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Research Methods in Education: An Introduction, 9th Edition

By William Wiersma, Stephen G. Jurs

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 28, 2008

Description

A classic in its field, Research Methods in Education explains the research process with emphasis on the formulation of a research question, referencing current literature in the field, using appropriate research designs, and writing and evaluating research reports. Both quantitative and qualitative research designs are described. Measurement, sampling, and statistics are presented as essential research tools.

 

Retaining the clear, concise writing style and organization that has made this text so popular, Research Methods in Education helps students evaluate research literature as well as master research methodology. It emphasizes the rationale for commonly used research procedures and their applications. The authors outline the nature of educational research and clearly define the steps in the research process.

 

The text is broad in scope–covering both quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research methodologies as well as describing how to write research proposals and reports of completed research. Research Methods in Education gives students a solid understanding of all the elements of research.

Table of Contents

Preface

 

            Acknowledgements

 

 

1.                  Educational Research:  Its Nature and Characteristics

 

Introduction

 

The Nature of Educational Research

 

            The Systematic Process of Research

            The Validity of Educational Research

                        Internal Validity

                        External Validity

            The Reliability of Educational Research

            Research Has a Variety of Forms

Classification of Educational Research

            Basic and Applied Research

            Qualitative and Quantitative Research

            General Methods of Research

                        Experimental Research

                        Quasi-Experimental Research

                        Nonexperimental Quantitative Research

                        Historical Research

                        Ethnographic Research

The Role of Theory

The Activities of the Research Process

            Identification of the Research Problem

            Data Collection

            Analysis

            Summarizing Results and Drawing Conclusions

Summary

            The Function of Educational Research

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

2.                  Identification of a Research Problem

Selection of a Research Problem

Statement of the Research Problem

            Constants, Variables, and Operational Definition

                        Independent and Dependent Variables

                        Other Possible Types of Variables

                        Variables as They are Measured

                        Operational Definition

            Hypotheses and the Statement of the Problem

            Types and Forms of Hypotheses

                        Examples of Hypotheses Related to Problem Statements

                        Examples From the Research Literature

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

3.                  The Review of the Literature

The Activities of the Review of the Literature

Sources of Information

            The Library

            Periodical Literature

            Education Index

            Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

            An Example Using CIJE and RIE

            Other Indexes and Abstracts

            Review of Educational Research (RER)

            Reports of Meta-Analysis

            Abstracts and Reports in Periodicals

            Theses and Dissertations

            Books

Computer Searches of Databases

            Conducting a Search

Searching a Database for a Specific Research Problem — One

            Descriptor

Searching a Database for a Specific Research Problem — More than

            One Descriptor

Other Sources Available Through the Computer

                        Selecting Studies for the Review of the Literature

                        Assembling and Summarizing Information

                                    Abstract or Summary

                                    Organizing Information

                        Interpreting and Using Information

                                    Critical Review

                                    Writing the Review

                                    Referencing

                                    Preparing the Bibliography

                        Summary

                        Key Concepts

                        Exercises

                        Notes

                        References

 

