This inexpensive and brief text examines the main problems in contemporary philosophy and uses more than 100 “Food for Thought” exercises to promote critical thinking and help students become active learners of philosophy. The book is intended for use by professors teaching a problems-oriented course, but is structured to appeal to any reader willing to explore subjects such as free will, personal identity, existence of God, and more.
Ultimate Questions explores how the timeless problems of Western philosophy are located inside our ordinary ways of thinking and being. It encourages readers to think about philosophy first-hand by using vivid and engaging examples. It also introduces readers to prominent up-to-date theories being applied to the same problems encountered by contemporary analytic philosophers. After reading this text, students will gain a better sense of how mysterious their own natures really are.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: What is Philosophy?
Making Sense of the World
The Relationship between Philosophy and ScienceThe Main Branches of Philosophy
CHAPTER TWO: Philosophical Tools
A Demand of Reason: Avoid Contradictions
Lexical and Real Definitions
Challenging Definitions: Counterexamples and Thought Experiments
The Basic Structure of Arguments
Putting Arguments into Standard Form
Deductive and Inductive Argument
Evaluating Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness
Evaluating Deductive Arguments: Logical Form
Evaluating Inductive Arguments: Probability
CHAPTER THREE: WHAT DO WE KNOW?
What is Knowledge? .
Three Different Theories of Knowledge
The Case for Skepticism
Descartes’ Quest for CertaintyEmpiricism.
The Case for Empiricism
Problems with Perception
The Problem of Induction
The Case for Rationalism
Problems for Rationalism
Final Remarks on Epistemology
CHAPTER FOUR: THE PROBLEM OF FREE WILL
Why is there a Problem with Free Will?
The Case for Hard-Determinism
Can Indeterminism save Free Will?
A Fundamental Problem for Compatibilism
The Case for Libertarianism
Problems for Libertarianism
Final Remarks on the Problem of Free Will
CHAPTER FIVE: THE PROBLEM OF PERSONAL IDENTITY
What is the problem?
The Persistence Question
The Illusion Theory of Personal Identity
The Case for the Illusion TheoryProblems for the Illusion Theory
The Body Theory of Personal Identity [Animalism]
The Case for the Body Theory
Problems for the Body Theory
The Soul Theory of Personal Identity
The Case for the Soul Theory
Problems for the Soul Theory .
The Memory Theory of Personal Identity
The Case for the Memory Theory
Problems for the Memory TheoryFinal Remarks on Personal Identity
CHAPTER SIX: THE MIND/BODY PROBLEM
What is the Problem
Possible Solutions to the Mind/Body Problem
Arguments for Substance Dualism
The Conceivability Argument
Arguments against Substance Dualism
The Problem of Interaction
Do Dualists commit a Category Mistake?
Varieties of Physicalism
Arguments against Logical Behaviorism
The Identity Theory .
Evidence for the Identity Theory
Arguments against the Identity Theory
Functional Concepts and “Stuff” Concepts
Functionalism: Mind as Software
Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence: The Turing Test
Arguments against Functionalism .
The Chinese Room Argument
Problems with Qualia
Final Remarks on the Mind Body Problem
CHAPTER SEVEN: DOES GOD EXIST?
God, Faith, and Reason
What do we mean by the word “God”?
Arguments in Defense of a Classical Theistic God
Arguments from Religious Experiences
The Ontological Argument
What is the Effect of these Arguments?
Arguments against the Existence of a Classical Theistic God
The Logical Problem of Evil
The Evidential Problem of Evil
Final Remarks on the Problem of God’s Existence
CHAPTER EIGHT: WHAT OUGHT WE TO DO?
Moral Intuitions and Moral Principles
A Fundamental Challenge: Relativism
The Case for Subjective Relativism
Problems for Subjective Relativism
The Case for Cultural Relativism
Problems for Cultural Relativism
Final Remarks on Cultural Relativism
Some Important Ethical Theories
Divine Command Theory
The Case for the Divine Command Theory
Problems for the Divine Command Theory.
The Basic Idea
Pleasure and Happiness .
Problems for Utilitarianism
Duty Based Theories
The Importance of a Good Will
Advantages of Kant’s Ethics
Problems for Kant’s Ethics
Virtue Based Theories
The Importance of Moral Character
Advantages of Virtue Ethics
Problems for Virtue Ethics
Final Remarks on the Problem of Morality
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