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Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA

By Richard T. Schaefer

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Aug 1, 2013


Helps students understand and analyze race and ethnic issues


Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA applies contemporary theories to race and ethnic relations. The text explores issues inherent in race and ethnicity and then applies these issues to the four largest minority ethnic groups in the U.S. This foundation will enable readers to discuss how diversity will change in the future.


MySocLab is an integral part of the Schaefer program. Engaging activities and assessments provide a teaching and learning system that helps students discover sociology in their lives. With MySocLab, students can watch videos on sociological core concepts, explore real-world sociology through the new Social Explorer, and develop critical thinking skills through writing.


This learning program is available in a variety of formats and prices — digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through Pearson’s MyLab products, CourseSmart, Amazon, and more. To learn more about our programs, pricing options and customization.

Table of Contents

Features xiii

Preface xv

About the Author xxi


1 Exploring Race and Ethnicity in the United States 1

Highlights 2

Ranking Groups 4

Types of Groups 5

    Racial Groups 5

    Ethnic Groups 7

    Religious Groups 7

    Speaking Out: Problem of the Color Line, by W. E. B. Du Bois 8

    Gender Groups 8

    Other Subordinate Groups 9

Does Race Matter? 9

    Biological Meaning 9 
        Absence of Pure Races 9

        Intelligence Tests 10

    Social Construction of Race 11

Biracial and Multiracial Identity: Who Am I? 12

    Research Focus: Multiracial Identity 13

Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity 14

    Stratification by Class and Gender 15

    Theoretical Perspectives 15

        Functionalist Perspective 15

        Conflict Perspective 16

        Labeling Theory 17

The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status 19

    Migration 19

    Annexation 19

    Colonialism 20

The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status 21

    Extermination 21

    Expulsion 22 

    Secession 22

    Segregation 23 

    Fusion 25

    Assimilation 26

    The Pluralist Perspective 27

Resistance and Change 28


2 Prejudice 33

Highlights 34

Prejudice and Discrimination 35

    Merton’s Typology 36

    LaPiere’s Study 36

    Research Focus: Islamophobia 38

White Privilege 39

Theories of Prejudice 40

    Scapegoating Theory 40

    Authoritarian Personality Theory 40

    Exploitation Theory 41

    Normative Approach 41

Stereotypes 42

    What Are Stereotypes? 42

    Speaking Out: National Media Should Stop Using Obscene Words, by Tim Giago 43

    Stereotyping in Action: Racial Profiling 44

Color-Blind Racism 45

The Mood of the Oppressed 46

Intergroup Hostility 48

Reducing Prejudice 51

    Education 52

    Mass Media 52

    Avoidance versus Friendship 54

        The Social Distance Scale 54

        Equal Status Contact 54

        Avoidance Via the Internet 55

    Corporate Response: Diversity Training 56


3 Discrimination 62

Understanding Discrimination 64

Hate Crimes 65

    What Are Hate Crimes? 65

    Why Do Hate Crimes Carry Harsher Penalties? 66

Institutional Discrimination 67

Discrimination Today 68

    Discrimination Hits the Wallet 68 

    Eliminating Discrimination 71

Wealth Inequality: Discrimination’s Legacy 73

    Research Focus: The Unequal Wealth Distribution 74

Environmental Justice 75

Affirmative Action 76

    Affirmative Action Explained 77

    The Legal Debate 77

    Speaking Out: The Enduring Relevance of Affirmative Action, by Randall Kennedy 79

Reverse Discrimination 80

The Glass Ceiling 81

4 Immigration and Ethnicity 87

Patterns of Immigration to the United States 88

Today’s Foreign-Born Population 89

Early Immigration 91

    The Anti-Chinese Movement 91

Restrictionist Sentiment Increases 93

    The National Origin System 93

    Speaking Out: Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, by Judy Chu 94

    The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 96

Contemporary Social Concerns 97

    The Brain Drain 97

    Population Growth 98

    Mixed-Status Families 99

    Language Barriers 99

Illegal Immigration 102

Refugees 105

Ethnic Diversity 106

Studying Whiteness 106

Rediscovering Ethnicity 108

    The Third-Generation Principle 108

    Ethnic Paradox 109

    Symbolic Ethnicity 109

Religious Pluralism 110

    Research Focus: Blended Identity and Self-Identifying as “Muslim American” and “Arab American” 111


