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Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry, CourseSmart eTextbook, 8th Edition

By Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Aug 17, 2012

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Explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology.


This comprehensive text uses a carefully constructed programmatic approach to introduce topics and systematically build on earlier presentations. Research Methods emphasizes research concepts, as well as specific, technical research strategies, to help students develop an understanding of the underlying rational-empirical processes of science and gain specific research skills.


The authors provide clearly written explanations of concepts and numerous examples drawn from all areas of psychology to enable students to develop a sophisticated understanding of the research process. The 8th edition includes an extensive integrated Web site ( with a variety of resources for students.


Learning Goals

Upon completing this book readers will be able to:

Understand the concepts of research design

  • Develop research skills based on a knowledge of appropriate research design
  • Develop a sensitivity to ethical issues in research and the skills necessary to address these issues
  • Understand basic statistical concepts

Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment

Chapter 2 Research is a Process of Inquiry

Chapter 3 The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Chapter 4 Data and the Nature of Measurement

Chapter 5 Statistical Analysis of Data

Chapter 6 Field Research: Naturalistic and Case Study Research

Chapter 7 Correlational and Differential Methods of Research

Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity

Chapter 9 Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity

Chapter 10 Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs

Chapter 11 Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs

Chapter 12 Factorial Designs

Chapter 13 A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research

Appendix A Using the Student Resource Website

Appendix B Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Style

Appendix C Conducting Library Research

Appendix D Selecting Statistical Procedures

Appendix E Research Design Checklist

Appendix F Meta-Analysis

Appendix G Random Numbers

Appendix H Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions




Name Index

Subject Index



Chapter 1: Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment

Classic Studies 1.1: Kitty Genovese and Bystander Apathy


Science Is a Way of Thinking

Asking Questions

Historical Lesson 1.1: The Three Princes of Serendip

Science and Art

Historical Lesson 1.2: Leonardo da Vinci

Acquiring Knowledge







Emergence of Science

Early Civilization

Greek Science

Medieval Science

The Scientific Revolution

The Goals of Science


The History of Psychology




Gestalt Psychology


Humanistic Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Women and Minorities in Psychology

Modern Psychology

The Science of Psychology

The Cost of Neglect 1.4: Science and Pseudoscience

Ethical Principles

Using the Resources of this Text

Exploring the Student Resource Website

Using SPSS for Windows


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 2: Research is a Process of Inquiry

The Scientific Process

Basic Assumptions of Science

Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs

Inductive and Deductive Thinking

Models and Theories in Science

Historical Lesson 2.1: The Wright Brothers as Scientists

Types of Theories

Scientific Models

A Model of the Research Process

Phases of Research

Idea-Generating Phase

Problem-Definition Phase

Procedures-Design Phase

Observation Phase

Data Analysis Phase

Interpretation Phase

Communication Phase

Levels of Constraint

Naturalistic Observation

Case Study Research (Case Study Research)

Correlational Research

Differential Research

Experimental Research

Moving from One Constraint Level to Another

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 3: The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Asking and Refining Questions

Pursuing Your Personal Interests

Following Up on the Work of Others

Historical Lesson 3.1 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace

Basic, Applied, and Translational Research

Box 3.1 Translational Research

Refining Questions for Research

Types of Variables in Research

Classifying Variables Based on Their Characteristics

Behavioral Variables

Stimulus Variables

Organismic Variables

Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research

Independent and Dependent Variables

Extraneous Variables

Variables and Constants

Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables

Ethical Principles

Ethical Principles for Human Research

Institutional Review Boards

Ethical Checks

Ethics and Diversity Issues in Research

Ethical Principles for Animal Research


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 4: Data and the Nature of Measurement


The Cost of Neglect 4.1: Missing Mars

Scales of Measurement

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

Ratio Scales

Measuring and Manipulating Variables

Measurement Error

Operational Definitions

Evaluating Measures


Interrater Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability

Internal Consistency Reliability

Effective Range


The Need for Objective Measurement

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 5: Statistical Analysis of Data

