Product Cover Image

Psychology: From Science to Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Robert A. Baron, Michael J. Kalsher

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 26, 2008

Description

With a strong emphasis on application–without neglecting research and science–this text focuses on helping students use the findings and knowledge of psychology in their own lives and careers.

 

As the only introductory psychology text written by authors with extensive business experience, this book seeks the ideal balance between psychology's practical and scientific sides. It highlights psychology's scientific nature while simultaneously emphasizing its practical value–how students can actually use and apply the material they read on the job and outside of the classroom. Psychology: From Science to Practice emphasizes three key goals:

 

• Make it clear to students how they can actually use the findings and knowledge of psychology in their own lives and careers.

• Present psychology as a science.

• Discuss the major findings of psychology without overwhelming students with too much detail.

Table of Contents

BRIEF TOC (See FULL TOC below)

Chapter 1: Psychology: What It Is…and What It Offers

Chapter 2: Biological Bases of Behavior

Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception: Making Contact with the World Around Us

Chapter 4: States of Consciousness

Chapter 5: Learning: How We’re Changed by Experience

Chapter 6: Memory and Cognition: Remembering, Thinking, Deciding, Creating

Chapter 7: Human Development

Chapter 8: Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 9: Personality and Intelligence: Understanding Individual Differences

Chapter 10: Health, Stress, and Coping

Chapter 11: Mental Disorders

Chapter 12: Psychological Treatments: Reducing the Pain and Distress of Mental Disorders

Chapter 13: Social Thought and Social Behavior

Chapter 14: Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Understanding Human Behavior at Work

 

FULL TOC

Preface       

Acknowledgements

About the Authors

 

ONE    Psychology: What It Is… and What It Offers       

The Field of Psychology:  What It Is and How It Started          

    The Origins of Modern Psychology:  Multiple Strands Come Together        

Psychology:  Grand Issues, Key Perspectives   

    Key Perspectives in Psychology:  The Many Facets of Behavior   

Psychology In the Twenty-First Century:  Expanding Horizons  

    Evolutionary Psychology:  A New Perspective on "Human Nature" 

    The Exportation of Psychology:  From Science to Practice  

    Growing Recognition of Diversity and Commitment to a Multicultural Perspective    

Psychology and the Scientific Method  

    The Scientific Method: Its Basic Nature

    Advantages of the Scientific Method: Why Common Sense Often  Leads Us Astray     

    The Scientific Method in Everyday Life: The Benefits of Critical Thinking       

Research Methods in Psychology:  How Psychologists Answer Questions About Behavior        

    Observation:  Describing the World Around Us

    Correlation: The Search for Relationships         

    The Experimental Method:  Knowledge through Systematic Intervention   

Psychology:  What’s In It For You?     

Using This Book:  An Overview of Its Special Features   

Psychology Lends a Hand: How To Study Psychology—or Any Other Subject—Effectively    

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

TWO   BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR        

Neurons: Building Blocks of The Nervous System        

    Neurons: Their Basic Structure 

    Neurons: Their Basic Function 

    Neurotransmitters: Chemical Keys to the Nervous System            

The Nervous System:  Its Basic Structure and Functions        

    The Nervous System:  Its Major Divisions            

    The Endocrine System:  Chemical Regulators of Bodily Processes            

The Brain: Where Consciousness Dwells              

    The Brain Stem: Survival Basics   

    The Hypothalamus, Thalamus, and Limbic System:  Motivation and Emotion   

    The Cerebral Cortex: The Core of Complex Thought Two Minds in One Body?  Our Divided Brain  

    How Psychologists Study the Nervous System and the Brain    

The Brain and Human Behavior:  Where Biology and Consciousness Meet         

    How the Brain Functions: A Modern View           

    Plasticity of the Human Brain: How the Brain Is Shaped by Experience 

    The Brain and Human Speech             

    Psychology Lends a Hand: The Potential Role of Brain Plasticity in Cognitive Processes     

    The Brain and Higher Mental Processes   

Heredity and Behavior:  Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology     

    Genetics: Some Basic Principles   

    Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Effects: Research Strategies     

    Evolutionary Psychology:  Genes in Action           

    Psychology Lends a Hand: Promoting Prosocial Behavior to Reduce Aggression              

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

THREE    SENSATION AND PERCEPTION: MAKING  CONTACT  WITH THE WORLD AROUND US   

Sensation: The Raw Materials of Understanding        

    Sensory Thresholds: How Much Stimulation is Enough?

