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Psychology: Science of Behavior, CourseSmart eTextbook, 7th Edition

By Neil R. Carlson, Harold L. Miller, Donald S. Heth, John W. Donahoe, G. Neil Martin

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 3, 2009

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For undergraduate courses in Introductory Psychology for two and four year institutions.


A rigorous biological and evolutionary approach to introductory psychology text written by an international team of authors.


Based on the connections between behavior and its biological underpinnings, Psychology: The Science of Behavior presents psychological behavior in the context of its adaptive significance. The Seventh Edition again combines a scholarly survey of research with real-world applications of research results to problems that confront us today. The authors apply the discovery method to take students inside the research process to foster a critical understanding of the logic and significance of empirical findings.

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1 The Science of Psychology

CHAPTER 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology

CHAPTER 3 Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior

CHAPTER 4 Biology of Behavior

CHAPTER 5 Learning and Behavior

CHAPTER 6 Sensation

CHAPTER 7 Perception

CHAPTER 8 Memory

CHAPTER 9 Consciousness

CHAPTER 10 Language

CHAPTER 11 Intelligence and Thinking

CHAPTER 12 Life-Span Development

CHAPTER 13 Motivation, Emotions, and Health

CHAPTER 14 Personality

CHAPTER 15 Social Psychology

CHAPTER 16 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders

CHAPTER 17 The Treatment of Psychological Disorders




1. The Science of Psychology

What Is Psychology?

            Why Behavior is Studied

            Fields of Psychology

The Growth of Psychology as a Science

            Philosophical Roots of Psychology

            Biological Roots of Psychology

            FOCUS ON: How Scientific is Psychology, Really?

            Applications in Education and Therapy

            FOCUS ON: What Are the Roots of Psychology Within Chinese Culture?

Major Trends in the Development of Psychology



            Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory

            Psychology in Transition


            Humanistic Psychology

            Reaction Against Behavior: The Emphasis on Cognition

            Reaction Against Behavior: The Emphasis on Neurobiology

2. The Ways and Means of Psychology

The Scientific Method in Psychology

            Types of Research

            Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research

            Designing an Experiment

            Performing an Experiment

            FOCUS ON: Response Bias in Different Cultures

            Performing a Correlational Study

            Reporting and Generalizing a Study

            FOCUS ON: Cross-Cultural Research


            Research with Human Participants

            Research with Animals

Understanding Research Results

            Descriptive Statistics: What Are the Results?

            Inferential Statistics: Distinguishing Chance From Significance

            FOCUS ON: Alternative Methods

3. Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior

The Development of Evolutionary Science

            The Voyage of the Beagle

            The Origin of Species

            Discovering the Mechanisms of Heredity

            The Three Components of Evolution through Natural Selection

Evolution of Humans

            Human Origins 

Heredity, Genetics, and Evolution

            Basic Principles of Genetics


            Chromosomes and Meiosis

            FOCUS ON: Frontiers in Evolutionary Research 

            Dominant and Recessive Traits

            Importance of Genetic Diversity

            Sex-Linked Traits

            Mutations and Chromosomal Aberrations

            Genetic Disorders

Evolution and Human Behavior


            Evolutionary Psychology 

4. Biology of Behavior

The Brain and Its Components

            Basic Structure of the Nervous System

            Cells of the Nervous System

            The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential

            Communication with Other Cells: Synapses

Drugs and Behavior

            Effects of Drugs on Synaptic Transmission

            Neurotransmitters, their Actions, and Drugs that Affect Them

Study of the Brain

            Experimental Ablation

            Visualizing the Structure of the Brain

            Measuring the Brain’s Activity

            Stimulating the Brain’s Activity

            Altering Genetics

            FOCUS ON: The Ever-Changing Brain: Neural Plasticity and Neurogenesis

Control of Behavior and the Body’s Physiological Functions

            Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

            Lateralization of Function



            Somatosensation and Spatial Perception

            Planning and Moving

            Episodic and Spatial Memory: Role of the Hippocampus

            Emotions: Role of the Amygdala

            Control of Internal Functions and Automatic Behavior

5. Learning and Behavior

How Learning is Studied

            Pavlov’s Procedure

            Thorndike’s Procedure

            Comparison between Pavlov’s and Thorndike’s Procedures

Conditions Required For Learning

            Temporal Contiguity

            Behavioral Discrepancy

            FOCUS ON: Insight-Can Basic Learning Procedures Help Understand Complex Behavior?

The Process of Learning



            Stimulus Generalization

            Stimulus Discrimination

            Choice between Multiple Operants

            FOCUS ON: Self-Control--How Does Conditioned Reinforcement Affect Self-Control?


