## Description

For one-semester, junior/senior-level and graduate courses in Reinforced Concrete in the department of civil engineering.

Now reflecting the new 2008 ACI 318-08 Code and the new International Building Code (IBC-2006), the Sixth Edition of this cutting-edge text has been extensively revised to present state-of-the-art developments in reinforced concrete. It analyzes the design of reinforced concrete members through a unique and practical step-by-step trial and adjustment procedure. The narrative is supplemented with flowcharts to guide students logically through the learning process. Ample photographs of instructional testing of concrete members decreases the need for actual laboratory testing.

## Table of Contents

PREFACE

**1 **INTRODUCTION

1.1 Historical Development of Structural Concrete

1.2 Basic Hypothesis of Reinforced Concrete

1.3 Analysis versus Design of Sections

**2 **CONCRETE-PRODUCING MATERIALS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Portland Cement

2.3 Water and Air

2.4 Aggregates

2.5 Admixtures

Selected References

**3 **CONCRETE

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Proportioning Theory—Normal Strength Concrete

3.3 High-Strength High-Performance Concrete Mixtures Design

3.4 PCA Method of Mixture Design

3.5 Estimating Compressive Strength of a Trial Mixture Using the Specified

Compressive Strength

3.6 Mixture Designs for Nuclear-Shielding Concrete

3.7 Quality Tests on Concrete

3.8 Placing and Curing of Concrete

3.9 Properties of Hardened Concrete

3.10 High-Strength Concrete

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**4 **REINFORCED CONCRETE

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Types and Properties of Steel Reinforcement

4.3 Bar Spacing and Concrete Cover for Steel Reinforcement

4.4 Concrete Structural Systems

4.5 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components

4.6 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins

4.7 Design Strength versus Nominal Strength: Strength Reduction Factor

4.8 Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Selected References

**5 **FLEXURE IN BEAMS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block

5.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design

5.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams for Flexure

5.5 Trial-and-Adjustment Procedures for the Design of Singly Reinforced Beams

5.6 One-Way Slabs

5.7 Doubly Reinforced Sections

5.8 Nonrectangular Sections

5.9 Analysis of T and L Beams

5.10 Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Design of Flanged Sections

5.11 Concrete Joist Construction

5.12 SI Expressions and Example for Flexural Design of Beams

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**6 **SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION IN BEAMS

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Behavior of Homogeneous Beams

6.3 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections

6.4 Reinforced Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement

6.5 Diagonal Tension Analysis of Slender and Intermediate Beams

6.6 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy

6.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear

6.8 Examples of the Design of Web Steel for Shear

6.9 Deep Beams: Non-Linear Approach

6.10 Brackets or Corbels

6.11 Strut and Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements

6.12 SI Design Expressions and Example for Shear Design

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**7 **TORSION

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements

7.3 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Elements

7.4 Shear–Torsion–Bending Interaction

7.5 ACI Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Bending,

and Shear

7.6 SI Metric Torsion Expressions and Example for Torsion Design

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**8 **SERVICEABILITY OF BEAMS AND ONE-WAY SLABS

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Significance of Deflection Observation

8.3 Deflection Behavior of Beams

8.4 Long-Term Deflection

8.5 Permissible Deflections in Beams and One-Way Slabs

8.6 Computation of Deflections

8.7 Deflection of Continuous Beams

8.8 Operational Deflection Calculation Procedure and Flowchart

8.9 Deflection Control in One-Way Slabs

8.10 Flexural Cracking in Beams and One-Way Slabs

8.11 Tolerable Crack Widths

8.12 ACI 318 Code Provisions for Control of Flexural Cracking

8.13 SI Conversion Expressions and Example of Deflection Evaluation

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**9 **COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Types of Columns

9.3 Strength of Non-Slender Concentrically Loaded Columns

9.4 Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Columns: Axial Load and Bending