    Sensory Adaptation: “It Feels Great Once You Get Used to It!”   

Vision  

    The Eye: Its Basic Structure         

    Light: The Physical Stimulus for Vision  

    Basic Functions of the Visual System: Acuity, Dark Adaptation, and Eye Movements         

    Color Vision        

    Vision and the Brain: Processing Visual Information      

Hearing   

    The Ear: Its Basic Structure      

    Sound: The Physical Stimulus for Hearing     

    Pitch Perception          

    Sound Localization      

Touch and Other Skin Senses      

    Pain: Its Nature and Control         

Psychology Goes to Work:  The Harmful Effects of Noise: Turn Down the Sound at Work and At Play!   

Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses     

    Smell and Taste: How They Operate        

    Smell and Taste: Some Interesting Findings           

Kinesthesis and Vestibular Sense             

Perception: Putting It All Together        

    Perception: The Focus of Our Attention   

    Psychology Lends a Hand: Exceeding the Limits of Our Attention: Why Do Cell Phones Interfere with Driving?         

    Perception: Some Organizing Principles

    Constancies and Illusions: When Perception Succeeds—and Fails            

    Some Key Perceptual Processes: Pattern and Distance 

PSI: Perception Without Sensation?      

    Psi: What Is It?

    Psi: Does It Really Exist?         

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

 

FOUR    STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS        

Biological Rhythms: Tides of Life—and Conscious Experience  

    Circadian Rhythms: Their Basic Nature

    Individual Differences in Circadian Rhythms: Are You a Morning Person or a Night Person?         

    Disturbances in Circadian Rhythms: Jet Lag and Graveyard- or Swing-Shift Work        

    Psychology Lends a Hand: Coping with Jet Lag and the “Blahs” of Graveyard-Shift Work: Some Techniques That Can Help   

Waking States of Consciousness: From Controlled Processing to…Intuition      

    Controlled and Automatic Processing: Two Basic Modes of Thought        

    Intuition: Thought Outside Consciousness Awareness       

Sleep: The Pause That Refreshes?        

    The Basic Nature of Sleep       

    Why Do We Sleep? The Many Functions of Sleep       

    Effects of Sleep Deprivation         

    Sleep Disorders: No Rest for Some of the Weary         

    Dreams: “Now Playing in Your Private, Inner Theater…”   

Hypnosis: Altered State of Consciousness…Or Social Role Playing?    

    Hypnosis: How It’s Done and Who Is Susceptible to It

    Hypnosis: Contrasting Views about Its Nature  

    But Yet…Evidence That Hypnotism Does Involve More Than Suggestion            

    Psychology Lends a Hand: Hypnosis: Effective Against Pain?        

Consciousness-Altering Drugs: What They Are and What They Do   

    Consciousness-Altering Drugs: Some Basic Concepts  

    Consciousness-Altering Drugs: An Overview    

    Psychology Goes to Work: Drug Testing at Work—What Are Your Rights?          

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

        

FIVE    LEARNING: HOW WE’RE CHANGED BY EXPERIENCE          

Classical Conditioning: Learning That Some Stimuli Signal Others         

    Pavlov’s Early Work on Classical Conditioning

    Classical Conditioning: Some Basic Principles       

    Classical Conditioning: The Neural Basis of Learning    

    Classical Conditioning: Exceptions to the Rules 

    Classical Conditioning: A Cognitive Perspective

    Classical Conditioning: Turning Principles into Action    

Operant Conditioning: Learning Based On Consequences         

    The Nature of Operant Conditioning: Consequential Operations     

PSYCHOLOGY LENDS A HAND: Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child? The Wisdom of Using Punishment with Children            

    Operant Conditioning: Some Basic Principles   

    Operant Conditioning: A Cognitive Perspective

    Applying Operant Conditioning: Solving Problems of Everyday Life      

Observational Learning: Learning From the Behavior and Outcomes of Others        184

