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Racial and Ethnic Groups, Census Update, 12th Edition

By Richard T. Schaefer

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 12, 2010



This best-selling Race & Ethnic Relations text is grounded in a socio-historical perspective with engaging stories and first person accounts. Racial and Ethnic Groups helps students understand the changing dynamics of the U.S. population. By using a socio-historical perspective, the author frames issues by examining our history, exploring the current situation, and discussing the concerns for the future.


Racial and ethnic relations in the United States are at a dynamic and exciting time. Major events are shaping our society, such as population and immigration changes, the election of the first African-American president, and increasing diversity throughout our society.


This census update has taken advantage of the September 2009 release of the American Community Survey and the information calculated from the 2009 Annual Social and Economical Supplements to the Current Population Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The authors have also taken the opportunity to include additional information on the first year of the Obama administration, passage of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, the 2009 Ricci v. DeStefano “reverse discrimination” case, the controversy over the arrest of Henry Louis Gates Jr. in his home, the creation of a new citizenship test, and the addition of Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court. Also, information throughout the text has been updated, including over 40 tables and figures, all top 10 lists, and more.


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Table of Contents




Chapter 1 Understanding Race and Ethnicity  

Chapter 2 Prejudice  

Chapter 3 Discrimination  

Chapter 4 Immigration and the United States  

Chapter 5 Ethnicity and Religion  

Chapter 6 The Native Americans  

Chapter 7 The Making of African Americans in a White America  

Chapter 8 African Americans Today  

Chapter 9 Hispanic Americans  

Chapter 10 Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans  

Chapter 11 Muslim and Arab Americans: Diverse Minorities  

Chapter 12 Asian Americans: Growth and Diversity  

Chapter 13 Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans  

Chapter 14 Jewish Americans: Quest to Maintain Identity  

Chapter 15 Women: The Oppressed Majority  

Chapter 16 Beyond the United States: The Comparative Perspective  

Chapter 17 Overcoming Exclusion  



Part I  Perspectives On Racial And Ethnic Groups

Chapter 1 Exploring Race and Ethnicity

What Is a Subordinate Group?

Types of Subordinate Groups

    Racial Groups

    Ethnic Groups

    Religious Groups

    Gender Groups

    Other Subordinate Groups

    Listen to Our Voices: Problem of the Color Line, by W. E. B. Du Bois

Does Race Matter?

    Biological Meaning

    Social Construction of Race

Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

    Stratification by Class and Gender

    Theoretical Perspectives

The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status




The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status







    The Pluralist Perspective

Biracial and Multiracial Identity—Who Am I?

    Research Focus: Measuring Multiculturalism

Resistance and Change


Chapter 2 Prejudice

Hate Crimes

Prejudice and Discrimination

    Merton’s Typology

    LaPiere’s Study

Theories of Prejudice

    Scapegoating Theory

    Authoritarian Personality Theory

    Exploitation Theory

    Normative Approach


    What Are Stereotypes?

   Listen to Our Voices: National Media Should Stop Using Obscene Words, by Tim Giago

    Power of Stereotypes

    Stereotyping in Action: Racial Profiling

Color-Blind Racism

The Mood of the Oppressed

Intergroup Hostility

Reducing Prejudice


    Mass Media

    Avoidance versus Friendship

   Research Focus: Few of My Best Friends Are . . .  

