## Description

*Ratio & Proportion Dosage Calculations* is a combined text and workbook. Its consistent focus on safety, accuracy, and professionalism make it a valuable part of a course for nursing or allied health programs. It is also highly effective for independent study, and may be used as a refresher for dosage calculation skills and as a professional reference.

This book uses the Ratio and Proportion method for drug calculations; a time-tested approach based on simple mathematical concepts. It helps the student develop a “number sense”, and largely frees the student from the need to memorize formulas.

## Table of Contents

Unit 1 : Basic Calculation Skills and Introduction to Medical Administration

CHAPTER 1 Review of Arithmetic for Medical Dosage Calculations

Diagnostic Test of Arithmetic

Changing Decimal Numbers and Whole Numbers to Fractions

Calculator

Ratios

Changing Fractions to Decimal Numbers

Rounding Decimal Numbers

Rounding Off

Rounding Down

Adding Decimal Numbers

Subtracting Decimal Numbers

Multiplying Decimal Numbers

Dividing Decimal Numbers

Estimating Answers

Multiplying Fractions

Dividing Fractions

Complex Fractions

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

Same Denominators

Different Denominators

Percentages

Percent of Change

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 2 Safe and Accurate Drug Administration

The Drug Administration Process

Six Rights of Medication Administration

The Right Drug

The Right Dose

The Right Route

The Right Time

The Right Patient

The Right Documentation

Drug Prescriptions

Medication Orders

Types of Medication Orders

Components of a Medication Order

Medication Administration Records

Technology in the Medication Administration Process

Drug Labels

Combination Drugs

Drug Package Inserts

Controlled Substances

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 3 Ratio and Proportion

Ratios

Rates

Proportions

The Mathematics Needed to Solve Proportions

Using Parentheses to Indicate Multiplication

Dividing by 1

Shorthand for Multiplication

Commutative Property

Canceling

Solving Simple Equations

Solving Proportions

Changing Quantities with Single Units of Measurement

Changing One Rate to Another Rate

Practice Sets

Unit 2: Systems of Measurement

CHAPTER 4 The Metric and Household Systems

The Household System

Liquid Volume in the Household System

Weight in the Household System

Length in the Household System

Decimal Based Systems

The Metric System

Liquid Volume in the Metric System

Weight in the Metric System

Length in the Metric System

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 5 Converting From One System of Measurement to Another

Equivalents of Common Units of Measurement

Metric-Household Conversions

Practice Sets

Unit 3 Oral and Parenteral Medications

CHAPTER 6 Calculating Oral Medication Doses

Simple Problems

Medication in Solid Form

Medication in Liquid Form

Complex Problems

Calculating Dosage by Body Weight

Calculating Dosage by Body Surface Area

BSA Formulas

Nomograms

Case Study 6.1

Practice Reading Labels

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 7 Syringes

Parts of a Syringe

Needles

Types of Syringes

Measuring Insulin Doses

Measuring a Single Dose of Insulin in an Insulin Syringe

Measuring Insulin with an Insulin Pen

Insulin Pumps

Measuring Two Types of Insulin in One Syringe

Measuring Premixed Insulin

Prefilled Syringes

Insulin Coverage/Sliding Scale Calculations

Safety Syringes

Needless Syringes

Case Study 7.1

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 8 Preparation of Solutions

Determining the Strength of a Solution

Strength of Solutions as Ratios, Fractions, and Percents

Liquid Solutes

Dry Solutes

Determining the Amount of Pure Solute in a Given Amount of Solution

Determining the Amount of Solution That Contains a Given Amount of Solute

Irrigating Solutions, Soaks, and Oral Feedings

Case Study 8.1

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 9 Parenteral Medications

Parenteral Medications

Parenteral Medications Supplied as Liquids

Parenteral Medications Supplied in Powdered Form

Heparin

Case Study 9.1

Practice Sets

Unit 4: Infusions and Pediatric Dosages

CHAPTER 10 Calculating Flow Rates and Durations of Enteral Solutions and Intravenous Infusions

Introduction to Intravenous and Enteral Solutions

Enteral Feedings

Intravenous Infusions

Intravenous Solutions

Equipment for IV Infusions

Infusion Pumps

Calculating the Flow Rate of Infusions

Changing Between Milliliters per Hour and Drops per Minute

Flow Rate Conversion Number

Calculating the Duration of Flow for IV and Enteral Solutions

Fluid Balance: Intake/Output

Case Study 10.1

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 11 Calculating Flow Rates for Intravenous Medications

Intravenous Administration of Medications

Intravenous Piggyback Infusions

Converting Dosage Rates to IV Flow Rates

Converting IV Flow Rates to Dosage Rates

IV Push

Compound Rates

Titrating Medications

Case Study 11.1

Practice Sets

CHAPTER 12 Calculating Pediatric Dosages

Pediatric Drug Dosages

Administration of Oral Medications

Administration of Parenteral Medications

Calculating Drug Dosages by Body Size

Administration of Intravenous Medications

Using a Volume Control Chamber

Calculating Daily Fluid Maintenance

Case Study 12.1

Practice Sets

Comprehensive Self-Tests

Appendices

Appendix A Answer Section

Appendix B The Apothecary System of Measurement

Appendix C Common Abbreviations Used in Medical Documentation

Appendix D Units of Measurement in Metric and Household Systems

Appendix E Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Conversions

Appendix F Tables of Weight Conversions

Index

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