    Observational Learning: Some Basic Principles 

    Observational Learning and Aggression

    Observational Learning and Culture          

    PSYCHOLOGY GOES TO WORK:  Using Behavioral Modeling and Mental Rehearsal to Teach Computer Skills        

    Observational Learning: Some Practical Applications    

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

SIX    MEMORY AND COGNITION:  REMEMBERING, THINKING, DECIDING, CREATING    

Human Memory: How We Remember, Why We Forget              

    Memory: An Information-Processing Model—and Beyond           

    Our Different Memory Systems

    Memory for Factual Information: Episodic and Semantic Memory             

    Memory for Skills: Procedural Memory        

    Forgetting: Largely a Matter of Interference—but What Kind of Interference?           

    Memory Distortion and Construction: How Memories Are Sometimes Changed—or Created 

    Memory in Everyday Life: Autobiographical Memory and Memory for Emotions   

    Psychology Goes To Work: Using Memory Principles to Boost the Fairness, Accuracy, and Favorableness of Your Own Performance Appraisals     

    Memory and the Brain: Evidence from Memory Impairments and Other Sources  

Cognition: Thinking, Deciding, Creating

        Psychology Lends a Hand: Improving Your Memory: Some Useful Steps

    The Limits of Human Cognition: Why We Aren’t—and Can’t Be—as Rational as We’d Like        

    Thinking: The Foundation of Consciousness          

    Decision Making: Choosing Among Alternatives   

    Psychology Lends a Hand: Making Good Decisions:  Avoiding Major Pitfalls

    Creativity: Generating the Extraordinary   

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

SEVEN    HUMAN DEVELOPMENT       

Physical Growth and Development During Childhood       

    The Prenatal Period         

    Prenatal Influences on Development            

    Physical Development during Our Early Years 

Perceptual Development during Childhood  

Cognitive Development during Childhood: Changes in Our Ability to Understand the

    World around Us         

    Piaget’s Theory: An Overview 

    Piaget’s Theory: A modern Assessment     

    Beyond Piaget: Children's Theory of Mind And Research on the Information-Processing Perspective

    Language: Learning to Communicate        

Moral Development: Reasoning about “Right” and “Wrong”     

    Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Understanding          

    Evidence Concerning Kohlberg’s Theory         

Social Development during Childhood: Forming Relationships with Others        

    Temperament: Individual Differences in Emotional Style

    Attachment: The Beginnings of Love      

    Siblings and Friends:  Key Factors in Social Development            

From Gender Identity to Sex Category Constancy: How Children Come to Understand That They are Female or Male     

    Children's Growing Sophistication With Respect to Gender          

    Psychology Lends a Hand:  Helping Children Avoid the Dangers of Obesity   

    Gender Development: Contrasting Explanations of How It Occurs     

Adolescence: Between Child and Adult     

    Physical Development during Adolescence          

    Cognitive Development during Adolescence          

    Social and Emotional Development during Adolescence

Development during Our Adult Years             

    Erikson’s Theory Revisited: The Crises of Adult Life          

    Physical Change during Our Adult Years          

    Cognitive Change during Adulthood        

    Social and Emotional Development during Adulthood    

Death and Bereavement         

    Meeting Death: Facing the End with Dignity          

    Bereavement: Coming to Terms with the Death of Loved Ones 

         Psychology Goes to Work:  Choosing a Career: Some “Steps That Can Help”   