    Corporate Response: Diversity Training

Ways to Fight Hate


Chapter 3 Discrimination

Understanding Discrimination

   A Global View: The Roma: A Thousand Years of Discrimination

    Relative versus Absolute Deprivation

    Total Discrimination

Institutional Discrimination

    Listen to Our Voices: Of Race and Risk, by Patricia J. Williams

    Research Focus:Discrimination in Job Seeking

Low-Wage Labor

Discrimination Today

    Measuring Discrimination

    Eliminating Discrimination

Wealth Inequality: Discrimination’s Legacy

Environmental Justice

Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action Explained

    The Legal Debate

Reverse Discrimination

The Glass Ceiling


Part II  Ethnic And Religious Sources Of Conflict

Chapter 4 Immigration

Immigration: A Global Phenomenon

Patterns of Immigration to the United States

Today’s Foreign-Born Population

Early Immigration

    The Anti-Chinese Movement

Restrictionist Sentiment Increases

    The National Origin System

    The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act

Contemporary Social Concerns

    The Brain Drain

    Population Growth

    Mixed-Status Families

    Language Barriers

Illegal Immigration

Path to Citizenship: Naturalization

    A Global View: Immigration and South Africa

The Economic Impact of Immigration

    Listen to Our Voices: The Next Americans, by Tomás R. Jiménez

Women and Immigration

The Global Economy and Immigration

    Research Focus:Assimilation May Be Hazardous to Your Health



Chapter 5 Ethnicity and Religion

Ethnic Diversity

Why Don’t We Study Whiteness?

   Listen to Our Voices: I Was Born in Tirana, by Harallamb Terba


    White Privilege

    The Rediscovery of Ethnicity

    The Third-Generation Principle

    Symbolic Ethnicity

The German Americans

    Settlement Patterns

    Twentieth-Century German America

The Irish Americans

    Irish Immigration

    Becoming White

    The Contemporary Picture

The Italian Americans

    Early Immigration

    Constructing Identity

    The Contemporary Picture

   Research Focus: Immigrants: Yesterday and Today

The Polish Americans

    Early Immigration


    The Contemporary Picture

Religious Pluralism

    Diversity among Roman Catholics

    Diversity among Protestants

    Religion and the Courts

Limits of Religious Freedom: The Amish

    The Amish Way of Life

    The Amish and Larger Society


Part III  Major Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United States

Chapter 6 Native Americans

Early European Contacts

Treaties and Warfare

    The Case of the Sioux

    The Allotment Act

    The Reorganization Act

Reservation Life and Federal Policies

    A Global View:Australia’s Aboriginal People

    Native American Legal Claims

    The Termination Act

    Employment Assistance Program

Collective Action

    Protest Efforts

    Collective Action: An Overview

American Indian Identity


    Individual Identity

Native Americans Today

   Listen to Our Voices: Iyeska: Notes from Mixed-Blood Country, by Charles A. Trimble

    Economic Development


   Research Focus:Learning the Navajo Way

    Health Care

    Religious and Spiritual Expression



Chapter 7 The Making of African Americans in a White America


    Slave Codes

    African Americans and Africa

    The Attack on Slavery

    Slavery’s Aftermath

    Reparations for Slavery

The Challenge of Black Leadership

    The Politics of Accommodation

    The Niagara Movement

Reemergence of Black Protest

   Research Focus: Sundown Towns, USA

The Civil Rights Movement

    Struggle to Desegregate the Schools

    Civil Disobedience

   Listen to Our Voices:Letter from Birmingham Jail, by Martin Luther King, Jr.

Urban Violence and Oppression

Black Power

The Religious Force

The New Immigration


Chapter 8 African Americans Today


    Quality and Quantity of Education

    School Segregation

    Acting White, Acting Black, or Neither

    Higher Education

The Economic Picture

    Income and Wealth


Family Life

    Challenges to Family Stability

    Strengths of African American Families

    The African American Middle Class

   Listen to Our Voices: Divided, by Mary Pattillo


    Residential Segregation

Criminal Justice

   Research Focus: Medical Apartheid

Health Care



Chapter 9 Hispanic Americans

Latino Identity

The Economic Picture

The Growing Political Presence

The Borderlands

   Research Focus:English-Language Acquisition

Cuban Americans


   Listen to Our Voices:Leaving Cuba, by Alfredo Jimenez

    The Current Picture

Central and South Americans


    The Current Picture

   A Global View:The Salvadoran Connection


Chapter 10 Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans

Mexican Americans

    The Immigrant Experience

    The Economic Picture

    Political Organizations

Puerto Ricans

    The Bridge between the Island and the Mainland

    The Island of Puerto Rico

   Listen to Our Voices:¡Viva Vieques! by Martín St. Espada

    The Island Economy

The Contemporary Picture of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans


