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Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for Teaching K-12 English Learners (with MyLab Education), 5th Edition

By Suzanne F. Peregoy, Owen F. Boyle

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Apr 10, 2008


Praised for its strong research base, engaging style, and inclusion of specific teaching ideas, the Fifth Edition comprehensively examines oral language, vocabulary, writing, reading, and writing/content-based instruction in English for grades K-12 students. 


This Fifth Edition of Peregoy & Boyle's best-selling book continues the strengths of the Fourth Edition with its comprehensiveness and accessibility, providing a wealth of practical strategies for promoting literacy and language development in ELLs (K-12). Unlike many books in this field, Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL takes a unique approach by exploring contemporary language acquisition theory (as it relates to instruction) and providing suggestions and methods for motivating ELLs’ English language, literacy and content area learning. The book highlights content-based instruction and features differentiated instruction for English language learners.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

     1   English Language Learners in School  

Who Are English Language Learners?  

How Can I Get to Know My English Language Learners?        

            Getting Basic Information When a New Student Arrives           

            Classroom Activities That Let You Get to Know Your Students           

How Do Cultural Differences Affect Teaching and Learning?    

            Culture in the Classroom Context         

            Definitions of Culture

            Becoming an Effective Participant-Observer in Your Own Classroom

            Sociolinguistic Interactions in the Classroom     

            Culturally Related Responses to Classroom Organization          

            Literacy Traditions from Home and Community

            Who Am I in the Lives of My Students?

How Can I Ease Newcomers into the Routines of My
            Classroom When They Know Little or No English?      

            First Things First: Safety and Security   

            Creating a Sense of Belonging  

Current Policy Trends Affecting the Education of English Learners        

            Academic Standards and Assessment  

            High-Stakes Testing     

            Education Policy Specific to English Learners   

What Kinds of Programs Exist to Meet the Needs of English
Language Learners?     

            Bilingual Education Programs   

            English Language Instructional Programs          

            English Language Learners in the “General Education” Classroom         

            Quality Indicators to Look for in Programs Serving English Learners

Using Research and Expert Views to Inform Practice   


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     2   Second Language Acquisition   

What Do You Know When You Know a Language? Defining
            Language Proficiency as Communicative Competence  

            Classroom Example of Language Use in Social Context

            Literal and Figurative Language

Language, Power, Social Standing, and Identity

            Language as an Instrument and Symbol of Power         

            Language or Dialect?   

            Personal Identity and Ways of Speaking: The Case of Ebonics 

Language Acquisition Theories 

            First Language Acquisition Theories     

            Second Language Acquisition Theories

            Beyond Social Interaction in Second Language Acquisition Theory       

Learning a Second Language in School: Processes and Factors

            Second Language Acquisition Contexts: Formal Study versus
                        immersion in a Country Where the Language Is Spoken

            Effects of Age on Social Opportunities for Language Development

            Age and the Interplay of Sociocultural, Personality,

                        and Cognitive Factors

            Effects of Age on Cognitive-Academic Functioning:  Differences

                        in School Expectations of Younger and Older Learners

            Teacher Expectations for English Learner Achievement 

            Language Used for Social Interaction versus Language Used
                        for Academic Learning 

            Learning to Use English in Socially and Culturally Appropriate Ways    

            Comprehensible Input and Social Interaction    

            What about Language Learning Errors?            


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     3   Classroom Practices for English Learner Instruction           

Standards-Based Instruction and Assessment   

Differentiated Instruction (DI)

Content-Based Instruction (CBI)

Sheltered Instruction or Specially Designed Academic Instruction
            in English (SDAIE)      

            Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE: A Science Example with Fourth Graders         

            Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE: A Literature Example with Kindergartners

            Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE: A Secondary Social Science Example 

                        with High School Students

Planning for Differentiated, Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE

Group Work   

            Organizing Group Work          

            Cooperative Learning Methods

            Phases of Cooperative Group Development     


Thematic Instruction     

            Organizing Thematic Instruction

            Functional Language and Literacy Uses in Thematic Instruction 

            Creating Variety in Language and Literacy Uses           


            Scaffolding: A KEEP Example 

            Scaffolds for First and Second Language Reading and Writing


Assessment of English Learners

            English Learner Assessment: Definition and Purposes    

            Identification and Placement of Students Needing Language
            Education Support Services     

            Limitations of Standardized Language Proficiency Tests

            Redesignation to FEP  

            Program Evaluation      

            Classroom-Based Assessment of Student Learning and Progress


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     4   Oral Language Development in Second Language Acquisition


Oral Language in Perspective   

            Integration of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing           

            Relationships among Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing

            Form, Function, and Social Context in Oral Language Use       

Describing Oral Language Performance of Beginning and
            Intermediate English Learners   

