tools for hands-on problem solving.

 

Raj Nair and Dr. Donald Bennett first provide a complete foundational understanding of power integrity, including ULSI issues, practical aspects of power delivery, and the benefits of a total power integrity approach to optimizing chip physical designs. They introduce advanced power distribution network modeling, design, and analysis techniques that highlight abstraction and physics-based analysis, while also incorporating traditional circuit- and field-solver based approaches. They also present advanced techniques for floorplanning and power integrity management, and help designers anticipate emerging challenges associated with increased integration. Anasim RLCSim.exe, a new tool for power integrity aware floorplanning, is downloadable for free at anasim.com/category/software.

 

The authors

  • Systematically explore power integrity implications, analysis, and management for integrated circuits
  • Present practical examples and industry best practices for a broad spectrum of chip design applications
  • Discuss distributed and high-bandwidth voltage regulation, differential power path design, and the significance of on-chip inductance to power integrity
  • Review both traditional and advanced modeling techniques for integrated circuit power integrity analysis, and introduce continuum modeling
  • Explore chip, package, and board interactions for power integrity and EMI, and bring together industry best practices and examples
  • Introduce advanced concepts for power integrity management, including non-linear capacitance devices, impedance modulation, and active noise regulation

 

Power Integrity Analysis and Management for Integrated Circuits coverage of both fundamentals and advanced techniques will make this book indispensable to all engineers responsible for signal integrity, power integrity, hardware, or system design–especially those working at the nanoscale level.

 

Table of Contents

Preface      xv

Acknowledgments      xxi

About the Authors      xxiii

Contributors      xxv

 

Chapter 1: Power, Delivering Power, and Power Integrity      1

1.1   Electromotive Force (emf)   1

1.2   Electrical Power   5

1.3   Power Delivery   8

1.4   Power Integrity (PI)   13

1.5   Exercises   17

References   18

 

Chapter 2: Ultra-Large-Scale Integration and Power Challenges      19

2.1   Exponential Integration and Semiconductor Scaling   20

2.2   Power and Energy Consumption   27

2.3   Power, Heat, and Power Integrity Challenges   39

2.4   Exercises   50

References   51

 

Chapter 3: IC Power Integrity and Optimal Power Delivery      53

3.1   Power Transfer and Efficiency   53

3.2   Optimal IC Power Delivery: On-Chip Inductance and Grid Design    81

3.3   Power Grid Cost Factor Trade-off Analysis and Design   99

3.4   Exercises   106

References   107

 

Chapter 4: Early Power Integrity Analysis and Abstraction      111

4.1   Process, Voltage, and Temperature: Design Verification Space   112

4.2   Back-End and Front-End PI Analysis   115

4.3   Simulation Environment for Models of High Abstraction Levels   126

4.4   Abstraction and PI Analysis Examples   129

4.5   Summary and Enhancements   135

4.6   Exercises   136

References   138

 

Chapter 5: Power Integrity Analysis and EMI/EMC     141

5.1   Introduction 141

5.2   Analysis of Noise Generation and Propagation through a Power Distribution Network      143

5.3   Modeling Decoupling Capacitors for Noise Mitigation in PDNs   150

5.4   Current Design Methodology for Power Delivery Networks   154

5.5   Modeling Methodologies   159

5.6   Numerical Methods   169

5.7   Power and Signal Delivery Analysis Tools and Limitations   176

5.8   Power Integrity-Aware Electromagnetic Interference Analysis   188

5.9   Strengths and Limitations of Existing Early EMI methodologies    197

5.10 Early Power Integrity-Aware EMI Modeling and Analysis Flow    198

5.11 SI, PI, and EMI Summary   215

5.12 Exercises   216

References   216

 

Chapter 6: Power Distribution Modeling and Integrity Analysis      221

6.1   Introduction   221

6.2   Modeling of a Power Distribution Grid   224

6.3   Numerical Analysis of Power Distribution Model   229

6.4   Differential and Common-Mode Noise   230

6.5   Verification and Error Analysis   233

6.6   Modeling of On-Chip Bus Switching Current   239

6.7   Verification of the Bus Model   245

6.8   Bus Skewing to Reduce Power Distribution Noise   248

6.9   Case Study: Reduction of Power Distribution Noise   250

6.10 Exercises   252

6.11 Appendix: Coefficients for Equation (6-37)   253

References   255

 

Chapter 7: Effective Current Density and Continuum Models      259

7.1   Circuit and Model Simplification   259

7.2   Definition of Effective Current Density   260

7.3   Effective Current Density and Virtual Currents   263

7.4   Symmetry in Networks Containing Conductors, Insulators, and Other Components   263

7.5   A Continuum Model Using ECD   264

7.6   Practical Application of a Continuum-Based Simulator to IC Floorplanning   273

7.7   Continuum Models Compared to SPICE Models   280

7.8   Model Enhancement for Nanoscale CMOS Integrated Circuits   284

7.9   Exercises   285

References   286

 

Chapter 8: Power Integrity-Aware Chip Floorplanning and Design      287

8.1   Design for Power Integrity: Nanometer Era Considerations   287

8.2   Design for Power Integrity: Techniques   291

8.3   Power Management and Power Integrity   300

References   314

 

Chapter 9: Power Integrity Management in Integrated Circuits and Systems      317

9.1   Chip-Level PI Management   318

9.2   System- and Package-Level PI Management   331

9.3   Exercises   341

References 343

Additional Reading 346

 

Chapter 10: Integration Technologies, Trends, and Challenges      347

10.1   Chip-Level Integration   348

10.2   Package-Level Integration   352

10.3   Integration Trend for Power Integrity Management Components   366

References   367

Additional Reading   369

 

Appendix A: ECD Continuum Model Derivation      371

 

Appendix B: Derivation of the Helmholtz Equation for Planar Circuits      383

 

Index 385

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ISBN-10: 0-13-263944-0

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-263944-6

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