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Public School Law: Teachers' and Students' Rights, CourseSmart eTextbook, 6th Edition

By Stephen B. Thomas, Martha M. McCarthy, Nelda H. Cambron-McCabe

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Mar 31, 2008

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Description

Updated and revised to reflect new policy and legal decisions, the Sixth Edition of Public School Law: Teacher's and Student's Rights provides an all-inclusive treatment of the current status and evolution of the law governing public schools, making it the most comprehensive and well-documented school law text available.

 

The text addresses legal principles applicable to practitioners in a succinct but comprehensive manner. It uniquely blends a detailed treatment of landmark cases with a thorough discussion of the legal context, trends, and generalizations to guide all school personnel in their daily activities. Information in this text will help alleviate concerns voiced by educators who either don't know the legal concepts that govern schools or feel that the scales of justice have been tipped against them.

Table of Contents

1                    Legal Framework of Public Education

State Control of Education

Legislative Power

            State Agencies

            Local School Boards

            School-based Councils

Federal Role in Education

            United States Constitution

                        General Welfare Clause

                        Commerce Clause

                        Obligation of Contract Clause

                        First Amendment

                        Fourth Amendment

                        Fifth Amendment

                        Ninth Amendment

                        Fourteenth Amendment

            Federal Legislation

                        Funding Laws

                        Civil Rights Laws

            Federal Administrative Agencies

Function and Structure of the Judicial System

            State Courts

            Federal Courts

            Judicial Trends

Conclusion

 

2          Church-State Relations

Constitutional Framework

Religious Influences in Public Schools

Silent Prayer Statutes

School-Sponsored Versus Private Devotionals

Weisman and Its Progeny 

Student Elections to Authorize Prayers

                        Pledge of Allegiance

Religious Displays and Holiday Observances

Proselytization in the Classroom

Equal Access for Religious Expression and Groups

Equal Access Act

School Access for Community Groups

Distribution of Religious Literature

Accommodations for Religious Beliefs

Release-Time Programs

Religious Absences

Religious Exemptions from Secular Activities

                                Observances

                                Curriculum Components    

Religious Challenges to the Secular Curriculum

The Origin of Humanity

Other Challenges

State Aid to Private Schools

Aid for Student Services

      Aid to Encourage Educational Choice

Tax Relief Measures

Vouchers

Conclusion       

 

3          School Attendance and Instructional Issues

Compulsory School Attendance

Alternatives to Public Schooling

Health Requirements

Residency Requirements

School Fees

Transportation

Textbooks, Courses, and Materials

The School Curriculum

Requirements and Restrictions

Censorship of Instructional Materials

             Parental Challenges

             Censorship by Policymakers

             Electronic Censorship

Student Proficiency Testing

Educational Malpractice/Instructional Negligence

Instructional Privacy Rights

Student Records

Pupil Protection and Parental Rights Laws

Conclusion

 

4          Students’ Rights in Noninstructional Matters

Freedom of Speech and Press

Unprotected Expression

Defamatory Expression

Obscene, Lewd, or Vulgar Expression

Inflammatory Expression

Advocacy of Illegal Activity for Minors

Commercial Expression

School-Sponsored Expression

Type of Forum

Hazelwood and Its Progeny

Protected Private Expression

Prior Restraints

Post-Expression Discipline

Anti-Harassment Policies

Electronic Expression

Time, Place, and Manner Regulations

Future Directions

         Student-Initiated Clubs

         Student Appearance

Hairstyle

Attire

               Dress Codes

                                 Student Uniforms

         Extracurricular Activities

Attendance, Training, and Recruitment Regulations

Restrictions on Eligibility

Fees for Participation

Other Conditions

         Conclusion

 

5                    Student Classifications

Legal Context

Classifications Based on Race

                        Pre-Brown Litigation

                        De Jure Segregation in the South

                        Distinguishing Between De Jure and De Facto Segregation

                        Fashioning Appropriate Remedies

Rezoning and the Closing, Reopening, or Construction of

   Schools

                                    Busing

                                    Programmatic Options

                                    Interdistrict Remedies

                                    Staff Desegregation Remedies

                                    Fiscal Responsibilities

                        Achieving Unitary Status

                        Postunitary Transfer and School Assignment

                        Race as a Factor in Admission to Private Schools

                        Race Discrimination and Matriculated Students

Classifications Based on Native Language

Classifications Based on Ability or Achievement

                        Tracking Schemes

                        Gifted and Talented Students

Classifications Based on Age

Classifications Based on Sex

                        Interscholastic Sports

                                    Single-sex Teams

                                    Fewer Sports Opportunities for Females

                                    Modified Sports and Separate Seasons for Females

                        Academic Programs

                                    Single-sex Schools

                                    Sex-segregated Courses and Programs

                                    Sex-based Admission Criteria

                        Sexual Harassment of Students

                                    Employee-to-Student Harassment

                                    Student-to-Student Harassment

            Marriage and Pregnancy

Conclusion

 

6                    Rights of Students with Disabilities

Legal Context

                        Rehabilitation Act

                        Americans with Disabilities Act

                        Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Individualized Education Programs

                        Initial Identification

                        Evaluation

                        IEP Team

                        IEP Preparation

                        Free Appropriate Public Education

                        Least Restrictive Environment

                        Private Schools

Public Placement of a Child in a Private School

                        Parental Placement of a Child in a Private School

                        Services Available in Private Schools

                        Change of Placement

Related Services

                        Transportation

                        Psychological Services

                        Health and Nursing Services

Extended School Year

Participation in Sports

Discipline

                        Suspension

                        Expulsion

Procedural Safeguards

                        Stay-Put Provision

                        Informal Meeting

                        Mediation

                        Impartial Due Process Hearing

                        State Review

                        Civil Action

                        Remedies and Attorneys’ Fees

Conclusion

 