            Second Language Oral Proficiency of Beginning English Learners         

            Second Language Oral Proficiency of Intermediate English Learners     

Promoting Oral Language Development in the Classroom         

            Using Games in Second Language Classrooms 



            Dramatizing Poetry      

            Show and Tell 

            One Looks, One Doesn’t        

            Tape-Recording Children’s Re-Creations of Wordless Book Stories    

            Taping and Dubbing a Television Show

            Choral Reading

            Riddles and Jokes        

Oral Language Development through Content-Area Instruction 

            Oral English Development and Use in Mathematics       

            Oral English Development and Use in Science  

            Oral English Development and Use in Social Studies     

Classroom Assessment of English Learners’ Oral Language

            The Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM)      

            Checklists and Anecdotal Observations

Differentiating Instruction for Oral Language Development


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     5   Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning
to Write and Read 

What Does Research Tell Us about the Early Literacy
            Development of English Learners?        

Contrasting the Emergent Literacy and Reading
            Readiness Perspectives

            Reading Readiness Perspective

            Emergent Literacy Perspective 

            Differences between Oral and Written Language Development 

Highlighting Literacy Functions in Your Classroom        

Exploring the Visual Form of Written Language

            Development of Alphabetic Writing: Connecting Symbols
                        and Sounds     

            Print Concepts That Emerge in Emergent Literacy        

            Invented or Temporary Spelling: Children Working Out
                        Sound/Symbol Correspondences         

Emergent Literacy in English as a Non-native Language

Home and School Environments That Nurture Emergent Literacy          

            How Do Home Environments Promote Early Literacy?

            Family Literacy Programs        

            Promoting Parent Involvement in English Learners’ Schooling   

Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacy           

            Early Literacy Goals    

            Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Environment         

            Books, Books, Books 

            Using Daily Routines to Highlight the Forms and Functions of Print        

            Reading Aloud to Students       

            Shared Writing and Reading through the Language
            Experience Approach  

            Dialogue Journals         

            Alphabet Books          

Helping Children Recognize and Spell Words Independently     

            Using Big Books to Teach Sight Words and Phonics    

            Increasing Students’ Sight Word Vocabulary    


            Word Families 

            Invented or Temporary Spelling and Word Recognition

            Developmental Levels in Student Spelling         

            Summary of Early Literacy Instructional Strategies        

Assessing Emergent Literacy Development

Differentiating Instruction for Emergent Literacy Development   


Suggestions for Further Reading           


6  Words and Meaning:  English Learners' Vocabulary Development

What Does Research Tell Us About Vocabulary Development in a Second Language?

What Words Do Students Need to Know?

How Do Students Learn New Words?

How Do We Differentiate Vocabulary Assessment and Instruction?

            English Language Proficiency Considerations

            Primary Language Proficiency Considerations

            Vocabulary Assessment for Planning Instruction

A Word About Dictionaries

Beginning Level Vocabulary Learners:  Characteristics and Strategies

            Total Physical Response

            Read Alouds

            Word Cards

            Word Wall Dictionary

            Picture Dictionaries

            Working with Idioms

Intermediate Level Vocabulary Learners:  Characteristics and Strategies

            Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy

            Word Wheel

            Word Wizard

            Contextual Redefinition

            Vocabulary Journals

            Dictionary Use

            Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes

Word Learning Strategies Identified as Useful by Older Learners

Assessing Second Language Learners Vocabulary Progress

Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction


Suggestions for Further Reading




7   English Learners and Process Writing 

Research on Second Language Writing

What Is Process Writing?        

            Experiencing Process Writing: “I Remember”   

            Students’ Responses to “I Remember”

How Process Writing Helps English Learners   

Collaborative Contexts for Process Writing      

            Response Groups        

            Peer Editing Groups     

            Publishing Student Writing        

Developmental Phases in Second Language Writing      

Description of Beginning Writers          

Strategies to Assist Beginning Writers   

            Oral Discussion           

            Partner Stories Using Pictures and Wordless Books     

            Concept Books: Creating a Teaching Library   

            Peek-A-Boo Books for Younger Students and Riddle Books for
                        Older Students

            Pattern Poems 

            From Personal Journals to Dialogue Journals to Buddy Journals

            Improvisational Sign Language 

            Life Murals      



Description of Intermediate Writers      

Strategies for Intermediate Writers       

            Show and Not Tell      

            Sentence Combining    

            Sentence Shortening    

            Sentence Models         


Assessing English Learners’ Writing Progress   

            Portfolio Assessment   

            Holistic Scoring           

Working with Errors in Student Writing

            Balancing Goals: Fluency, Form, Correctness   

            Balancing Instruction: Scaffolds, Models, and Direct Instruction

Differentiating Instruction for Writing Development


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     8   Reading and Literature Instruction for English
Language Learners      

What Does Research Tell Us about Reading in a
            Second Language?      

