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Psychology and Work Today, 10th Edition

By Duane Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Mar 16, 2009

Table of Contents

Brief TOC:

 

I. THE PRACTICE OF INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

1. Principles, Practices, and Problems.

2. Techniques, Tools, and Tactics.

II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES.

3. Employee Selection Principles and Techniques.

4. Psychological Testing.

5. Performance Appraisal.

6. Training and Development.

III. ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

7. Leadership.

8. Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement.

9. The Organization of the Organization.

IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKPLACE.

10. Working Conditions.

11. Safety, Violence, and Health in the Workplace.

12. Stress in the Workplace.

V. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY.

13. Engineering Psychology.

VI. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY.

14. Consumer Psychology.

References.

Glossary.

Photo Credits.

Index.

 

____________________________________________________________ 

Schultz & Schultz: PSYCHOLOGY AND WORK TODAY, 10TH EDITION

CONTENTS

PREFACE 

 

PART ONE:  The Practice of Industrial-Organizational Psychology

 

Chapter 1: Principles, Practices, and Problems                                                             

 

Would You Work If You Didn’t Have To?  

     Newsbreak

I-O Psychology on the Job    

I-O Psychology in Everyday Life

     Newsbreak                                                                                                                                                                                      

What I-O Psychology Means to Your Employer    

An Overview of the Development of I-O Psychology    

     Pioneers in Personnel Selection    

     World War I and the Testing Movement    

     The Hawthorne Studies and Motivational Issues    

     Newsbreak

     World War II and Engineering Psychology

     Later Developments in I-O Psychology    

Challenges for I-O Psychology    

     The Virtual Workplace    

     Virtual Employees    

     Newsbreak

     Worker Involvement    

     New Technology Requires New Skills    

     The Global Workplace

     Newsbreak

     Ethnic Diversity in the Workplace

     Different Generations? Different Values

     Newsbreak

Careers in I-O Psychology

     Newsbreak

Practical Problems for I-O Psychologists    

     Fraudulent Practitioners    

     Credentials and Certification    

     Communicating with Management    

     Worker Resistance to New Ideas    

     Research or Application?    

Areas of I-O Psychology    

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

 

Chapter 2: Techniques, Tools, and Tactics                                                                                           

 

Why Study Psychological Research Methods?    

     Requirements of Psychological Research    

     Limitations of Psychological Research    

     Newsbreak

The Experimental Method    

     Designing an Experiment    

     Selecting the Subjects    

     A Sample Experiment: The Effects of Training Conditions on Turnover and Productivity    

The Naturalistic Observation Method    

     A Sample Controlled Observation: The Friendly Behaviors of Convenience Store Clerks    

Surveys and Public Opinion Polls    

     Newsbreak

     Interviews    

     Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires     

     Newsbreak

     Web-Based Surveys

     Telephone Surveys    

     Newsbreak

     Survey Questions    

     Sampling Methods    

     Employees Attitudes toward Surveys  

Virtual Laboratories: Web-Based Research    

Analyzing Research Data    

     Descriptive Statistics    

     Inferential Statistics    

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

 

PART TWO: The Development of Human Resources                                                                   

 

Chapter 3: Employee Selection Principles and Techniques

 

What’s Your Ideal Job?

The Recruitment Process    

     Sources for Recruiting    

     Recruiter Characteristics    

     On-Campus Recruiting    

     Newsbreak: If the Job Sounds Too Good to be True . . .

     Realistic Job Previews    

An Overview of the Selection Process    

     Job and Worker Analyses    

     Recruitment Decisions    

     Selection Techniques    

Fair Employment Practices    

     Adverse Impact

     Reverse Discrimination    

     Increasing Diversity at Work

     Newsbreak: Are We Still at the Back of the Bus?

     Other Targets of Discrimination    

Job and Work Analysis    

Biographical Information    

     Application Blanks    

     Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired, Part 3: Prooof-read Your Resume.

     Biodata Inventories    

Interviews    

     Making a Good Impression    

     Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired, Part 4: Are You Having Fun Yet?

     Unstructured Interviews    

     Structured Interviews    

     Situational Interviews    

     Puzzle Interviews

     Online Interviews    

     The Interviewer’s Judgments    

References and Letters of Recommendation    

     Newsbreak: Recommendation Letters: What if the Employee is a Nutcase?