4.                  Research Design in Quantitative Research

The Purposes of Research Design

The Concept of Controlling Variance

            Procedures for Controlling Variance

                        Randomization

                        Building in Factors as Independent Variables

                        Holding Factors Constant

                        Statistical Control

                        Using Procedures for Control in Combination

Characteristics of Good Research Design

            Freedom from Bias

            Freedom from Confounding

            Control of Extraneous Variables

            Statistical Precision for Testing Hypotheses

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

5.                  Experimental Research

The Meaning of Experimental Design

            Experimental Variables

            Use of the Term Subject

Criteria for a Well-Designed Experiment

            Experimental Validity

            Threats to Experimental Validity

Posttest-Only Control Group Design

Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design

Solomon Four-Group Design

Factorial Designs

Repeated Measures Designs

Designs Extended in Time

            Time Series Designs

Interpreting Results of Experiments

Randomness and Representativeness

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

6.                  Quasi-Experimental Research

The Problems of Validity

Posttest-Only, Nonequivalent Control Group Design

Pretest-Posttest, Nonequivalent Control Group Design

Time Series Designs

            Single-Group Time Series Design

            Multiple-Group Time Series Design

            Variations in Time Series Designs

Single-Subject Designs

            A-B Design

            A-B-A Design

            A-B-A-B Design

            Multiple-Baseline Designs

                        Multiple-Baseline Design Across Behaviors

                        Multiple-Baseline Design Across Subjects

                        Multiple-Baseline Design Across Situations

Action Research and Quasi-Experimental Research

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

7.                  Non-Experimental Quantitative Research

Non-Experimental Quantitative Research: Its Scope and Description

      Ex post facto Research

                  Causal-Comparative Research Examples

                  Correlational Research Examples

      Survey Research

Survey Designs

      Longitudinal Designs

      Cross-Sectional Designs

The Methodology of Survey Research

Questionnaire Surveys

      Item Construction

      Item Format

                  Pilot Run of the Items

      The Cover Letter

      Questionnaire Format

      Procedures for Increasing Response Rate

                  Follow-up Procedures

      Identifying Sources of Nonresponse

      Incomplete and Possible Dishonest Response

      Examples

                  Community Surveys

                  Client Surveys

      Web-Based Surveys

                  Factors to Consider When Conducting Web-Based Surveys

      Interview Surveys

                  Interview Items

                  Conducting the Interview

                  Potential Sources of Error

                  Telephone Interviews

                  A Comment About Branching Items

      Other Surveys

      Analyzing and Reporting Survey Results

                  Hypothetical Example 1

                  Hypothetical  Example 2

      Summary

      Key Concepts

      Exercises

      Notes

      References

8.                  Research Design in Qualitative Research

The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

Components of Research Design

            Working Design

            Working Hypotheses

            Data Collection

            Data Analysis and Interpretation

                        Possible Codes

                        Coding Examples

Types of Designs in Qualitative Research

Perspectives for Qualitative Research

            Example:  Funnel Approach

            Example:  Modified Analytic Induction Approach

Reliability and Validity of Qualitative Research

Use of Technology in Qualitative Research

            Capabilities of Computer Software in Qualitative Research

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

9.                  Historical Research

The Value of Historical Research

Sources of Information in Historical Research

                        The Methodology of Historical Research

           

                                    Identification of the Research Problem

                                    Collection and Evaluation of Source Materials

                                                External Criticism

                                                Internal Criticism

                                    Synthesis of Information

                                    Analysis, Interpretation, and Formulating

                        Quantitative Methods in Historical Research

                        Comments on the Reporting of Historical Research

                                    Reports in Professional Journals

                        Summary

                        Key Concepts

                        Exercises       

                        References

 

10.              Ethnographic Research

The Nature of Ethnography in Education

            The Phenomenological Nature

            The Naturalistic Nature

            The Holistic and General Perspective

A Conceptual Schema for Ethnographic Research

The Process of Ethnographic Research

            Identification of the Phenomenon to be Studied

            Identification of Subjects

            Hypothesis Generation

            Data Collection

                        Observation

                        Videotaping

                        Interviewing

                        Reviewing Other Sources

                        Triangulation

            Analysis

                        Coding

                        Use of Numbers

            Drawing Conclusions

Examples of Ethnographic Research in Education

The Reliability and Validity of Ethnographic Research

            Reliability

            Validity

The Role of Ethnographic Research

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

11.              Mixed, Modeling and Delphi Methods

Mixed Methods

            Summary

Modeling Methods

            Application of Modeling Methods

                        Developing the Conceptual Model

                        Model Specification

                        Model Fitting

          Summary

Delphi Method

            The Delphi Process

                        Question Definition

                        Delphi-Panel Creation

                        First-Round Questionnaire: Initial Subject Consideration

                        Subsequent-Round Questionnaires and the Analysis of

                                    Responses

            Variations of the Delphi

            Examples of the Delphi

            Considerations When Conducting a Delphi

            Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

12.              Sampling Designs

The Concept of a Random Sample

            Random Selection and Random Assignment

            Use of a Random Number Table

            Use of the Computer in Sample Selection

            Sampling Error and Sampling Bias

Criteria for a Sampling Design

Stratified Random Sampling

            Allocation of Sample Size Among Strata

Cluster Sampling

Systematic Sampling

            Possible Problem of Periodicity

Considerations in Determining Sample Size–Random Sampling

Purposeful Sampling

            Comprehensive Sampling

            Maximum Variation Sampling

            Extreme Case Sampling

            Typical Case Sampling

            Homogeneous Sampling

            Other Variations of Purposeful Sampling

            Sample Size of Purposeful Samples

Summary

Key Concepts

Notes

References

 

