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Routing and Switching Essentials Companion Guide, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Cisco Networking Academy

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Feb 13, 2014

Description

This is the only Cisco-authorized companion guide to the official Cisco Networking Academy Routing and Switching Essentials curriculum for the new CCNA Version 5 certification. An indispensable resource for hundreds of thousands of Cisco Networking Academy students worldwide, this portable desk reference is ideal for anytime/anywhere take-home study and reference. Fully aligned to CNA's online course chapters, it offers additional book-based pedagogy to reinforce key concepts, enhance student comprehension, and promote retention. Using it, students can focus scarce study time, organize review for quizzes and exams, and get the day-to-day reference answers they're looking for.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxviii

Chapter 1 Introduction to Switched Networks 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 2

LAN Design (1.1) 2

    Converged Networks (1.1.1) 3

    Growing Complexity of Networks (1.1.1.1) 3

        Elements of a Converged Network (1.1.1.2) 4

        Borderless Switched Networks (1.1.1.3) 5

        Hierarchy in the Borderless Switched Network (1.1.1.4) 6

        Core Distribution Access (1.1.1.5) 7

    Switched Networks (1.1.2) 10

        Role of Switched Networks (1.1.2.1) 10

    Form Factors (1.1.2.2) 11

The Switched Environment (1.2) 14

    Frame Forwarding (1.2.1) 14

        Switching as a General Concept in Networking and Telecommunications (1.2.1.1) 14

        Dynamically Populating a Switch MAC Address Table (1.2.1.2) 15

        Switch Forwarding Methods (1.2.1.3) 19

        Store-and-Forward Switching (1.2.1.4) 20

        Cut-Through Switching (1.2.1.5) 21

    Switching Domains (1.2.2) 22

        Collision Domains (1.2.2.1) 22

        Broadcast Domains (1.2.2.2) 23

        Alleviating Network Congestion (1.2.2.3) 25

Summary (1.3) 26

Practice 27

Class Activities 28

Packet Tracer Activities 28

Check Your Understanding Questions 28

Chapter 2 Basic Switching Concepts and Configuration 33

Objectives 33

Key Terms 33

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 35

Basic Switch Configuration (2.1) 36

    Switch Boot Sequence (2.1.1.1) 36

    Recovering from a System Crash (2.1.1.2) 37

    Switch LED Indicators (2.1.1.3) 38

    Preparing for Basic Switch Management (2.1.1.4) 40

    Configuring Basic Switch Management Access with IPv4 (2.1.1.5) 41

Configure Switch Ports (2.1.2) 44

    Duplex Communication (2.1.2.1) 44

    Configure Switch Ports at the Physical Layer (2.1.2.2) 45

        Duplex and Speed 45

    Auto-MDIX (2.1.2.3) 46

    Verifying Switch Port Configuration (2.1.2.4) 48

    Network Access Layer Issues (2.1.2.5) 50

    Troubleshooting Network Access Layer Issues (2.1.2.6) 53

Switch Security: Management and Implementation (2.2) 54

    Secure Remote Access (2.2.1) 54

        SSH Operation (2.2.1.1) 55

        Configuring SSH (2.2.1.2) 56

        Verifying SSH (2.2.1.3) 57

    Security Concerns in LANs (2.2.2) 59

        Common Security Attacks: MAC Address Flooding (2.2.2.1) 59

        Common Security Attacks: DHCP Spoofing (2.2.2.2) 63

        Common Security Attacks: Leveraging CDP (2.2.2.3) 64

    Security Best Practices (2.2.3) 66

        Best Practices (2.2.3.1) 66

        Network Security Tools and Testing (2.2.3.2) 66

        Network Security Audits (2.2.3.3) 67

    Switch Port Security (2.2.4) 68

        Secure Unused Ports (2.2.4.1) 68

        DHCP Snooping (2.2.4.2) 69

        Port Security: Operation (2.2.4.3) 71

        Port Security: Violation Modes (2.2.4.4) 73

        Port Security: Configuring (2.2.4.5) 74