Assessment Centers    

     The In-Basket Technique    

     Leaderless Group Discussions    

     Predictive Validity of Assessment Centers    

     Attitudes toward Assessment Centers    

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 4: Psychological Testing

Characteristics of Psychological Tests    

     Standardization    

     Objectivity    

     Test Norms   

     Newsbreak

     Reliability    

     Validity    

     Newsbreak

Fair Employment Practices    

Overview of a Testing Program    

     Newsbreak

Types of Psychological Tests    

     Individual and Group Tests    

     Computerized Adaptive Tests    

     Speed and Power Tests    

What Do Tests Measure?    

     Cognitive Abilities    

     Newsbreak

     Interests    

     Aptitudes    

     Personality    

     Honesty    

     Situational Judgment

Problems with Using Psychological Tests

     Ethical and Privacy Issues

     Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 5: Performance Appraisal

Fair Employment Practices    

Performance Appraisal: Why Do It?    

     Opposition to Performance Appraisal    

     Newsbreak

Objective Performance Appraisal Techniques    

     Output Measures    

     Computerized Performance Monitoring    

     Newsbreak

    Job-Related Personal Data   

Subjective, or Judgmental, Performance Appraisal Techniques 

     Written Narratives    

     Merit Rating Techniques    

     Management by Objectives (MBO)    

Performance Appraisal Methods for Managers    

     Evaluation Techniques    

     Newsbreak

     360-Degree Feedback    

Sources of Bias in Performance Appraisal    

     The Halo Effect    

     Other Sources of Error    

     Newsbreak

Ways to Improve Performance Appraisals    

The Post-Appraisal Interview    

Performance Appraisal: A Poor Rating?    

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 6: Training and Development

The Scope of Organizational Training

     Newsbreak

Goals of Organizational Training

Staffing for Organizational Training

The Pre-Training Environment    

How People Learn: Psychological Issues

     Newsbreak    

Types of Training Programs

     On-the-Job Training    

     Vestibule Training    

     Apprenticeship    

     Computer-Assisted Instruction    

     Net-Based Training    

     Newsbreak

     Behavior Modification    

     Job Rotation    

     Case Studies    

     Business Games    

     In-Basket Training    

     Role Playing    

     Behavior Modeling    

     Newsbreak

     Executive Coaching    

     Diversity Training    

Career Development and Planning    

     Career Self-Management    

     Newsbreak

Evaluating Organizational Training Programs    

Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Additional Reading

 

PART THREE: Organizational Psychology

 

Chapter 7: Leadership

 

The Quality of Modern Leadership

     Newsbreak

     Scientific Management    

     The Human Relations Approach to Leadership    

     Theory X and Theory Y    

Leadership Theories    

     Contingency Theory    

     Path-Goal Theory    

     The Leader-Member Exchange    

     Newsbreak

     Implicit Leadership Theory

Leadership Styles

     Authoritarian and Democratic Leaders    

     Transactional and Transformational Leaders    

     Charismatic Leaders

The Role of Power

     Types of Power    

     Uses of Power    

The Role of Expectations

Leadership Functions   

     The Consideration Dimension    

     The Initiating Structure Dimension    

      Newsbreak

Characteristics of Successful Leaders    

     First-Line Supervisors    

     Managers and Executives    

Pressures and Problems of Leaders

     First-Line Supervisors    

     Managers and Executives    

Diversity Issues in Management: Challenges for Women, Blacks, and Other Groups

     Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 8: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement

 

Content Theories of Motivation    

     Achievement Motivation Theory    

     Needs Hierarchy Theory    

     Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory    

     Job-Characteristics Theory    

Process Theories of Motivation    

     Newsbreak

     Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory    

     Equity Theory    

     Goal-Setting Theory    

Job Satisfaction: The Quality of Life at Work    

     Measuring Job Satisfaction    

     Job Satisfaction Polling Data    

     Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction     

     The Impact of Unemployment    

     Newsbreak

     Job Satisfaction and On-the-Job Behavior    

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Pay    

     Perceived Pay Equity    

     Merit Pay    

     Newsbreak

     Wage-Incentive Pay Systems   

Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment    

     Personal Factors    

     Organizational Factors    

     Types of Commitment    

     Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 9: The Organization of the Organization

The Bureaucratic Organizations of the Past   

High-Involvement Management and Employee Participation    

     Newsbreak    

Total Quality Management

     Success or Failure?    