13.              Measurement and Data Collection

Concepts of Measurement

            Types of Measurement Scales

            Reliability of Measurement

            Empirical Procedures for Estimating Reliability

            Expected Reliability Coefficients for Various Types of Tests

            Validity of Measurement

                        Content-Related Evidence

                        Criterion-Related Evidence: Concurrent and Predictive

                        Construct-Related Evidence

The Variables Measured in Educational Research

Tests and Inventories Used for Measurement

            Achievement Tests in Academic and Skills Areas

            Attitude Inventories

                        Likert Scale

                        Semantic Differential

            Aptitude Tests

            Personality Measures

            Rating Scales

            Observation Systems

Measures Involving Holistic Scoring

Where to Find Test Information

Scoring and Data Preparation

            Coding Data  

            An Example of a Data File

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

14.              Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

The Multiple Meanings of Statistics

Distributions

            Describing a Distribution of Scores

                        Measures of Central Tendency

                        Measures of Variability

                        Shapes of Distributions

            Standard Scores

                        Properties of Standard Scores

                        Determining Standard Scores

Correlation — A Measure of Relationship

            Uses of Correlation

            Different correlation Coefficients

Data Analysis by Computer

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Note

 

15.              Data Analysis: Inferential Statistics

Context for Using Inferential Statistics

Testing Hypotheses and Estimating Parameters

      Concept pf a Sampling Distribution

      Building a Confidence Internal — The Example Continued

      Possible Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Inferences from Statistics to Parameters: A Reviews

Parametric Analyses

      The t-Distribution — Another Sampling Distribution

      Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Nonparametric Analyses

      The Chi-Square (χ2) Test and Distribution

Correlational Analyses

      Analysis of Covariance

Selecting an Appropriate Statistical Analysis

Comments About Statistical Analysis

Meta-Analysis

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

Notes

References

 

16.       Communicating About Research

                        Major Sections of the Research Proposal

                                    Identification of the Problem

                                    Review of the Literature

                                    Methods of Procedures

                                    Significance of the Proposed Research

                                    Other Sections of the Research Proposal

                                                Cover Page

                                                Abstract

                                                Budget

                                                Timeline

                                                Staff Resumes

                                                Appendices

                        Major Sections of the Research Report

                                    Introduction, Including the Statement of the Problem

                                    Review of the Literature

                                    Methods or Procedures

                                    Results

                                                Use of Tables

                                    Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications

                        Other Sections of the Research Report

                                    Abstract

                                    Bibliography and Reference List

                                    Appendix

                        Putting a Report Together

                                    Software for Word Processing

                        Guidelines for Presenting Papers at Meetings

                        Presentations to Dissertation and Thesis Committees

                        Summary

                        Key Concepts

                        Exercises

                        Note

                        References

 

16.              Evaluating Research Reports

Types of Errors and Shortcomings in Reports

Critiquing Major Sections of a Research Report

            Introduction

            Review of the Literature

            Methods or Procedures

            Results

            Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications

Overall Impressions When Evaluating a Report

The Review Process for Journals

            Suggested Disposition

The Evaluation of Proposals

            Significance of the Proposed Research

            Quality of the Proposed Research

Summary

Key Concepts

Exercises

References

            Appendix 1:    Ethical and Legal Considerations in Conducting Research

            Appendix 2:    Solutions to Exercises

            Appendix 3:    Tables

                        Table A.  Ordinates and Areas of the Normal Curve

                        Table B.  Critical Values of t

                        Table C.  Upper Percentage Points of the χ2 Distribution

                        Table D.  Upper Percentage Points of the F-Distribution

                        Table E.  Critical Values of the Correlation Coefficient

            Glossary of Research Methods Terms

            Name Index

            Subject Index

            Disk Instructions

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ISBN-13: 978-0-205-58192-4

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