Biological Basis of Reinforcement

            Neural Systems of Reinforcement

            Cellular Mechanisms of Reinforcement

Learning with Experience

            Perceptual Learning

            Instructional Control

            Observational Learning

6. Sensation

Sensory Processing


            Sensory Coding



            The Eye and Its Functions

            Transduction of Light by Photoreceptors

            Adaptation to Light and Dark

            Eye Movements

            Color Vision



            The Ear and Its Functions

            Detecting and Localizing Sounds in the Environment

            FOCUS ON: The Deaf Community

The Chemical Senses



            FOCUS ON: Sensory-Specific Satiety

The Somatosenses

            The Skin Senses

            The Internal Senses

            The Vestibular Senses

7. Perception

Brain Mechanisms of Visual Perception

            The Primary Visual Cortex

            The Visual Association Cortex  

Visual Perception of Objects

            Figure and Ground

            Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization 

            Models of Pattern Perception

            FOCUS ON: Does the Brain Work Like a Computer?

            Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing: The Roles of Features and Context

            Perceptual ("What") and Action ("Where") Systems: A Possible Synthesis

Visual Perception of Space and Motion

            Depth Perception

            FOCUS ON: How Does Culture Affect Visual Perception?

            Constancies of Visual Perception

            Motion Perception

8. Memory

Overview of Memory

Sensory Memory

            Iconic Memory

            Echoic Memory

Short-Term or Working Memory

            Encoding of Information in the Short-Term: Interaction with Long-Term Memory

            Primacy and Recency Effects

            The Limits of Working Memory

            Varieties of Working Memory

            Loss of Information from Short-Term Memory

Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory

            The Consolidation Hypothesis

            The Levels-of-Processing Approach

            Improving Long-Term Memory through Mnemonics

The Organization of Long-Term Memory

            Episodic and Semantic Memory

            Explicit and Implicit Memory

            The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory

Remembering, Recollecting, and Forgetting

            How Long Does Memory Last?

            FOCUS ON: Cultural Contexts for Remembering

            Remembering and Recolleting

            Forgetting and Interference

            Reconstruction: Remembering as a Creative Process

            FOCUS ON: Some Sins of Memory

9. Consciousness

Consciousness as a Language-Development Phenomenon

            The Adaptive Significance of Consciousness

            Consciousness and the Ability to Communicate

            Does Conscious Thought Control Behavior?

Selective Attention

            Auditory Information

            Visual Information

            Brain Mechanisms of Selective Attention

Consciousness and the Brain

            Isolation Aphasia: A Case of Global Unawareness

            Visual Agnosia: Lack of Awareness of Visual Perceptions

            The Split-Brain Syndrome

            FOCUS ON: Embodied Consciousness and the Out-of-Body Experience


            Hypnotic Induction and Suggestion


            The Stages of Sleep

            Functions of Sleep


            Disorders of Sleep

            Brain Mechanisms of Sleep

10. Language

Speech Comprehension and Production

            Speech Recognition

            Understanding the Meaning of Speech

            Brain Mechanisms of Speech Production and Comprehension


            Scanning of Text

            Phonetic and Whole-Word Recognition: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience 

Language Acquisition by Children

            Language Acquisition Device

            Recognition of Speech Sounds by Infants

            The Prespeech Period and the First Words

            The Two-Word Stage

            How Adults Talk to Children

            Acquisition of Adult Rules of Grammar

            Acquisition of Meaning

            The Role of Memory in Understanding the Meanings of Written Words and Sentences

            FOCUS ON: Communication with Other Species

11. Intelligence and Thinking

Intelligence: Is It Global or Componential?

            Spearman’s g Theory 

            Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

            Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

            FOCUS ON: Cultural Definitions of Intelligence

Intelligence Testing

            Intelligence Tests

            Reliability and Validity of Intelligence Tests

            The Use and Abuse of Intelligence Tests

The Roles of Heredity and Environment

            The Meaning of Heritability

            Sources of Environmental and Genetic Effects during Development

            A Sample of Results of Heritability Studies

            FOCUS ON: The Issue of Race and Intelligence

Thinking and Problem Solving

            Classification and Concept Formation

            Deductive Reasoning

            Inductive Reasoning

            Problem Solving

12. Life-Span Development

Prenatal Development

            Stages of Prenatal Development

            Threats to Normal Prenatal Development

Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood

            Motor Development

            Perceptual Development

Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood

            The Importance of a Responsive Environment

            The Work of Jean Piaget

            Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

            Applying Information-Processing Models to Cognitive Development

            FOCUS ON: Cognitive Development and Television Viewing

Social Development in Infancy and Childhood

            Behaviors of the Infant That Foster Attachment

            The Nature and Quality of Attachment

            Approaches to Child Rearing

            Interactions with Peers

Development of Gender Roles

            The Nature of Gender Differences

Moral Development

            Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development

            Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

            Evaluation of Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development


            Physical Development

            Social Development

            Cognitive Development

Adulthood and Old Age

            Physical Development

            Cognitive Development

            Social Development

13. Motivation, Emotions, and Health

What is Motivation?

