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Quick Access Reference for Writers, 7th Edition

By Lynn Quitman Troyka, Doug Hesse

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jul 27, 2012


Quick Access: Reference for Writers provides down-to-earth writing advice, cutting edge research information, and trusted, class-tested, grammar instruction to help students succeed in their composition courses, in other classes, and beyond.

Table of Contents

Hands-On Advice for Writers


1       Ten Top Tips for College Writers 


2       Ten Troublesome Mistakes Writers Make 

                Sentence fragments 

                Comma splices and run-ons

               Subject-verb disagreement

                Pronoun-antecedent disagreement

                Unclear pronoun reference

                Sentence shifts

                Misplaced modifiers

                Comma errors

                Apostrophe errors


3       Thinking Critically 

a              Critical thinking             

b              Rhetoric and the appeals            

c               Inductive and deductive reasoning          

d              Logical fallacies 


4       Reading Texts and Visuals Critically  

a              Critical reading  

b              Steps for critical reading

c               Close reading techniques           

d              Reading-writing connection         

e              Critical reading of visuals     


Writing Processes


5       Planning Your Writing

a              Writing processes          

b              Thinking like a writer     

c               Planning a writing portfolio         

d              Purposes for writing       

e              Audience          

f               Developing ideas           

g              Thesis statement           

h              Outlining           


6       Drafting, Revising, Editing, and Proofreading

a              First draft         

b              Overcoming writer’s block          

c               Revising           

d              Revising with thesis statements and titles

e              Revising for style and tone         

f               Editing              

g              Editing software

h              Proofreading     


7       Composing Paragraphs          

a              Understanding paragraphs         

b              Introductory paragraphs            

c              Topic sentences

d              Supporting details         

e              Coherent paragraphs     

f               Strategies for body paragraphs  

g              Concluding paragraphs  


8       Designing Documents 

a              Understanding document design 

b              Principles of design        

c              Text     

d             Headings          

e             Photographs     

f              Other visuals    

g             Page layout


Frames for College Writing


9       Personal Essays          

a              Understanding personal essays   

b              Generating ideas and revising    

c               Frame for a personal essay        

d              Sentence and paragraph guides  

e              Student essay example  


10     Informative Essays     

a              Understanding informative essays           

b              Generating ideas and revising    

c               Frame for an informative essay  

d              Sentence and paragraph guides  

e              Student essay example  


11     Essays Analyzing a Text         

a              Understanding rhetorical and content analysis  

b              Generating ideas and revising    

c              Frame for a textual analysis       

d              Sentence and paragraph guides  

e              Student essay example 


12     Argument       

a               Understanding argument

b              Generating ideas and revising    

c               Frames for argument 

d              Sentence and paragraph guides  

e              Student essay example  


13     Proposal or Solution Essays 

a              Understanding proposal/solution essays  

b              Generating ideas and revising    

c              Frame for a proposal/solution essay        

d              Sentence and paragraph guides  

e              Student essay example  


14     Evaluations 

a              Understanding evaluations         

b              Generating ideas and revising    

c               Frame for an evaluation 

d              Sentence and paragraph guides  

e              Student essay example 


Source-based Writing


15     Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing                  

a              Integrating sources       

b             Quoting sources

c             Paraphrasing sources    

d             Summarizing sources    

e             Verbs for integrating sources  


16     Avoiding Plagiarism               

a              Understanding plagiarism           

b             Avoiding plagiarism       

c             Avoiding plagiarism of Internet sources   

d             What not to document                

e             Documenting ideas      


17     Writing about Readings          

a              Typical assignments      

b              Summary essays          

c              Response essays           

d             Synthesis essays    


Research Writing


18     Starting a Research Project    

a              Understanding research 

b              Choosing a topic

c              Developing a research question  

d              Types of research papers       


19     Developing a Search Strategy             

a              Understanding search strategies 

b              Understanding sources   

c               Doing field research      

d              Choosing a documentation style  

e              Using a research log

f               Creating a working bibliography  

g              Using documentation software    

h              Creating an annotated bibliography         

I               Taking content notes     

j               Planning a research project 


20     Finding Published Sources     

a              Understanding published sources

b              Using libraries   

c               Search engines v. databases      

d              Using search engines and databases       

e              Using subject directories

f               Finding books    

g              Finding periodicals         

h              Using reference works   

i               Finding images  

j               Finding government documents  


21     Evaluating Sources 

a              Location of a source      

b              Credibility of the publisher          

c               Credibility of the author 

d              Sufficiency/accuracy of evidence

e              Other critical thinking tests         

f               Combining evaluation strategies 


22     Synthesizing Sources in Research Papers      

a              Understanding the synthesis of sources

b              Relationships between sources   

c               Sources about different subtopics?          

