## Table of Contents

**Part 1: Essential Numeracy **

**Chapter 1: Measurement and Units **

Mercury and the Inuit of Greenland

Measuring

Accuracy and Precision of Measurement

Estimation and Approximation

Units of Measurement

Unit Conversion

Compound Units

Units in Equations and Formulas

Unit Prefixes

Scientific Notation and Order of Magnitude

Powers of 10 and Logarithms

Logarithmic Scales

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Global Warming *

Chapter Project: *Melting of the Ice Cap*s

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**Chapter 2: Ratios and Percentages **

Ratios

Normalization

Percentage as a Type of Ratio

Parts per Thousand

Parts per Million and Parts per Billion

Percentage as a Measure of Change

Percentage Difference and Percentage Error

Proportions

Probability

Recurrence Interval

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Sinkholes and Lakes *

Chapter Project: *Measuring Habitat of Florida Lakes *

**Chapter 3: Charts and Graphs **

Pie Charts

Bar Charts

Frequency Histograms

*Using Technology: Histograms *

Relative Frequency Histograms

Scatterplots

*Using Technology: Scatterplots *

Line Graphs

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Energy Demand and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge *

Chapter Project: *U.S.** Energy Flows *

**Part 2: Function Modeling **

**Chapter 4: Linear Functions and Regression **

Modeling with Linear Functions

Units of Measure in Linear Equations

Dependent versus Independent Variables

Graphing Linear Equations

*Using Technology: Graphs and Tables *

Approximating Almost-Linear Data Sets

straightedge method

least squares regression

*Using Technology: Linear Regression *

The Correlation Coefficient "r"

*Using Technology: The Correlation Coefficient *

Correlation Fallacies

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Population Growth *

Chapter Project:* Fertility Rates in Developing Countries *

**Chapter 5: Exponential Functions and Regression **

Exponential Rates and Multipliers

The General Exponential Model

Finding Exponential Functions–the More General Case

Solving Exponential Equations

Doubling Times and Half-Lives

Approximating Almost-Exponential Data Sets

straightedge method

least squares regression

*Using Technology: Exponential Regression *

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: * Chicken Nation *

Chapter Project:* Broiler Chicken Production in the United States *

**Chapter 6: Power Functions **

Basic Power Functions

Solving Power Equations

Approximating Power-Like Data Sets

straightedge method

least squares regression

*Using Technology: Power Regression *

Power Law Frequency Distributions

Power Law Distributions and Fractals

Recurrence Intervals

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Earthquakes and Fractals *

Chapter Project:* A New Model for Earthquakes *

**Part**** 3: Difference Equation Modeling **

**Chapter 7: Introduction to Difference Equations **

Sequences and Notation

Modeling with Difference Equations

Linear Difference Equations

Exponential Difference Equations

Why Use Difference Equations?

Affine Difference Equations

*Using Technology: Difference Equations *

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *The Politics of Immigration *

Chapter Project:* Human Population and Migration *

**Chapter 8: Affine Solution Equations and Equilibrium Values **

The Solution Equation to the Affine Model

Equilibrium Values

Classification of Equilibrium values

Revisiting the Affine Solution Equation

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Get The Lead Out *

Chapter Project:* Lead in the Body *

**Chapter 9: Logistic Growth, Harvesting and Chaos **

Modeling Logistic Growth with Difference Equations

Logistic Equilibrium Values

Harvest Models

Periodic Behavior

Chaotic Behavior

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Harvesting and Sustainable Forestry *

Chapter Project: *Harvesting and Sustainability *

**Chapter 10: Systems of Difference Equations **

Systems Modeling

*Using Technology: Systems of Difference Equations *

Exponential Change and Stable Age Distributions

What Else Besides Populations?

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *A River Runs Through Europe *

Chapter Project:* Water Pollution in a System of Lakes *

**Part 4: Elementary Statistics **

**Chapter 11: Fundamentals of Statistics **

Measures of Center and Other Descriptive Statistics

Weighted Means

Quartiles and the 5 Number Summary

Boxplots

*Using Technology: Finding Descriptive Statistics *

Shape of a Data Set

*Using Technology: Histograms *

A Skew Formula

Comparing the Mean and Median

Sampling

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Energy Makeover *

Chapter Projects: *Electric Bills and Super Bulbs *

**Chapter 12: Standard Deviation **

Standard Deviation

Calculating Position Using Z-scores

Outliers

Chebychev's Rule

Normal Distributions

The Empirical Rule

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth*: Impermeable Surfaces and Urban Runoff *

Chapter Projects: *Urban Runoff Index *

**Chapter 13: Normal Distributions **

The Standard Normal Distribution

Transformations to Normal

Confidence Intervals

Chapter Summary

End-of-Chapter Exercises

Science in Depth: *Hazardous Household Waste *

Chapter Project:* Hazardous Waste Generation and Monetary Disincentives *

**Appendix: **Common Units of Measurement

**Solutions to Odd Exercises **

**Index **

Quantitive Reasoning & the Environment

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