5 Native Americans 119

Early European Contacts 121

Treaties and Warfare 122

    The Allotment Act 123

    The Reorganization Act 124

Reservation Life and Federal Policies 125

    Legal Claims 126

    The Termination Act 127

     Employment Assistance Program 127

Collective Action 128

    Protest Efforts 129

    Collective Action: An Overview 130

American Indian Identity 131

    Sovereignty 131

    Individual Identity 132

    Native Americans Today 132

    Speaking Out: Powwows and Karaoke, by Chris Eyre 133

    Economic Development 134

        Tourism 135

        Casino Gambling 135

    Education 137

    Research Focus: Learning the Navajo Way 138

    Healthcare 139

    Religious and Spiritual Expression 140

    Environment 141


6 African Americans 145

Slavery 147

    Slave Codes 147

    The Attack on Slavery 148

    Slavery’s Aftermath 149

    Reflecting on Slavery Today 150

The Challenge of Black Leadership 151

    The Politics of Accommodation 151

    The Niagara Movement 152

Reemergence of Black Protest 153

The Civil Rights Movement 155

    Struggle to Desegregate the Schools 155

    Civil Disobedience 156

Urban Violence and Oppression 158

Black Power 159

Education 160

    School Segregation 161

    Higher Education 162

The Economic Picture 163

    The Middle Class 163

    Research Focus: Moving on Up, or Not 164

    Employment 165

Family Life 166

    Challenges to Family Stability 166

    Strengths of African American Families 167

Housing 168

Criminal Justice 169

    Speaking Out: The New Jim Crow, by Michelle Alexander 171

Healthcare 172

Politics 173


7 Latinos 178

Latino Identity 180

The Economic Picture 181

The Political Presence 182

Religion 183

Mexican Americans 184

    The Immigrant Experience 186

    Family Life 188

    Research Focus: The Latino Family Circle: Familism 188

Puerto Ricans 189

    The Bridge Between the Island and the Mainland 190

    The Island of Puerto Rico 191

        Issues of Statehood and Self-Rule 192

    Speaking Out: Puerto Ricans Cannot Be Silenced, by Luis Gutierrez 193

        The Social Construction of Race 194

    The Island Economy 194

Cuban Americans 195

    Immigration 195

    The Current Picture 196

Central and South Americans 198

    Immigration 198

    The Current Picture 199


8 Asian Americans 203

Diversity among Asian Americans 205

Political Activity and Pan-Asian Identity 207

Chinese Americans 208

    Early Settlement Patterns 208

    Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans 209

    Chinatowns Today 210

        Organizational Life 210

        Social Problems 211

    Family Life 212

Asian Indians 213

    Immigration 213

    The Current Picture 214

Filipino Americans 214

    Immigration Patterns 214

    Research Focus: Arranged Marriages in America 215

    The Current Picture 216

Korean Americans 217

    Historical Background 217

    The Current Picture 218

Japanese Americans 220

    Early Japanese Immigration 220

    The Wartime Evacuation 221

        Executive Order 9066 221

        The Camps 222

        The Evacuation: What Does It Mean? 224

    The Economic Picture 225

    Family Life 226

Southeast Asian Americans 227

    The Refugees 227

    The Current Picture 228

    Case Study: A Hmong Community 229

Hawai’i and Its People 230

    Historical Background 230

    The Current Picture 231

    Speaking Out: Recognizing Native Hawaiians, by Daniel Akaka 232


9 Diversity: Today and Tomorrow 237

    Speaking Out: That Latino “Wave” Is Very Much American, by Galina Espinoza 240

Has The Post-Racialism Era Arrived? 240

The Glass Half Empty 241

Is There a Model Minority? 243

Acting White, Acting Black, or Neither 245

Persistence of Inequality 245

    Research Focus: Challenge to Pluralism: The Shark’s Fin 247

Talking Past One Another 248


Glossary 255

References 259

Photo Credits 000

Index 275

Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-205-18188-0

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18188-9

Format: Alternate Binding

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