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Table of Contents
PART ONE: OVERVIEW OF AN ARGUMENT
1 Argument: An Introduction
What Do We Mean by Argument?
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
JUAN LUCAS (STUDENT), “An Argument Against Banning Phthalates”
A student opposes a ban on a chemical that makes toys soft and flexible.
The Defining Features of Argument
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion
Argument and the Problem of Truth
2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring
Finding Issues to Explore
Do Some Initial Brainstorming
Be Open to the Issues All around You
Explore Ideas by Freewriting
Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping
Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
Reading Texts Rhetorically
Genres of Argument
Authorial Purpose and Audience
Determining Degree of Advocacy
Reading to Believe an Argument’s Claims
JAMES SUROWIECKI, “The Pay Is Too Damn Low”
An American journalist argues for an increased federally mandated minimum wage combined with government policies to promote job growth and ensure a stable safety net for the poor.
Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe
Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer’s Views
Reading to Doubt
MICHAEL SALTSMAN, “To Help the Poor, Move Beyond ‘Minimum’ Gestures”
The chief economist for the Employment Policy Institute opposes an increased minimum wage, arguing that it does nothing for the jobless poor and will in fact lead to increased joblessness.
Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking
Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay
TRUDIE MAKENS (STUDENT), “Should Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour?”
Examining articles by Surowiecki, Saltsman, and others, a student narrates the evolution of her thinking as she researches the issue of minimum wage.
PART TWO: WRITING AN ARGUMENT
3 The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons
The Classical Structure of Argument
Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question
How to Identify an Issue Question
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
Pseudo-Arguments: Committed Believers and Fanatical Skeptics
A Closer Look at Pseudo-Arguments: The Lack of Shared Assumptions
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
What Is a Reason?
Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements
4 The Logical Structure of Arguments
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an
Formal Logic versus Real-World Logic
The Role of Assumptions
The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
Using Toulmin’s Schema to Plan and Test Your Argument
Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as Athletes
Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent Video Games
CARMEN TIEU (STUDENT), “Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls”
A student argues that playing violent video games helps girls gain insight into male culture.
The Thesis-Governed “Self-Announcing” Structure of Classical Argument
A Note on the Informal Fallacies
Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument’s Details
5 Using Evidence Effectively
Kinds of Evidence
The Persuasive Use of Evidence
Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence
Establish a Trustworthy Ethos
Be Mindful of a Source’s Distance from Original Data
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons Argument
6 Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions
Use Concrete Language
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments
Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and kairos
How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons
7 Responding to Objections and Alternative Views
One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments
Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
Summarizing Opposing Views
Refuting Opposing Views
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
Conceding to Opposing Views
Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy
TRUDIE MAKENS (STUDENT), “Bringing Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum Wage a Living Wage”
A student writer refutes three arguments against increasing the minimum wage.
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument
Creating a Dialogic Argument with a Delayed Thesis
ROSS DOUTHAT, “Islam in Two Americas”
A conservative columnist asks readers to explore aspects of American identity that suggest that Muslims should not build a community center near Ground Zero.
Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument
A More Open-Ended Approach: Rogerian Communication
Rogerian Communication as Growth for the Writer
Rogerian Communication as Collaborative Negotiation
Writing Rogerian Communication
COLLEEN FONTANA (STUDENT), “An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article ‘They Never Learn’ ”
Using the strategies of Rogerian argument, a student writes an open letter about the problem of gun violence on college campuses to an advocate of minimal gun control laws and more guns.
Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Rogerian Letter
LAUREN SHINOZUKA (STUDENT), “The Dangers of Digital Distractedness” (A Classical Argument)
Using the classical argument form, a student writer argues that being a skilled digi-tal native also “harms us by promoting an unproductive habit of multitasking, by dehumanizing our relationships, and by encouraging a distorted self-image.”
MONICA ALLEN (STUDENT), “An Open Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to His Article ‘High-Performing Charter Schools Can Close the Opportunity Gap’ ” (RogerianCommunication)
Using the strategies of Rogerian communication, a student writer skeptical about charter schools initiates dialogue with a charter school advocate on ways to improve education for low-income and minority students.
PART THREE: ANALYZING ARGUMENTS
8. Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically
Thinking Rhetorically about a Text
Questions for Rhetorical Analysis
Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis
KATHRYN JEAN LOPEZ, “Egg Heads”
Writing for the conservative magazine National Review, Kathryn Jean Lopez argues against the emerging practice of egg donation enabled by new reproductive technology.
Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”
Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis
Generating Ideas for Your Rhetorical Analysis
Organizing Your Rhetorical Analysis
ELLEN GOODMAN, “Womb for Rent–For a Price”
Columnist Ellen Goodman explores the ethical dilemmas created when first-world couples “outsource” motherhood to third-world women.
ZACHARY STUMPS (STUDENT), “A Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen Goodman’s ‘Womb for Rent–For a Price’ ”
A student analyzes Ellen Goodman’s rhetorical strategies in “Womb for Rent,” emphasizing her delayed-thesis structure and her use of language with double meanings.
9 Analyzing Visual Arguments
Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument
Use of Type
Use of Space or Layout
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements
Use of Color
Use of Images and Graphics
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using All the Design Components
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images
The Genres of Visual Argument
Posters and Fliers
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
Constructing Your Own Visual Argument
Guidelines for Creating Visual Arguments
Using Information Graphics in Arguments
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
Using a Graph to Tell a Story
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or a Microtheme Using Quantitative Data 207
PART FOUR: ARGUMENTS IN DEPTH: TYPES OF CLAIMS
10 An Introduction to the Types of Claims
The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns of Development
Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example
Writer 1: Ban E-Cigarettes
Writer 2: Promote E-Cigarettes as a Preferred Alternative to Real Cigarettes
Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on E-Cigarettes
Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments
Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments
An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument
ALEX HUTCHINSON, “Pounding Pills: Your Daily Multivitamin May Be Doing More Harm Than Good”
Writing for an outdoor sports magazine targeting health and fitness enthusiasts, a journalist reviews the scientific literature against daily multivitamins and other supplements.
11 Definition and Resemblance Arguments
What Is at Stake in a Categorical Argument?
Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims
The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way
Types of Categorical Arguments
Simple Categorical Arguments
Resemblance Argument Using Analogy
Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent
Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about Category (Definition)
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments
Overview of Criteria-Match Structure
Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument
Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition
Creating Criteria Using an Operational Definition
Conducting the Match Part of a Definition Argument
Idea-Generating Strategies for Creating Your Own Criteria-Match
Strategy 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term
Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition
Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
Organizing a Definition Argument
Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument
ARTHUR KNOPF (STUDENT), “Is Milk a Health Food?”
A student argues that milk, despite its reputation for promoting calcium-rich bones, may not be a health food.
ALEX MULLEN (STUDENT), “A Pirate But Not a Thief: What Does ‘Stealing’ Mean in a Digital Environment?”
A student argues that his act of piracy–downloading a film from a file- sharing torrent site–is not stealing because it deprives no one of property or profit.
LOS ANGELES TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD, “College Football–Yes, It’s a Job”
The Editorial Board of the Los Angeles Times supports a court decision that scholarship football players at Northwestern University are “paid employees” of the university and therefore have the right to unionize.
12 Causal Arguments
An Overview of Causal Arguments
Kinds of Causal Arguments
Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument
Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning
Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim
Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal Arguments
Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
Organizing a Causal Argument
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument
JULEE CHRISTIANSON (STUDENT), “Why Lawrence Summers Was Wrong: Culture Rather Than Biology Explains the Underrepresentation of Women in Science and Mathematics” (APA-format research paper)
A student writer disagrees with Harvard president Lawrence Summers’s claim that genetic factors may account for fewer women than men holding professorships in math and science at prestige universities.
DEBORAH FALLOWS, “Papa, Don’t Text: The Perils of Distracted Parenting”
Linguist Deborah Fallows argues in The Atlantic that by texting and talking on cell phones instead of interacting with their young children adults are jeopardizing their children’s language learning.
CARLOS MACIAS (STUDENT), “‘The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!’–The Credit Card Industry’s Role in Causing Student Debt”
A student writer examines the causes of college students’ credit card debt and puts the blame on the exploitive practices of the credit card industry.
13 Evaluation and Ethical Arguments
An Overview of Categorical Ethical Evaluation Arguments
Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
Developing Your Criteria
Making Your Match Argument
Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim
Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument
Consequences as the Base of Ethics
Principles as the Base of Ethics
Example Ethical Arguments Examining Capital Punishment
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument
Exploring Ideas 290
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
Organizing an Evaluation Argument
Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
Critiquing an Ethical Argument
LORENA MENDOZA-FLORES (STUDENT), “Silenced and Invisible: Problems of Hispanic Students at Valley High School”
A physics major critiques her former high school for marginalizing its growing numbers of Hispanic students.
CHRISTOPHER MOORE (STUDENT), “Information Plus Satire: Why The Daily Show and The Colbert Report Are Good Sources of News for Young People”
A student favorably evaluates The Daily Show and The Colbert Report as news sources by arguing that they keep us up to date on major world events and teach us to read the news rhetorically.
JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, “Three Genetic Parents–For One Healthy Baby”
Lawyers specializing in medical research argue that mitochondrial replacement (which enables a child to inherit DNA from three parents) “might be a way to prevent hundreds of mitochondrial-linked diseases, which affect about one in 5, people.”
SAMUEL AQUILA, “The ‘Therapeutic Cloning’ of Human Embryos”
A Catholic archbishop finds therapeutic cloning “heinous,” despite its potential health
benefits, “because the process is intended to create life, exploit it, and then destroy it.”
14 Proposal Arguments
The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal Arguments
Practical Proposals versus Policy Proposals
Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument
Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments
Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim
Developing a Proposal Argument
Convincing Your Readers that a Problem Exists
Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
Convincing Your Readers that the Benefits of Your Proposal Outweigh the Costs
Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal
The “Claim Types” Strategy
The “Stock Issues” Strategy
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake
Organizing a Proposal Argument
Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or Advertisement
Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
MEGAN JOHNSON (STUDENT), “A Proposal to Allow Off-Campus Purchases with a University
A student writes a practical proposal urging her university’s administration to allow off-campus use of meal cards as a way of increasing gender equity and achieving other benefits.
IVAN SNOOK (STUDENT), “Flirting with Disaster: An Argument Against Integrating Women into the Combat Arms” (MLA-format research paper)
A student writer and Marine veteran returned from combat duty in Iraq argues that women should not serve in combat units because the inevitable sexual friction undermines morale and endangers soldiers’ lives.
SAVE-BEES.ORG, “SAVE THE BEES ADVOCACY AD”
An organization devoted to saving bees calls for support for a moratorium on the use of certain chemical pesticides that are deadly to bees.
SANDY WAINSCOTT (STUDENT), “Why McDonald’s Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat” (speech with PowerPoint slides)
A student proposes the end of subsidies for cheap meat for the benefit of both people’s health and the environment.
MARCEL DICKE AND ARNOLD VAN HUIS, “The Six-Legged Meat of the Future”
Two Dutch entomologists argue that insects are a nutritious and tasty form of protein and less environmentally harmful than cattle, pigs, or chickens.
PART FIVE: THE RESEARCHED ARGUMENT
15 Finding and Evaluating Sources
Formulating a Research Question Instead of a “Topic”
Thinking Rhetorically about Kinds of Sources
Identifying Kinds of Sources Relevant to Your Question
Approaching Sources Rhetorically
Gathering Source Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
Finding Books and Reference Sources
Using Licensed Databases to Find Articles in Scholarly Journals, Magazines, and News Sources
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
Selecting and Evaluating Your Sources
Reading with Rhetorical Awareness
Taking Purposeful Notes
16 Incorporating Sources into Your Own Argument
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
Writer 1: A Causal Argument Showing Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of Alcoholism
Writer 2: A Proposal Argument Advocating Vegetarianism
Writer 3: An Evaluation Argument Looking Skeptically at Vegetarianism
Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
Punctuating Quotations Correctly
Quoting a Complete Sentence
Quoting Words and Phrases
Modifying a Quotation
Omitting Something from a Quoted Passage
Quoting Something That Contains a Quotation
Using a Block Quotation for a Long Passage
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations
Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response
Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur Unwittingly
Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism
17 Citing and Documenting Sources
The Correspondence between In-Text Citations and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works
In-Text Citations in MLA Style
Works Cited List in MLA Style
Works Cited Citation Models
MLA-Style Research Paper
In-Text Citations in APA Style
References List in APA Style
References Citation Models
APA-Style Research Paper
Appendix Informal Fallacies
The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument
An Overview of Informal Fallacies
Fallacies of Pathos
Fallacies of Ethos
Fallacies of Logos
PART SIX: AN ANTHOLOGY OF ARGUMENTS
The Future of Food and Farming
ARTHUR L. CAPLAN, “Genetically Modified Food: Good, Bad, Ugly”
A professor of bioethics defends genetic engineering but takes the biotech companies to task for their mismanagement of the technology.
ROBIN MATHER, “The Threats from Genetically Modified Foods”
A food columnist outlines the concerns about and consequences of using GMOs.
MICHAEL LE PAGE, “Wrong-Headed Victory”
A writer argues that when biotech companies fight labelling efforts they only fuel consumer suspicion and delay promising research.
JOHN HAMBROCK, “Harley, I’m Worried About Gene Transfer” (editorial cartoon)
A cartoonist imagines how GMO plants might cross-pollinate with unmodified strains.