d              Sources that agree        

e              Sources that partly agree           

f               Sources that disagree

g              One source more specific than the other  


23     Drafting and Revising a Research Paper         

a              Writing process for research papers        

b              Drafting a research paper?         

c               Frames for research papers 

d              Argumentative research paper frame      

e              Revising a research paper          

f               Editing and formating a research paper


MLA Documentation


24     MLA In-Text Citations 

a              MLA documentation style

b              MLA in-text parenthetical documentation  

c              Additional MLA guidelines for parenthetical citations  


25     MLA Works-Cited List 

a              MLA guidelines for a Works Cited list       

b              MLA guidelines for sources in a Works Cited list    

c               MLA guidelines for content or bibliographic notes  


26     A Student’s MLA Research Paper           

a              MLA format guidelines for research papers          

b              A student’s MLA  research paper   


APA, CM, and CSE Documentation


27     APA In-Text Citations 

a               APA documentation style

b              APA in-text parenthetical citations           

c              APA guidelines for in-text citations          

d              APA guidelines for writing an abstract 

e              APA guidelines for content notes 


28     APA References List   

a              APA guidelines for a references list         

b              APA guidelines for sources in a references list     


29     A Student’s APA Research Paper        

a              APA format guidelines for research papers          

b              A student’s APA research paper      


30     CMS Documentation    

a              CMS documentation           

b              CMS guidelines for bibliographic notes  


31     CSE Documentation    

a              CSE documentation           

b              CSE guidelines for sources in a list of references  


Grammar Basics


32     Parts of Speech and Parts of Sentences         


a              Nouns  

b              Pronouns          

c               Verbs   

d              Verbals

e              Adjectives        

f               Adverbs           

g              Prepositions      

h              Conjunctions     

i               Interjections     



j           Subjects and predicates 

k          Direct and indirect objects          

l           Complements, modifiers, and appositives

m         Phrases

n          Clauses

o          Sentence types 


33     Verbs  

a          How verbs function        

b          Forms of main verbs      

c           Auxiliary verbs  

d          Using lie or lay  

e          Verb tenses      

f           Indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods     

g          “Voice” in verbs


34     Subject-Verb Agreement         

a          What subject-verb agreement is 

b          Ignoring words between a subject and its verb     

c          Verbs when subjects are connected by and          

d          Verbs when subjects are connected by or

e          Verbs with indefinite pronouns    

f           Verbs with who, which, and that  

g          Verbs with one of the . . . who    

h          Other complicated cases


35     Pronouns: Agreement, Reference, and Case   


a          What pronoun-antecedent agreement is  

b          Pronouns when and connects antecedents           

c          Pronouns when or connects antecedents  

d          Pronouns when antecedents are indefinite pronouns         

e          Pronouns when antecedents are collective nouns  



f           Avoiding unclear pronoun reference        

g          Pronouns with it, that, this, and which      

h          Using you for direct address       

i           Using who, which, and that         



j           What pronoun case is    

k          Personal pronouns         

l           Selecting the correct case          

m         Case when and connects pronouns          

n          Matching case in appositives       

o          Subjective case after linking verbs          

p          Using who, whoever, whom, and whomever         

q          Case after than and as   

r           Case with infinitives and -ing words         

s           Case for -self pronouns  


36     Adjectives and Adverbs          

a          Differences between adjectives and adverbs        

b          Double negatives          

c           Adjectives or adverbs after linking verbs 

d          Comparative and superlative forms         

e          Nouns as modifiers        


Sentences and Words

37     Sentence Fragments   

a          Recognizing fragments   

b          Correcting fragments that start with a subordinating word 

c           Correcting fragments that lack a verb                 

d          Correcting fragments that lack a subject  

e          Correcting fragments in a compound predicate     

f           Intentional fragments    


38     Comma Splices and Run-On Sentences           

a          What comma splices and run-on sentences are    

b          Correcting comma splices and run-on sentences  


39     Problems with Sentence Shifts           

a          Consistent person and number   

b          Consistent subject and voice      

c           Consistent mood           

d          Consistent verb tense    

e          Consistent direct and indirect discourse   

f           Sentences with mixed parts        

g          Ellipticals and comparisons         


40     Misplaced Modifiers    

a          Misplaced modifiers       

b          Squinting modifiers        

c           Split infinitives  

d          Modifiers that disrupt a sentence 

e          Dangling modifiers        


41     Conciseness    

a          Writing concisely           

b          Avoiding redundancies   

c           Avoiding wordy sentence structures        

d          Combining sentence elements    

e          Verbs and conciseness   


42     Coordination and Subordination        

a          Coordination: Expressing equivalent ideas           

b          Coordination: Avoiding problems            

c           Subordination: Expressing nonequivalent ideas    

d          Subordination: Avoiding problems           


43     Sentence Style

a          Understanding parallelism          