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings           

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

EIGHT    MOTIVATION AND EMOTION      

Motivation: The Activation and Persistence of Behavior

    Theories of Motivation: Some Major Perspectives        

         Psychology Lends a Hand:  Managing your Own Motivation       

    Hunger: Regulating Our Caloric Intake 

    Sexual Motivation: The Most Intimate Motive   

    Achievement Motivation: The Desire to Excel   

    Intrinsic Motivation: How, Sometimes, to Turn Play Into Work 

    Forgiveness: When compassion Replaces the Desire for Revenge         

Emotions: Their Nature, Expression, and impact   

    The Nature of Emotions: Some Contrasting Views            

    The Biological Basis of Emotions          

    The External Expression of Emotion: Outward Signs of Inner Feelings               

    Emotion and Cognition: How Feelings Shape Thought and Thought Shapes Feelings   

Subjective Well-Being: Causes and Effects of Personal Happiness            

         Psychology Lends a Hand: Becoming a Very Happy Person         

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

NINE    PERSONALITY AND INTELLIGENCE:  understanding Individual Differences        

Personality:  The Essence of What Makes Us Unique       

    The Psychoanalytic Approach: Messages from The Unconscious          

         Psychology Lends a Hand: Too Much Freud For Our Own Good? Questioning Freudian Assumptions in Everyday Life     

    Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Growth     

    Trait Theories: Seeking the Key Dimensions of Personality      

    Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Personality          

    Measuring Personality  

    Modern Research on Personality:  Beyond Grand Theories     

         Psychology Goes to Work:  Taking, Not Faking, Employment Tests 

Intelligence: The Nature of Cognitive Abilities       

    Intelligence: Contrasting Views of Its Nature     

    Measuring Intelligence  

    The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Intelligence 

    Intelligence:  Heredity, Environment, and Group Differences      

    Emotional Intelligence:  The Feeling Side of Intelligence

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

TEN    HEALTH, STRESS, AND COPING        

Health Psychology: An Overview

Stress: Its Causes, Effects, and Control

    Stress: Its Basic Nature

    Stress: Some Major Causes     

    Stress: Some Major Effects      

         Psychology Goes to Work: Job Stress: What Can You Do to Control It

Understanding and Communicating Our Health Needs  

    Health Beliefs: When Do We Seek and Listen to Medical Advice?       

    Doctor­–Patient Interactions: Why Can’t We Talk to Our Doctors?       

Behavioral and Psychological Correlates of Illness: The Effects of Thoughts and Actions on Health          

    Smoking: Risky for you and Everyone around You

         Psychology Lends a Hand: What Are the Risks of Long-Term Cell Phone Use: Can You Hear Me Now        

    Diet and Nutrition: What You Eat May Save Your Life 

    Alcohol Consumption: Here’s to your Health?  

    AIDS: A Major Assault on Public Health         

    Emotions and Health        

Promoting Wellness: Developing a Healthier Lifestyle    

    Primary Prevention: Decreasing the Risks of Illness       

    Secondary Prevention: The Role of Early Detection in Disease and Illness       

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide

 

ELEVEN    MENTAL DISORDERS: WHEN BEHAVIOR GOES “OVER THE EDGE”          

Assessment and Diagnosis: The DSM-IV-TR and Other Tools 

    Psychological Assessment: Other Techniques for Measuring Mental Disorders        

Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence       

    Disruptive Behavior and Attention Deficit Disorders      

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)        

    Feeding and Eating Disorders       

    Autism: A Pervasive Developmental Disorder   

Mood Disorders: The Downs and Ups of Life  

    Depressive Disorders: Probing the Depths of Despair   

    Bipolar Disorders: Riding the Emotional Roller-Coaster

    The Causes of Depression: Its Biological and Psychological Roots      

         Psychology Lends a Hand: Stop Running—and Feel Better

Anxiety Disorders: When Dread Debilitates          

    Phobias: Excessive Fear of Specific Objects or Situations         

    Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia         

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Behaviors and Thoughts Outside One’s Control

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder   

Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders   

    Dissociative Disorders 

    Somatoform Disorders: Physical Symptoms without Physical Causes  

Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders  

    Sexual Dysfunctions: Disturbances In Desire and Arousal              

    Paraphillas: Disturbances in Sexual Object or Behavior 

    Gender Identity Disorders        

         Psychology Goes to Work: Abusive Supervisors and How to Deal with

Personality Disorders: Traits That Harm        

Schizophrenia: Losing Touch with Reality             

    The Nature of Schizophrenia        

    The Onset and Course of Schizophrenia   

    Causes of Schizophrenia          

    Substance-Related Disorders       

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

TWELVE    Psychological Treatments:  Reducing the Pain and Distress of Mental Disorders     

Psychotherapies:  The Therapeutic Alliance as the Foundation for Psychological Treatments   