7                    Student Discipline

Conduct Regulations

Expulsions and Suspensions

            Expulsions

                        Procedural Requirements

                        Zero-Tolerance Policies

            Suspensions

                        Procedural Requirements

                        Disciplinary Transfers to Alternative Educational Placements

                        Anti-Bullying Laws

Corporal Punishment

            Constitutional Issues

            State Law

Academic Sanctions

            Absences

            Misconduct

Search and Seizure

            Application of Fourth Amendment to Students

            Lockers

            Search of Personal Possessions

            Personal Search of Students

                        Personal Searches

                        Strip Searches

                        Seizure of Students

            Use of Metal Detectors

            Drug-Detecting Canines

            Drug Testing

            Police Involvement

Remedies for Unlawful Disciplinary Actions

Conclusion

 

8                    Terms and Conditions of Employment

Licensure or Certification

Employment by Local School Boards

            Employment Requirements

            Assignment of Personnel and Duties

Contracts

            Term and Tenure Contracts

            Supplemental Contracts

            Domestic Partner Benefits

            Leaves of Absence

Personnel Evaluation

Personnel Records

Other Employment Issues

            Using Copyrighted Materials

            Reporting Suspected Child Abuse

Conclusion

 

9        Substantive Constitutional Rights

Freedom of Expression

Legal Principles

Application of the Legal Principles

Prior Restraint and Channel Rules

Expressing Personal Views in the Classroom

            Academic Freedom

Course Content

Teaching Strategies

                             Adequate Notice

                              Relevancy

                              Threat of Disruption

                              Community Standards

Freedom of Association

Political Affiliations

Political Activity

Campaigning for Issues and Candidates

Holding Public Office

Personal Appearance

Privacy Rights

Search and Seizure

Lifestyle Controversies

Conclusion

 

10        Discrimination in Employment

Legal Context

                        Fourteenth Amendment

                        Title VII

                                    Qualifying as an Employer

                                    Disparate Treatment and Impact

                                    Retaliation

                                    Relief

Race and National-Origin Discrimination

                        Hiring and Promotion Practices

                                    Testing

Adverse Decisions

                        Affirmative Action

Sex Discrimination

                        Hiring and Promotion Practices

                        Compensation Practices

                        Termination, Nonrenewal, and Denial of Tenure

                                    Sexual Harassment

                                                Quid Pro Quo

                                                Hostile Environment

                        Pregnancy Discrimination

Retirement Benefits

Sexual-Preference Discrimination

                        Access to Benefits

                        Harassment

                        Adverse Employment Decisions

Religious Discrimination

                        Hiring and Promotion Practices

                        Accommodation

                                    Attire Restrictions

                                    Personal Leave

                                    Job Assignments and Responsibilities

                        Adverse Employment Decisions

Age Discrimination

                        Hiring and Promotion Practices

                        Compensation and Benefits

                        Adverse Employment Actions

Termination, Nonrenewal, Reduction-in-Force

                                    Transfer

                        Retaliation

                        Retirement

Disability Discrimination

                        Qualifying as Disabled

                        Otherwise Qualified

                        Reasonable Accommodation

                        Termination and Nonrenewal

Conclusion

 

11                Termination of Employment

Procedural Due Process in General

            Dismissal

            Nonrenewal

            Establishing Protected Property and Liberty Interests

                        Property Interest

                        Liberty Interest

Procedural Requirements in Discharge Proceedings

            Notice

            Hearing

                        Adequate Notice of Hearing

                        Waiver of Hearing

                        Impartial Hearing

                        Evidence

                        Findings of Fact

Dismissal for Cause

            Incompetency

            Immorality

            Insubordination

            Neglect of Duty

            Unprofessional Conduct

           

            Other Good and Just Cause

            Reduction in Force

Remedies for Violations of Protected Rights

            Liability of School Officials

            Liability of School Districts

            Remedies

                        Damages

                        Reinstatement

                        Attorneys’ Fees

Conclusion

 

12                Labor Relations

Employees’ Bargaining Rights in the Private and Public Sectors

Teachers’ Statutory Bargaining Rights

Scope of Negotiations

            Governmental Policy

            Selected Bargaining Subjects

                        Class Size

                        School Calendar

                        Teacher Evaluation

                        Reduction in Force

                        Nonrenewal and Tenure Decisions

Union Security Provisions

            Dues and Service Fees

            Exclusive Privileges

Grievances

Negotiation Impasse

Strikes

Conclusion

 

13                Tort Liability Negligence                         Duty

                                    Supervision

                                    Instruction

                                    Maintenance of Buildings, Grounds, and Equipment

                                    Duty to Warn

                        Breach of Duty/Standard of Care

                                    Reasonable Person

                                    Invitee, Licensee, Trespasser

                        Proximate Cause

                        Injury

                        Defenses Against Negligence

                                    Governmental Immunity

                                    Contributory Negligence

                                    Comparative Negligence

                                    Assumption of Risk

Intentional Torts

                        Assault and Battery

                        False Imprisonment

                        Intentional Infliction of Mental Distress

Defamation

                        Private and Public Persons

                        Veracity of Statements

                        Fact versus Opinion

                        Privilege

Damages

Conclusion

 

14                Summary of Legal Generalizations

Generalizations

Conclusion

 

Glossary

 

Selected Supreme Court Decisions

 

Appendix

 

Index

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Public School Law: Teachers' and Students' Rights, CourseSmart eTextbook, 6th Edition
Format: Safari Book

$64.00 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-504171-0