b          Avoiding faulty parallelism         

c           Parallelism with conjunctions      

d          Strengthening a message with parallelism           

e          Understanding sentence variety  

f           How subjects affect emphasis     

g          Adding modifiers           

h          Inverting standard word order    


44     Word Meanings and Word Impact      

a          Words and their meanings          

b          Exact words      

c           Increasing my vocabulary          

d          Suitable language          

e          Figurative language       

f           Clichés 

g          Effect of tone in writing  


45     Using Inclusive Language       

a          Gender in English          

b          Gender-neutral language           


46     Spelling          

a          Plurals  

b          Suffixes

c           The ie, ei rule   

d          Homonyms and other frequently confused words  

e          Other spelling errors      


Punctuation and Mechanics


47     Commas          

a          When to use commas    

b          With introductory words 

c           Before coordinating conjunctions

d          With a series     

e          Between adjectives       

f           With nonrestrictive and restrictive elements         

g          With quoted words         

h          Other word groups to set off       

i           In dates, names, places, addresses, letter format, and numbers    

j           Preventing misreadings  

k          Avoiding other comma errors     


48     Semicolons     

a          Instead of periods         

b          Instead of commas        


49     Colons

a          Lists, appositives, or quotations  

b          Between sentences        

c           Conventional formats     


50     Apostrophes   

a          Possessive nouns          

b          Possessive indefinite pronouns   

c           Possessive pronouns: hers, his, its, ours, yours, and theirs           

d          Verbs that end in -s       

e          Contractions     

f           Letters, numerals, symbols, and terms    


51     Quotation Marks         

a          Short direct quotations   

b          Long direct quotations    

c           Spoken words   

d          Titles    

e          Terms, translations, and irony    

f           When quotation marks are wrong           

g          With other punctuation   


52     Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points      

a          Periods 

b          Question marks 

c           Exclamation points        


53     Other Punctuation Marks        

a          Dashes 

b          Parentheses      

c           Brackets           

d          Ellipsis points    

e          Slashes


54     Hyphens          

a          End of a line     

b          Prefixes and suffixes     

c           Compound words          

d          Spelled-out numbers     


55     Capitals           

a          “First” words     

b          Quotations        

c           Nouns and adjectives     


56     Italics (Underlining)   

a          Italics versus quotation marks    

b          For emphasis    


57     Abbreviations 

a          Times and amounts       

b          People’s names 

c           Jr., Sr., II, III, 2nd, 3rd 

d          Names of countries, organizations, and government agencies        

e          Addresses        

f           Using etc. and other Latin abbreviations  


58     Numbers         

a          Spelled-out numbers     

b          Dates, addresses, times, and other numbers       




A Message from Lynn Troyka and Doug Hesse to Multilingual Writers     


59     Singulars and Plurals 

a          Count and noncount nouns         

b          Determiners with singular and plural nouns          

c           Nouns used as adjectives           


60     Articles           

a          Singular count nouns     

b          Count and noncount nouns         

c           Using the with proper nouns       


61     Word Order     

a          Standard and inverted word orders         

b          Placing adjectives          

c           Placing adverbs 


62     Prepositions   

a          Using in, at, and on to show time and place         

b          Phrasal verbs    

c           Passive voice    

d          Expressions      


63     Gerunds and Infinitives          

a          Gerund objects 

b          Infinitive objects           

c           Using stop, remember, or forget 

d          Sense verbs     

e          Choosing between -ing and -ed adjectives           


64     Modal Auxiliary Verbs 

a          How modals differ from be, do, and have

b          Expressing ability, necessity, advisability, or probability    

c           Expressing preference, plan, or past habit           



65     An Overview of Writing Across the Curriculum          

a          Writing across the curriculum       

b          Audience and Purpose 


66     Writing About the Humanities            

a          What the humanities are

b          Types of papers

c           Documentation styles    


67     Writing About Literature        

a          What literature is           

b          Types of papers

c          Rules for writing about literature

d          Documentation styles    

e          A student’s literature essay       


68        Writing in the Social Sciences           

a          What the social sciences are     

b          Types of papers           

c          Documentation styles    


69        Writing in the Natural Sciences        

a          What the natural sciences are   

b          Types of papers           

c          Documentation style     


70        Making Presentations           

a          What oral presentations are       

b          Focusing the presentation          

c          Adapting for the listening audience        

d          Organizing a presentation          

e          Incorporating multimedia           

f           Presentation styles        

g          Collaborative presentations        


71        Writing for Digital Environments      

a          What digital environments are   

b          Blogs   

c          Wikis   

d          Video and sound           


72        Writing for Work       

a          Workplace writing purposes      

b          Features of workplace correspondence  

c          Work-related e-mail      

d          Memos

e          Business letters

f           Resumés          

g          Job application letters    


Usage Glossary          

Terms Glossary