     Self-Managing Work Teams     

     Virtual Self-Managing Work Teams    

     Newsbreak    

Organizational Change    

     Organizational Development (OD)    

Socialization of New Employees    

   Re-Socialization Due to Job Changes

Organizational Culture    

     Person-Organization Fit    

     Newsbreak    

Labor Unions    

     The Grievance Process    

Informal Groups: The Organization within the Organization    

     The Classic Hawthorne Studies    

     Social Loafing    

     Group Cohesiveness    

Technological Change and Organizational Structure    

     Formalization of the Workplace

     Virtual Meetings

     Loss of Group Cohesiveness

     Excessive Internet Use

     Newsbreak

     Electronic Monitoring

     Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

 

PART FOUR: Characteristics of the Workplace

 

Chapter 10: Working Conditions

 

Physical Working Conditions    

     Newsbreak

     Work Sites    

     Office and Workplace Design    

     Environmental Psychology: Landscaped Offices and Cubicles    

     Newsbreak

     Lighting

     Noise   

     Color   

     Newsbreak

     Music  

     Temperature and Humidity    

Work Schedules    

     Working Hours    

     Permanent Part-Time Employment    

     The Four-Day Workweek    

     Flexible Work Schedules    

     Newsbreak

     Rest Breaks

     Shift Work    

     Newsbreak

Psychological and Social Issues    

     Job Simplification    

     Boredom and Monotony    

     Physical Fatigue    

     Ethnic and Gender Harassment    

Telecommuting

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 11:  Employee Safety and Health Issues

The Scope of Work-Related Health Problems    

     Newsbreak

Understanding Accident Statistics    

Causes of Accidents    

     Workplace Factors    

     Newsbreak

     Personal Factors    

     Newsbreak

 

     Accident Proneness

     Newsbreak

Accident Prevention    

     Newsbreak

     Accident Reports    

     Workplace Conditions    

     Safety Training    

     Management Support    

     Safety Publicity Campaigns and Contests    

The Scope of Workplace Violence

Alcoholism in the Workplace    

     Effects on Job Performance    

     The Alcoholic Executive   

     Newsbreak

     Rehabilitation Programs    

Drug Abuse

     Effects on Job Performance    

     Drug Screening Programs and Policies   

Computer Use and Physical Health Issues

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 12:  Stress in the Workplace

Occupational Health Psychology    

     Newsbreak

Physiological Effects of Stress    

     Psychosomatic Disorders

     Job Satisfaction and Feelings of Control    

Individual Differences in Responding to Stress

     Newsbreak

     Personality Factors

     Type of Occupation    

     Sex Differences    

     Newsbreak

Work-Family Balance    

     Newsbreak

     Organizational Assistance for Work-Family Conflicts

     Newsbreak

Stressors in the Work Environment    

     Work Overload and Underload    

     Newsbreak

     Organizational Change    

     Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict    

     Bad Bosses, Computers, and Other Stressors    

     Burnout    

     Workaholism

Stress-Management Programs    

     Organizational Efforts

     Individual Efforts    

     Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

 

 

PART FIVE: Engineering Psychology

 

Chapter 13: Engineering Psychology

 

Newsbreak

The Development of Engineering Psychology    

The Scope of Engineering Psychology

    Newsbreak

Time-and-Motion Study    

     Newsbreak

    Guidelines for Efficient Work

Person-Machine Systems    

     Allocating Functions     

     Automation: Reducing the Human Role

     Newsbreak

The Design of Workspaces and Tools

    Average Body Measurements

    Seats for Work and Play    

Displays: Presenting Information    

     Visual Displays    

     Newsbreak

     Auditory Displays    

     Tactile Displays

Controls: Taking Action

Human Factors in Health Care

Human Factors in Everyday Life

     Newsbreak

Human Factors and Computers

     Newsbreak

Human Factors and Robots

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

 

 

PART SIX: Consumer Psychology

 

Chapter 14: Consumer Psychology

 

The Scope of Consumer Psychology    

Research Methods in Consumer Psychology    

     Surveys and Public Opinion Polls    

     Newsbreak

     Focus Groups    

     Newsbreak

     Motivation Research    

     Observations of Shopping Behavior    

     Newsbreak

     Neuromarketing

     Testing Reactions to Ads    

     Newsbreak

The Nature and Scope of Advertising    

     Types of Advertising Appeals    

     Trademarks    

     Product Image    

     Product Packaging    

     Newsbreak

     Sex in Ads    

     Effectiveness of Advertising Campaigns    

     Newsbreak

     Web-Based Advertising

Newsbreak

Consumer Behavior and Motivation    

     Newsbreak

     Brand Placement

     Buying Habits and Brand Loyalty    

     Product Pricing    

     Targeted Advertising to Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians

     Advertising to Children and Teens    

     Newsbreak

     Advertising to the Over-50 Market

     Advertising to the Gay Community

     Advertising to People with Disabilities    

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

 

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

CREDITS   

INDEX   

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