JOE MOHR, “Monsanto’s Reasons for Fighting GMO Labeling? It Loves You”
A cartoonist satirizes the biotech companies’ arguments against labelling of GM foods.
CAITLIN FLANAGAN, “Cultivating Failure”
A journalist questions the value of school gardens as an educational tool, focusing particularly on the effects for Hispanic and low-income students.
BONNIE HULKOWER, “A Defense of School Gardens and Response to Caitlin Flanagan’s ‘Cultivating Failure’ in The Atlantic”
A marine scientist and environmental planner performs a rhetorical analysis of Flanagan and refutes her claims.
TOM PHILPOTT, “Thoughts on The Atlantic’s Attack on School Gardens”
A food and agriculture columnist reflects on school gardens as a teaching tool, and disagrees with Flanagan’s conclusions.
JESSE KURTZ-NICHOLL, “Atlantic Gets It Wrong!: School Gardens Cultivate Minds Not Failure
A former high school teacher with a Master’s in Public Health disputes Flanagan’s claims about access to healthy food and the need for food education.
Higher Education: How and Why We Learn Matters
REBECCA MEAD, “Learning by Degrees”
A New Yorker staff writer acknowledges the appeal of skipping college to pursue financial success, but also questions economic advancement as the sole reason for attending college.
KEN SAXON, “What Do You Do with a B.A. in History?
An entrepreneur and leader in the nonprofit sector speaks to freshmen at UC Santa Barbara about the value of a liberal arts education.
AARON BADY, “The MOOC Moment and the End of Reform”
A postdoctoral fellow interrogates the hype surrounding MOOCs and the wisdom of integrating them into a university education.
SCOTT NEWSTOK, “A Plea for ‘Close Learning’ ”
An English professor argues for the value of face-to-face interactive learning.
DAVE BLAZEK, “Melissa Misunderstands Massive Open Online Courses” (editorial cartoon)
A cartoonist humorously illustrates one of the drawbacks of MOOCs.
CHRISSIE LONG, “The Changing Face of Higher Education: The Future of the Traditional University Experience”
Recognizing that the traditional classroom won’t disappear, a writer argues for the benefits and transformative potential of MOOCs, particularly, the opportunities they offer learners in developing countries.
Immigration in the Twenty-First Century
FATEMEH FAKHRAIE, “Scarfing It Down”
A media critic argues that coverage of countries’ attempts to ban the wearing of hijab distorts the issue by labeling it a religious freedom issue and by leaving out the voices of the women themselves.
STEPHANIE PAULSELL, “Veiled Voices”
A professor at Harvard Divinity School addresses Muslim women’s varying reasons for wearing hijab.
MADELINE ZAVODNY, “Unauthorized Immigrant Arrivals Are on the Rise, and That’s Good News”
An economics professor reads the number of illegal immigrants as an economic index and argues for reforms for immigrant workers’ visas over governmental spending on increased border security.
CHIP BOK, “Processing Undocumented Children” (editorial cartoon)
An editorial cartoonist comments on the difference in the handling of undocumented children in 2 and in 2014.
MARK KRIKORIAN, “DREAM On”
The executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies details the flaws he sees in the DREAM Act and other amnesty legislation.
LEE HABEEB AND MIKE LEVEN, “Immigration, America’s Advantage”
A columnist and a businessman team up to advocate for the benefits of maintaining an immigrant workforce.
JOHN K. KAVANAUGH, “Amnesty?”
A Roman Catholic priest and philosophy professor asks anti-immigration groups to see the human face of undocumented immigrants and to support a path to amnesty.
LOS ANGELES TIMES, “Young, Alone, and in Court”
The editors of the Los Angeles Times argue for a multinational, humanitarian response to the issue of child migrants and a better process for handling unaccompanied children in the U.S. immigration system.
NATIONAL REVIEW, “Border Crisis in Texas”
The editors of the National Review blame the Obama administration’s amnesty policies for the surge in illegal-immigrant children.
Millennials Entering Adulthood
KATHRYN TYLER, “The Tethered Generation”
A writer analyzes how technology has affected the way Millennials work and communicate, and proposes management strategies for employers.
ERIN BURNS, “Millennials and Mentoring: Why I’m Calling Out ‘Bullpucky!’ on Generational Differences and Professional Development”
A young professional refutes the assumption that her generation requires “special handling” in the workplace.
AMERICA, “Generation S”
The editors of a Catholic weekly magazine argue that the spirit of service instilled in the current generation of students should be modeled by all Americans.