            Second Language Readers       

            English Language Learners and Background Knowledge          

            Reading Processes of Proficient Readers          

Elements of Reading Comprehension and Metacognition:
            A Cartoon Example     

            Background Knowledge and Inferences           

            Decoding and Vocabulary        

            Metacognition: “Thinking about Thinking”         

            Text Structure  

Working in Literature Response Groups           

            Steps That Prepare Students to Work in Response Groups      

            How Response to Literature Assists English Language Learners

The Many Benefits of Independent Reading

            Independent, Instructional, and Frustration Levels of Reading

            Five-Finger Exercise

            Graded Books

            Electronic Books (E-Books)

Developmental Phases in Second Language Reading    

Beginning Readers: Characteristics and Strategies         

            Language-Experience Approach          

            Providing Quality Literature for Beginners         

            Pattern Books 

            Illustrating Stories and Poems   

            Shared Reading with Big Books

            Guided Reading           

            Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA)

            Readers’ Theater         

            Story Mapping

Intermediate Readers: Characteristics and Strategies     

            Cognitive Mapping      

            Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)   

            Literature Response Journals    

            Developing Scripts for Readers’ Theater          

            Adapting Stories into Plays and Scripts for Film and Videotape

Using Computers and CD-ROMs to Enhance Learning

Assessing Second Language Readers’ Progress           

            Assessing with Materials Students Bring to Class          

            Informal Assessment    

            Miscue Analysis           

            Informal Reading Inventories    

            Running Records         

            Student Self-Assessment          

Differentiating Reading and Literature Instruction


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     9   Content Reading and Writing: Prereading
and During Reading          

What Does Research Tell Us about Reading and Writing across
            the Curriculum for English Language Learners?

Background Information on Students’ Interactions with Texts   

            Aesthetic and Efferent Interactions with Texts   

            Effects of Text Structure on Comprehension and Memory        

            Literary Structure         

            Metacognition and Learning from Text 

Matching Students and Texts   

            Evaluating Students’ Interaction with Text Using the Group
                        Reading Inventory (GRI)          

Strategies to Promote Reading Comprehension

Prereading Strategies: Developing Motivation, Purpose, and
            Background Knowledge          

            Teacher Talk: Making Purposes Clear  

            Field Trips and Films   

            Simulation Games        


            Developing Vocabulary before Students Read a Text   

            Structured Overviews  

            Preview Guides           

            Anticipation Guides      

During-Reading Strategies: Monitoring Comprehension 

            Using Headings and Subheadings         

            Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)   

            Vocabulary Strategies during Reading  

            Using Clustering to Develop Vocabulary in Context      

            Jigsaw Procedure        

            Learning Logs

Differentiating Instruction for Content Area Reading      


Suggestions for Further Reading           


     10 Content Reading and Writing: Postreading
Strategies for Organizing and Remembering  

Postreading Strategies for Students      

            Semantic Feature Analysis for Vocabulary Development
                        after Reading   

            Rehearsing to Organize and Remember Information      

            Venn Diagrams 3

            Mapping           3

Writing as a Learning Tool across the Curriculum         

            Journals and Learning Logs      

            Developing Topics and Student Self-Selection of Topics in
                        Content Areas 

            Photo Essays: Combining Direct Experience, the Visual Mode,
                        and Writing      

            Written and Oral Collaborative Research Projects        

            K-W-L, a Strategy that Fosters Thinking before, during, and
                        after Reading   

Theme Studies: Providing a Meaningful Learning Context          

            Introducing the Topic and Choosing Study Questions   

            Organizing Instruction  

            Instructional Modifications for English Learners


            Portfolio Assessment   

            Using Multiple Measures for Assessment          

Differentiating Instruction for Content Area Learning


Suggestions for Further Reading           


  11                             Reading Assessment and Instruction           

Theoretical Approach to Literacy Assessment  

            Language Proficiency: Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing          

            Looking Closely at the Reading Process in English        

            Resources That Non-Native English Speakers Bring to English Reading

Assessing Reading Using an Informal Reading Inventory           

            Using IRIs to Systematically Assess Students’ Status and Progress       

            Reading Levels Can Be Established Using Informal Reading Inventories

            Procedures for Determining Independent, Instructional, and
            Frustration Levels        

Sample Informal Reading Inventory      

A List of Commercial Informal Reading Inventories      

Other Procedures for Evaluating and Helping Readers  

            Linking Assessment and Instruction      

            Echo Reading  

            Guided Reading           

            ReQuest Procedure     

            Read Alouds   


Suggestions for Further Reading           



References       412

Author Index    433

Subject Index   439