Reinforcement and Motivation

            Untoward Effects of Reinforcement: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

            What Determines the Strength of Behavior?

            What Determines the Persistence of Behavior?


            What Starts a Meal?

            What Stops a Meal?


            Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

           FOCUS ON: Eating Disorders in Other Cultures

Aggressive Behavior

            Ethological Studies of Aggression

            Hormones and Aggression

            Environmental Variables that Affect Human Aggression

Sexual Behavior

            Effects of Sex Hormones on Behavior

            Sexual Orientation


            Emotions as Response Patterns

            Aggression, Moral Judgment, and Impulse Control

The Expression and Recognition of Emotions

            The Social Nature of Emotional Expressions of Humans

            The Universality of Emotional Expressions of Humans

            Situations that Produce Emotions: The Role of Cognition

            Feelings of Emotions

Stress and Health

            The Biological Basis of Stress

            Cognitive Appraisal and Stress

Behaviors Related to Stress and Impaired Health

            Stress Reactions and CHD


Coping with Everyday Stress

            Coping Styles and Strategies


14. Personality

Trait Theories of Personality

            Personality Types and Traits

            Identification of Personality Traits

Psychobiological Approaches

            Heritability of Personality Traits

            Brain Mechanisms in Personality

            FOCUS ON: Gender Differences in Personality

Social Cognitive Approaches

            Expectancies and Observational Learning

            Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy

            Personality Across Time

            FOCUS ON: Traits versus Situations as Predictors of Behavior

            Locus of Control

            Positive Psychology

The Psychodynamic Approach

            The Development of Freud’s Theory

            Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego

            Defense Mechanisms

            Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development

            Further Development of Freud’s Theory: The Neo-Freudians

            Some Observations on Psychodynamic Theory and Research

The Humanistic Approach

            Maslow and Self-Actualization

            Rogers and Conditions of Worth

            Some Observations on the Humanistic Approach

Assessment of Personality

            Objective Tests of Personality

            Projective Tests of Personality

            Evaluation of Projective Tests

15. Social Psychology

Social Cognition

            Impression Formation

            The Self


            Attributional Biases

            Attribution, Heuristics, and Social Cognition

Attitudes: Their Formation and Change

            Formation of Attitudes

            Attitude Change and Persuasion

            Cognitive Dissonance


Stereotypes and Prejudice

            The Origins of Prejudice

            Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

            Hope for Change

Social Influences and Group Behavior


            Social Facilitation

            Social Loafing

            Commitment and Compliance

            Obedience to Authority

            Group Decision Making

            Resisting Social Influences

Interpersonal Attraction and Loving

            Interpersonal Attraction

            FOCUS ON: Arousal and Interpersonal Attraction


            FOCUS ON: The Evolution of Love

16. The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders

Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders

            What Is “Abnormal”?

            Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders

            The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme

            Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification

            FOCUS ON: Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis

Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Childhood

            Attention-Defifcit/Hyperactivity Disorder

            Autistic Disorder

Substance-Related Disorders


            Possible Causes



            Types of Schizophrenia

            Possible Causes

Mood Disorders


            Possible Causes

Anxiety and Dissociative Disorders

            Anxiety Disorders  

            Dissociative Disorders

            FOCUS ON: Culture-Bound Syndromes

Personality Disorders

            Antisocial Personality Disorder

            Borderline Personality Disorder


17. The Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Psychological Disorders and Therapy

            Early Treatment of Psychological Disorders

            The Development of Treatment

Insight Therapies

            Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapies

            Contemporary Psychodynamic Theory

            Humanistic Therapy

            Evaluation of Insight Therapies

Behavior Therapies and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

            Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning

            Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning

            Maintaining Behavioral Change

            Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

            Evaluation of Behavior and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Group Therapies and Community Psychology

            Family Therapy and Couples Therapy

            Community Psychology

            Evaluation of Family and Couples Therapy and Community Psychology

            FOCUS ON: Cultural Belief Systems and Indigenous Healing Therapies

Biological Therapies

            Drug Therapy

            Electroconvulsive Therapy


            Evaluation of Biological Treatments

            FOCUS ON: Assessing Therapeutic Efficacy

The Relationship between Client and Therapist

            Ethical Issues

            Selecting a Therapist

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Psychology: Science of Behavior, CourseSmart eTextbook, 7th Edition
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$97.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-205-73764-2