RAFFI WINEBURG, “Lip Service Useless for Millenials”
A recent graduate reflects on the challenges facing Millennials as they enter the workforce and calls for more constructive treatment of them.
KAY S. HYMOWITZ, “Where Have the Good Men Gone?”
The author of Manning Up: How the Rise of Women Has Turned Men into Boys claims that too many men in their twenties have succumbed to a new kind of extended adolescence.
EVE TUSHNET, “You Can Go Home Again”
A writer challenges the stigma faced by young adults who move back in with their parents.
Choices for a Sustainable World
MARK A. DELUCCHI AND MARK Z. JACOBSON, “Meeting the World’s Energy Needs Entirely with Wind, Water, and Solar Power”
A research scientist and an engineering professor propose a combination of wind, water, and solar power as the best alternative to fossil fuels, and explain how the transition can be made quickly and cost effectively.
ASHUTOSH JOGALEKAR, “Vaclav Smil: ‘The Great Hope for a Quick and Sweeping Transition to Renewable Energy Is Wishful Thinking”
A science blogger uses Vaclav Smil’s research to argue that substantial obstacles still stand in the way of the widespread conversion to renewable energy.
U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, “The U.S. Energy Story in Numbers: Energy Supply and Disposition by Type of Fuel, 1975—2010”
Statistics gathered by a U.S. agency tell a wealth of stories about U.S. energy production and consumption.
ROBERTY BRYCE, “The Real Energy Revolution Shrinking Carbon Dioxide Emissions? It’s Fracking”
A writer from a conservative think tank maintains that fracking has enabled the United States to make greater strides than other nations in reducing its emissions, and at a lower cost.
ABRAHM LUSTGARTEN, “Fracking: A Key to Energy Independence?”
An investigative journalist questions the speed with which the U.S. and other nations have embraced fracking.
JASON POWERS, “The Problem Is the Solution: Cultivating New Traditions Through
An activist argues that developing a sustainable approach to using resources is critical to the survival of a culture.
VANDANA SHIVA, “The Soil vs. the Sensex”
An environmental activist sets the interests of the small farmer against those of the Sensex, India’s stock exchange.
AN INTERVIEW WITH SHERRY TURKLE, Digital Demands: The Challenges of Constant
In an interview on PBS’s Frontline, scholar and researcher Sherry Turkle suggests that constant connectivity may make us more lonely and less inclined to find stillness or think deeply about “complicated things.”
ALISON GOPNIK, “Diagnosing the Digital Revolution: Why It’s So Hard to Tell if It’s Really
A professor and expert in child learning and development suggests that claims for the negative impact of technology on young people may be overstated.
MARY ANN HARLAN, “Deconstructing Digital Natives”
In this scholarly article, a teacher and librarian makes the distinction between tech-nological savvy and digital literacy.
SUSAN NIELSEN, “An Internet ‘Eraser’ Law Would Hurt, Not Help, Oregon Teens”
A journalist argues that allowing teens to erase past web indiscretions teaches them that they can behave poorly without forethought or consequence.
GARY VARVEL, “Meet Jack” (editorial cartoon)
A cartoonist humorously demonstrates the consequences of sharing too much on social media.
ADRIENNE SARASY, “The Age of the Selfie: Taking, Sharing Our Photos Shows Empowerment, Pride”
A high school journalist argues in her student newspaper that selfies can be empowering and help to redefine standards of beauty.
ROBERT WILCOX, “The Age of the Selfie: Endless Need to Share Tears Society’s Last Shred of Decency”
In the same student newspaper, a student editor argues that oversharing through selfies goes beyond narcissism and may actually be dangerous.
AASHIKA DAMODAR, “The Rise of ‘Great Potential’: Youth Activism against Gender-Based Violence”
An anti-trafficking activist analyzes the potential of social media as a tool for activism, arguing that it is most effective when combined with offline action.
GARRETT HARDIN, “Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Aid That Does Harm”
An ecologist argues against foreign aid and open borders, promoting wider understanding of the “tragedy of the commons” and stimulating new thinking about the causes of poverty and ways to combat it.
RACHEL CARSON, “The Obligation to Endure”
A marine biologist and writer exposes the subtle, insidious dangers of the pesticide DDT, and in so doing helps launch the environmental movement.
E. O. WILSON, “Apocalypse Now/Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister”
A biologist and secular humanist attempts to bridge the gap between science and religion, asking Christians and environmentalists to come together to save the multitude of species threatened by climate change.
MARGARET SANGER, “The Morality of Birth Control”
A pioneer of the birth control movement seeks to redefine what is “moral” when considering access to birth control and assessment of the consequences.
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