    Psychodynamic Therapies:  From Repression to Insight

    Phenomenological/Experiential Therapies: Emphasizing the Positive       

    Behavior Therapies:  Mental Disorders and Faulty Learning      

    Cognitive Therapies:  Changing Disordered Thought     

    Computer and Internet-Based Therapies          

Psychological Treatments and Diversity: A Multicultural Approach to Combating Mental Disorders        

Alternatives to Individual Psychotherapy: Group Therapies       

    Marital Therapy:  When Spouses Are Seen as the Enemy         

    Family Therapy:  Changing Patterns That Harm     

         Psychology Goes to Work:  Employee Assistance Programs—A Helping Hand from Your Company     

Biological Therapies     

    Drug Therapy:  The Pharmacological Revolution   

    Electroconvulsive Therapy       

    Psychosurgery:  From Lobotomies to Brain Implants    

Psychological Treatments: Are They Effective? 

    Are Some Forms of Psychological Treatment More Successful Than Others?  

    Why Are Different Types of Therapy Effective?     

    Psychology Lends a Hand: Choosing a Therapist—Some “Do’s” and “Don’ts”  

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

THIRTEEN    SOCIAL THOUGHT AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Social Thought:  Thinking About Other People 

    Nonverbal Communication: Unspoken Clues to Others’ Moods and Reactions      

    Psychology Lends a Hand: How to Tell When Another Person is Lying   

    Attribution:  Understanding the Causes of Others’ Behavior          

    Social Cognition:  How We Process Social Information

    Attitudes:  Evaluating the Social World 

Social Behavior:  Interacting with Others              

    Prejudice:  Distorted Views of the Social World…and Their Effects      

    Psychology Goes To Work: Prejudice in Work Settings: The Forms It Takes and What Companies are Doing to Combat It             

    Social Influence: Changing Others’ Behavior     

    Attraction…And Love

Summary and Review of Key Questions        

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

   

FOURTEEN    INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:  UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR AT

Selection:  Hiring the Best Person for the Job          

    Job Analysis: Assessing the Requirements for the Job          

    Developing Selection Techniques:  Validity, Utility, and Fairness      

    Assessing Job Applicants:  Interviews, Tests, and More       

Training:  Helping Employees Acquire Relevant Skills         

    Needs Analysis: Assessing What Skills Need to Be Trained 

    Program Development: Designing a Training Method   

    Evaluating Training Effectiveness: More Than Just Learning 

Performance Appraisal: Identifying Employee Strengths and Weaknesses    

    Why Performance Appraisal is Unpopular, Yet Essential     

    Supervisors are Human, Too:  Errors, Biases and Memory Lapses  

         Psychology Lends a Hand:  How to Give Feedback to Coworkers             

Work Motivation: Encouraging Employees to Do Their Best       

    Job Satisfaction: Are Happy Workers Productive Workers?         

    Organizational Citizenship & Retaliation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

    Creating a Satisfying Work Environment: The Essential Role of Fairness   

Leadership:  From Supervisors to CEOs         

    Leader Characteristics:  How Effective Leaders Are Different From Others 

    Leadership in Context:  How the Work Setting Influences Leaders   

    Transformational Leadership: Encouraging and Inspiring Others       

         Psychology Lends a Hand:  How to Become a More Transformational Leader

Teamwork: The Challenges of Collaborative Work 

    Team Composition: Deciding Who Should Work with Whom          

    Managing Conflict: The Benefits of Some Forms of Disagreement        

    Encouraging Cooperation over Competition     

Summary and Review of Key Questions       

Key Terms      

Psychology: Understanding Its Findings       

Making Psychology Part of Your Life        

MyPsychLab    

Study Guide   

 

Glossary        

References    

Answer Key   

Name Index   

Subject Index 

Credits

 

 

Purchase Info ?

With CourseSmart eTextbooks and eResources, you save up to 60% off the price of new print textbooks, and can switch between studying online or offline to suit your needs.

Once you have purchased your eTextbooks and added them to your CourseSmart bookshelf, you can access them anytime, anywhere.

Buy Access

Psychology: From Science to Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition
Format: Safari Book

$65.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-205-61419-6