9.5 Strain Limits Method to Establish Reliability Factor and Analysis and Design

of Compression Members

9.6 Whitney’s Approximate Solution in Lieu of Exact Solutions

9.7 Column Strength Reduction Factor

9.8 Load–Moment Strength Interaction Diagrams (P–M Diagrams) for Columns Controlled

by Material Failure

9.9 Practical Design Considerations

9.10 Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Columns

9.11 Numerical Examples for Analysis and Design of Nonslender Columns

9.12 Limit State at Buckling Failure (Slender or Long Columns)

9.13 Moment Magnification: First-Order Analysis

9.14 Second-Order Frame Analysis and the P-Δ effect

9.15 Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns

9.16 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending

9.17 SI Expressions and Example for the Design of Compression Members

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**10 **BOND DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCING BARS

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Bond Stress Development

10.3 Basic Development Length

10.4 Development of Flexural Reinforcement in Continuous Beams

10.5 Splicing of Reinforcement

10.6 Examples of Embedment Length and Splice Design for Beam Reinforcement

10.7 Typical Detailing of Reinforcement and Bar Scheduling

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**11 **DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS AND PLATES

11.1 Introduction: Review of Methods

11.2 Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Slabs and Plates

11.3 The Direct Design Method

11.4 Distributed Factored Moments and Slab Reinforcement by the Direct Design Method

11.5 Design and Analysis Procedure: Direct Design Method

11.6 Equivalent Frame Method for Floor Slab Design

11.7 SI Two-Way Slab Design Expressions and Example

11.8 Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation

11.9 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Two-Way-Action Slabs and Plates

11.10 Yield-Line Theory for Two-Way Action Plates

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**12 **FOOTINGS

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Types of Foundations

12.3 Shear and Flexural Behavior of Footings

12.4 Soil Bearing Pressure at Base of Footings

12.5 Design Considerations in Flexure

12.6 Design Considerations in Shear

12.7 Operational Procedure for the Design of Footings

12.8 Examples of Footing Design

12.9 Structural Design of Other Types of Foundations

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**13 **CONTINUOUS REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Longhand Displacement Methods

13.3 Force Method of Analysis

13.4 Displacement Method of Analysis

13.5 Finite-Element Methods and Computer Usage

13.6 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Beams and Frames

13.7 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**14 **INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

14.1 Basic Concepts of Prestressing

14.2 Partial Loss of Prestress

14.3 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

14.4 Serviceability Requirements in Prestressed Concrete Members

14.5 Ultimate-Strength Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams

14.6 Example 14.5: Ultimate-Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam

by Strain Compatibility

14.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**15 **LRFD AASHTO DESIGN OF CONCRETE

BRIDGE STRUCTURES

15.1 LRFD Truck Load Specifications

15.2 Flexural Design Considerations

15.3 Shear Design Considerations

15.4 Horizontal Interface Shear

15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion

15.6 Step-by-Step LRFD Design Procedures

15.7 LRFD Design of Bulb-Tee Bridge Deck: Example 15.1

15.8 LRFD Shear and Deflection Design: Example 15.2

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**16 **SEISMIC DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

16.1 Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes

16.2 Spectral Response Method

16.3 Equivalent Lateral Force Method

16.4 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings

16.5 Other Aspects in Seismic Design

16.6 Flexural Design of Beams and Columns

16.7 Seismic Detailing Requirements for Beams and Columns

16.8 Horizontal Shear in Beam–Column Connections (Joints)

16.9 Design of Shear Walls

16.10 Design Procedure for Earthquake-Resistant Structures

16.11 Example 16.1: Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the International

Building Code (IBC) Approach

16.12 Example 16.2: Design of Confining Reinforcement for Beam–Column Connections

16.13 Example 16.3: Transverse Reinforcement in a Beam Potential Hinge Region

16.14 Example 16.4: Probable Shear Strength of Monolithic Beam–Column Joint

16.15 Example 16.5: Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing

Selected References

Problems for Solution

**17 **STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Design Principles

17.3 Strength Reduction Factors

17.4 Flexural Strength

17.5 Shear Strength

17.6 Axial Compression Strength

17.7 Anchorage of Masonry Reinforcement

17.8 Prestressed Masonry

17.9 Deflection

17.10 Example 17.9: Detailed Design of CMU Lintel in Seismic Zone

17.11 Example 17.10: Design of Grouted CMU Wall Supporting Beam Lintel of Example 17.9

17.12 Example 17.11: Tension Anchor Design

Selected References

Problems for Solution

APPENDIX A TABLES AND NOMOGRAMS

INDEX

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