Individual Differences

Organizing Data

Frequency Distributions

Nominal and Ordinal Data

Score Data

Graphical Representation of Data

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

The Cost of Neglect 5.1: Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics

Measures of Variability

Understanding the Concept 5.1: Degrees of Freedom

Measures of Relationship

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

Other Correlations


Reliability Indices

Standard Scores

Statistical Inference

Populations and Samples

The Null Hypothesis

Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels

Type I and Type II Errors

Inferential Statistics

Testing for Mean Differences

The t-Test

Analysis of Variance

The Power of a Statistical Test

Effect Size

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 6: Field Research: Naturalistic and Case Study Research

The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research

Examples of Naturalistic Observation


Historical Lesson 6.1: Naturalistic Research and Evolution




Examples of Case Study Research

Sigmund Freud

E. L. Whitmer

Jean Piaget

Contemporary Case Studies

The Value of Low-Constraint Methods

Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research

Exploratory Research

Creative Starting Point for Research

Familiarize Oneself with a New Research Area

Demonstrating Feasibility

Testing Generalizability

Understanding the Concept 6.1: The Therapist as Scientist

Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research

Identifying New Information

Negating a General Proposition

Identifying Contingencies

Qualitative Research Methods

Using Low-Constraint Methods

Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses

Making Observations

How to Observe

Unobtrusive Measures

Archival Measures

Sampling of Participants

Sampling of Situations

Sampling of Behaviors

Evaluating and Interpreting Data

Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods

Poor Representativeness

Poor Replicability

Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research

Limitations of the Observer

Going Beyond the Data

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 7: Correlational and Differential Methods of Research

Defining Correlational and Differential Research

Correlational Research Methods

Differential Research Methods

Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research

Artifacts and Confounding

Comparing These Methods

When to Use These Methods

Conducting Correlational Research

Problem Statements

Secondary Analyses

Measuring the Variables


Analyzing the Data

Interpreting the Correlation

Conducting Differential Research

Problem Statements

Measuring the Variables

Selecting Appropriate Control Groups


Analyzing the Data

Interpreting the Data

Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research

Problems in Determining Causation

Confounding Variables

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity

Hypothesis Testing

Starting Research with an Initial Idea

Statement of the Problem

Operational Definitions

Research Hypothesis

The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis

Testing the Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Confounding Variable Hypothesis

Causal Hypothesis

Validity and Threats to Validity

Statistical Validity

Construct Validity

External Validity

Internal Validity

Major Confounding Variables





Regression to the Mean



Diffusion of Treatment

Sequence Effects

Examples of Confounding

Subject and Experimenter Effects

Subject Effects

Experimenter Effects

Ethical Principles 


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 9: Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity

General Control Procedures

Preparation of the Setting

Response Measurement


Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects

Single- and Double-Blind Procedures


Using Objective Measures

Multiple Observers

Understanding the Concept 9.1: Reliable Reliability 

Using Deception

Control through Participant Selection and Assignment

Participant Selection

Random Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Ad Hoc Samples

Participant Assignment

Free Random Assignment

Randomizing within Blocks

Matched Random Assignment

Other Matching Procedures

Advantages of Random Selection and Assignment

Control through Experimental Design

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 10: Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs


Sources of Variance

Systematic Between-Groups Variance

Nonsystematic Within-Groups Variance

Controlling Variance in Research

Maximizing Experimental Variance

Controlling Extraneous Variance

Minimizing Error Variance

Nonexperimental Approaches

Ex Post Facto Studies

Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies

Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies

Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies

Experimental Designs

Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design

Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design

Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design

Pretest-Manipulation Interaction: A Potential Problem

Variations on Experimental Designs

Analyses of Variance

Understanding the Concept 10.1: Statistical Power

Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA

Graphing the Data

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 11: Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs

Within-Subjects Designs

Using Within-Subjects Designs

Sequence Effects

Subtypes of Sequence Effects

Controlling Sequence Effects

Random Order of Presentation


Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs

Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs

Matched-Subjects Designs

Using Matched-Subjects Designs

Why Use Matched-Subjects Designs

Identifying Matching Variables

The Process of Matching

Deciding on the Matching Variables

Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs

Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs

Single-Subject Experimental Designs

Historical Lesson 11.1: Neuropsychological Cases

ABA Reversal Design

Multiple-Baseline Design

Single-Subject, Randomized, Time-Series Design

Replication in Single-Subject Designs

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 12: Factorial Designs

Factorial Designs

Main Effects and Interactions

Running the Children’s Dark-Fears Study

Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs

Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs

Variations of Basic Factorial Design

Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial

Mixed Designs

Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Factors

Manipulated and Nonmanipulated Factors

Mixed in Both Ways

ANOVA: A Postscript

Analysis of Covariance

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



Chapter 13: A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research

Conducting Field Research

Reasons for Doing Field Research

Testing External Validity

Studying Effects in the Field

Improving Generalization

Difficulties in Field Research

Flexibility in Research

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Nonequivalent Control-Group Designs

Interrupted Time-Series Designs

Program Evaluation Research

Historical Lesson 13.1: From Head Start to Heads Up

Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research

Issues of Control

Selecting Appropriate Dependent Measures

Minimizing Bias in Dependent Measures

Control through Research Design in Program Evaluation

Typical Program Evaluation Designs

Randomized Control-Group Design

Nonequivalent Control-Group Design

Single-Group, Time-Series Design

Pretest-Posttest Design

Program Evaluation Research: An Example


Types of Surveys

Status Surveys

Survey Research

Steps in Survey Research

Types of Survey Instruments

Developing the Survey Instrument

Sampling Participants

Sampling Considerations

The Cost of Neglect 13.1: Political Polling and Sampling

Sampling Procedures

Sample Size and Confidence Intervals

Survey Research Design

Cross-Sectional Design

Longitudinal Design

Sequential Design

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice



A final Note to Students


Appendix A: Using the Student Resource Website

Resources Available

Student Resource Website

MySearchLab Site

What to Do If You Have Problems

Getting Help



Appendix B: Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Style

Structure of a Research Article

Writing the Research Report

Using Levels of Headings to Organize

Sections of a Research Report

Title Page







Writing Style



Appendix C: Conducting Library Research

Using the Library

Library Resources

The Reference Librarian

How Research Materials Are Organized

Primary Sources

Journal Articles


Secondary Sources

Review Articles

Books and Chapters in Books

Annual Reviews

Finding the Relevant Research

Abstracting Services

Psychological Abstracts


Subject or Keyword Services

Library Catalogs

Books in Print

Index Medicus

Readers’ Guide to Periodic Literature

Literature Citation Indexes

Search Strategies

Searching by Topic

Identifying Keywords

Computer Searches

Searching Backward

Searching Forward



Appendix D: Selecting Statistical Procedures

Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures

An Initial Example

A Decision-Tree Model

Decision-Tree Flowchart

Describe the Study

Identify the Study’s Major Characteristics

Select Appropriate Statistics

Secondary Analyses

Post Hoc Analyses

Analyses to Help to Interpret Results

Data Snooping

Caveats and Disclaimers

Understanding the Concept D.1: The Robust Nature of Parametric Statistics




Appendix E: Research Design Checklist

The Research Design Checklist

Initial Problem Definition

Clarity of the Research Hypotheses

Statistical Analysis Procedures

Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions

Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation

Adequacy of Dependent Measures

Are All Controls in Place?


Participant Selection

Sample Size

Participant Assignment

Participant Availability

Research Ethics Considerations

Preparation of the Setting

Space and Equipment


Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures



Appendix F: Meta-Analysis

Logic of Meta-Analysis

Literature Reviews

Alpha Levels and Knowledge

Beta Levels and Knowledge

Meta-Analysis and the Problem of Type II Errors


Appendix G: Random Numbers


Appendix H: Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions




Name Index

Subject Index

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