    Family Life

    Health Care

   Research Focus:The Latino Family Circle: Familism



Chapter 11 Muslim and Arab Americans: Diverse Minorities

Arab Americans

Muslim Americans

    Black Muslims

Immigration to the United States

Contemporary Life in the United States

    Family Life and Gender

   Research Focus: Christian and Muslim Arab American Women’s Gender Roles



   A Global View:Muslims in France

Issues of Prejudice and Discrimination

    Listen to Our Voices: Hate Crime Punished, by James Zogby


Chapter 12 Asian Americans: Growth and Diversity

The “Model-Minority” Image Explored

    Education and the Economy

    The Door Half Open

Political Activity and Pan-Asian Identity

    Listen to Our Voices:Asian America Still Discovering Elusive Identity, by Jean Han

Diversity among Asian Americans

Asian Indians


    The Current Picture

Filipino Americans

    Immigration Patterns

   Research Focus:Arranged Marriages in America

    The Current Picture

Southeast Asian Americans

    The Refugees

    The Current Picture

    Case Study: A Hmong Community

Korean Americans

    Historical Background

    The Current Picture

Hawai’i and Its People

    Historical Background

    The Current Picture


Chapter 13 Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans

Chinese Americans

    Early Settlement Patterns

    Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans

    Chinatowns Today

    Family Life

   Research Focus:Cultural Capital, Social Capital, and Chinatowns Today

Japanese Americans

    Early Japanese Immigration

    The Wartime Evacuation

    The Economic Picture

    Family Life

Remnants of Prejudice and Discrimination

   Listen to Our Voices: From Kawasaki to Chicago, by Miku Ishii


Chapter 14 Jewish Americans: Quest to Maintain Identity

The Jewish People: Race, Religion, or Ethnic Group?

    A Global View: Argentina’s Jewish Community

Immigration of Jews to the United States

Anti-Semitism: Past and Present


    The Holocaust

    U.S. Anti-Semitism: Past

   Listen to Our Voices:Night, by Elie Wiesel

    Contemporary Anti-Semitism

Position of Jewish Americans

    Employment and Income


    Political Activity

Religious Life

    The Orthodox Tradition

    The Reform Tradition

Jewish Identity

    Role of the Family

    Role of Religion

   Research Focus:Intermarriage:The Final Step to Assimilation?

    Role of Cultural Heritage


Part IV  Other Patterns Of Dominance


Chapter 15 Women: The Oppressed Majority

Gender Roles

Sociological Perspectives

The Feminist Movement

    The Suffrage Movement

    The Women’s Liberation Movement

The Economic Picture

    Sources of Discrimination

    Sexual Harassment

   Listen to Our Voices: What Do Women and Men Want? by Kathleen Gerson

    Feminization of Poverty


   Research Focus:Child Care and the Gender Divide

Family Life

    Child Care and Housework


Political Activity

Matrix of Domination: Minority Women

   A Global View:Women Elected Officials: Rwanda and Beyond


Chapter 16  Beyond the United States: The Comparative Perspective

Mexico: Diversity South of the Border

    The Mexican Indian People and the Color Gradient

    The Status of Women

Canada: Multiculturalism Up North

    The First Nation

    The Québécois

    Immigration and Race

Brazil: Not a Racial Paradise

    Legacy of Slavery

    The “Racial Democracy” Illusion

    Brazilian Dilemma

Israel and the Palestinians

    Arab–Israeli Conflicts

    The Intifada

    The Search for Solutions amid Violence

Republic of South Africa

    The Legacy of Colonialism


    The Era of Reconciliation and Moving On

   Listen to Our Voices: Africa, It Is Ours!   by Nelson Mandela

   Research Focus:Listening to the People


Chapter 17  Overcoming Exclusion

The Aged: A Social Minority

    Who Are the Elderly?


   Research Focus: Passing on the Old Job Applicant

    The Economic Picture

    Advocacy Efforts by the Elderly

People with Disabilities: Moving On

    Disability in Contemporary Society

    Labeling the Disabled

   Listen to Our Voices:The Magic Wand, by Lynn Manning

    Advocacy for Disability Rights

Gays and Lesbians: Coming Out for Equality

    Being Gay and Lesbian in the United States

    Prejudice and Discrimination

    Advocacy for Gay and Lesbian Rights

The Glass Half Empty



Racial and Ethnic Groups, Census Update, 12th Edition

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