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Ratio-Proportion Dosage Calculations, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Anthony Giangrasso, Dolores Shrimpton

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Jan 8, 2009

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Ratio & Proportion Dosage Calculations is a combined text and workbook.  Its consistent focus on safety, accuracy, and professionalism make it a valuable part of a course for nursing or allied health programs. It is also highly effective for independent study, and may be used as a refresher for dosage calculation skills and as a professional reference.


This book uses the Ratio and Proportion method for drug calculations; a time-tested approach based on simple mathematical concepts.  It helps the student develop a “number sense”, and largely frees the student from the need to memorize formulas.

Table of Contents

Unit 1 : Basic Calculation Skills and Introduction to Medical Administration



CHAPTER 1 Review of Arithmetic for Medical Dosage Calculations


Diagnostic Test of Arithmetic

Changing Decimal Numbers and Whole Numbers to Fractions



Changing Fractions to Decimal Numbers

Rounding Decimal Numbers

            Rounding Off

Rounding Down

Adding Decimal Numbers

Subtracting Decimal Numbers

Multiplying Decimal Numbers

Dividing Decimal Numbers

Estimating Answers

Multiplying Fractions

Dividing Fractions

Complex Fractions

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

            Same Denominators

            Different Denominators


Percent of Change

Practice Sets


CHAPTER 2  Safe and Accurate Drug Administration


The Drug Administration Process

Six Rights of Medication Administration

The Right Drug

            The Right Dose

            The Right Route

            The Right Time

            The Right Patient

            The Right Documentation

Drug Prescriptions

Medication Orders

Types of Medication Orders

Components of a Medication Order

Medication Administration Records

Technology in the Medication Administration Process

Drug Labels

            Combination Drugs

Drug Package Inserts

Controlled Substances

 Practice Sets



CHAPTER 3 Ratio and Proportion





The Mathematics Needed to Solve Proportions

            Using Parentheses to Indicate Multiplication

            Dividing by 1

            Shorthand for Multiplication

Commutative Property


            Solving Simple Equations

Solving Proportions

Changing Quantities with Single Units of Measurement

Changing One Rate to Another Rate

Practice Sets


Unit 2:  Systems of Measurement 


CHAPTER 4 The Metric and Household Systems


The Household System

            Liquid Volume in the Household System

Weight in the Household System

Length in the Household System

Decimal Based Systems

The Metric System

Liquid Volume in the Metric System

Weight in the Metric System

            Length in the Metric System

Practice Sets


CHAPTER 5 Converting From One System of Measurement to Another


Equivalents of Common Units of Measurement

Metric-Household Conversions

Practice Sets


Unit 3 Oral and Parenteral Medications


CHAPTER 6 Calculating Oral Medication Doses


Simple Problems

Medication in Solid Form

Medication in Liquid Form

Complex Problems

Calculating Dosage by Body Weight

Calculating Dosage by Body Surface Area

 BSA Formulas


 Case Study 6.1

Practice Reading Labels

Practice Sets


CHAPTER 7 Syringes


Parts of a Syringe


Types of Syringes

Measuring Insulin Doses 

Measuring a Single Dose of Insulin in an Insulin Syringe

 Measuring Insulin with an Insulin Pen

Insulin Pumps

Measuring Two Types of Insulin in One Syringe

Measuring Premixed Insulin 

Prefilled Syringes

 Insulin Coverage/Sliding Scale Calculations

Safety Syringes

 Needless Syringes

Case Study 7.1

Practice Sets


CHAPTER 8  Preparation of Solutions


Determining the Strength of a Solution

Strength of Solutions as Ratios, Fractions, and Percents

Liquid Solutes

Dry Solutes

Determining the Amount of Pure Solute in a Given Amount of Solution

Determining the Amount of Solution That Contains a Given Amount of Solute

Irrigating Solutions, Soaks, and Oral Feedings

Case Study 8.1

Practice Sets


CHAPTER 9 Parenteral Medications


Parenteral Medications 

Parenteral Medications Supplied as Liquids

Parenteral Medications Supplied in Powdered Form


Case Study 9.1

Practice Sets 


Unit 4:  Infusions and Pediatric Dosages


CHAPTER 10 Calculating Flow Rates and Durations of Enteral Solutions and Intravenous Infusions


Introduction to Intravenous and Enteral Solutions 

Enteral Feedings 

Intravenous Infusions 

Intravenous Solutions 

Equipment for IV Infusions 

Infusion Pumps 

Calculating the Flow Rate of Infusions 

Changing Between Milliliters per Hour and Drops per Minute

Flow Rate Conversion Number

Calculating the Duration of Flow for IV and Enteral Solutions

Fluid Balance: Intake/Output

Case Study 10.1 

Practice Sets 


CHAPTER 11 Calculating Flow Rates for Intravenous Medications


Intravenous Administration of Medications

Intravenous Piggyback Infusions 

Converting Dosage Rates to IV Flow Rates

Converting IV Flow Rates to Dosage Rates

IV Push

Compound Rates

Titrating Medications 

Case Study 11.1 

Practice Sets 


CHAPTER 12 Calculating Pediatric Dosages


Pediatric Drug Dosages 

Administration of Oral Medications

Administration of Parenteral Medications

Calculating Drug Dosages by Body Size

Administration of Intravenous Medications

Using a Volume Control Chamber

Calculating Daily Fluid Maintenance 

Case Study 12.1 

Practice Sets 


Comprehensive Self-Tests



Appendix A                Answer Section

Appendix B                The Apothecary System of Measurement

Appendix C                Common Abbreviations Used in Medical Documentation

Appendix D                Units of Measurement in Metric and Household Systems

Appendix E                 Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Conversions

Appendix F                 Tables of Weight Conversions



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Ratio-Proportion Dosage Calculations, CourseSmart eTextbook
Format: Safari Book

$31.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-507715-3