        Port Security: Verifying (2.2.4.6) 75

        Ports in Error Disabled State (2.2.4.7) 77

        Network Time Protocol (NTP) (2.2.4.8) 78

Summary (2.3) 81

Practice 83

Class Activities 83

Labs 83

Packet Tracer Activities 84

Check Your Understanding Questions 84

Chapter 3 VLANs 89

Objectives 89

Key Terms 89

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 90

VLAN Segmentation (3.1) 91

    VLAN Definitions (3.1.1.1) 91

    Benefits of VLANs (3.1.1.2) 92

    Types of VLANs (3.1.1.3) 93

        Data VLAN 93

        Default VLAN 93

        Native VLAN 94

        Management VLAN 95

    Voice VLANs (3.1.1.4) 96

VLANs in a Multiswitched Environment (3.1.2) 97

    VLAN Trunks (3.1.2.1) 97

    Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs (3.1.2.2) 98

        Network Without VLANs 98

        Network with VLANs 99

    Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification (3.1.2.3) 101

    Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging (3.1.2.4) 102

        Tagged Frames on the Native VLAN 102

        Untagged Frames on the Native VLAN 102

    Voice VLAN Tagging (3.1.2.5) 103

        Sample Configuration 104

VLAN Implementations (3.2) 105

    VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (3.2.1.1) 105

    Creating a VLAN (3.2.1.2) 106

    Assigning Ports to VLANs (3.2.1.3) 108

    Changing VLAN Port Membership (3.2.1.4) 109

    Deleting VLANs (3.2.1.5) 111

    Verifying VLAN Information (3.2.1.6) 112

VLAN Trunks (3.2.2) 114

    Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Trunk Links (3.2.2.1) 114

    Resetting the Trunk to Default State (3.2.2.2) 116

    Verifying Trunk Configuration (3.2.2.3) 118

Dynamic Trunking Protocol (3.2.3) 120

    Introduction to DTP (3.2.3.1) 120

    Negotiated Interface Modes (3.2.3.2) 121

Troubleshoot VLANs and Trunks (3.2.4) 123

    IP Addressing Issues with VLAN (3.2.4.1) 123

    Missing VLANs (3.2.4.2) 125

    Introduction to Troubleshooting Trunks (3.2.4.3) 127

    Common Problems with Trunks (3.2.4.4) 128

    Trunk Mode Mismatches (3.2.4.5) 129

    Incorrect VLAN List (3.2.4.6) 131

VLAN Security and Design (3.3) 134

    Switch Spoofing Attack (3.3.1.1) 134

    Double-Tagging Attack (3.3.1.2) 135

    PVLAN Edge (3.3.1.3) 136

Design Best Practices for VLANs (3.3.2) 138

    VLAN Design Guidelines (3.3.2.1) 138

Summary (3.4) 140

Practice 142

Class Activities 142

Labs 142

Packet Tracer Activities 143

Check Your Understanding Questions 143

Chapter 4 Routing Concepts 149

Objectives 149

Key Terms 149

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 151

Functions of a Router (4.1.1) 152

    Characteristics of a Network (4.1.1.1) 152

    Why Routing? (4.1.1.2) 153

    Routers Are Computers (4.1.1.3) 154

    Routers Interconnect Networks (4.1.1.4) 156

    Routers Choose Best Paths (4.1.1.5) 158

    Packet-Forwarding Mechanisms (4.1.1.6) 158

Connect Devices (4.1.2) 162

    Connect to a Network (4.1.2.1) 162

    Default Gateways (4.1.2.2) 164

    Document Network Addressing (4.1.2.3) 165

    Enable IP on a Host (4.1.2.4) 166

    Device LEDs (4.1.2.5) 167

    Console Access (4.1.2.6) 169

    Enable IP on a Switch (4.1.2.7) 171

Basic Settings on a Router (4.1.3) 172

    Configure Basic Router Settings (4.1.3.1) 172

    Configure an IPv4 Router Interface (4.1.3.2) 175

    Configure an IPv6 Router Interface (4.1.3.3) 177

    Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface (4.1.3.4) 181

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks (4.1.4) 183

    Verify Interface Settings (4.1.4.1) 183

    Verify IPv6 Interface Settings (4.1.4.2) 186

    Filter Show Command Output (4.1.4.3) 189

    Command History Feature (4.1.4.4) 191

Switching Packets Between Networks (4.2.1) 193

    Router Switching Function (4.2.1.1) 193

    Send a Packet (4.2.1.2) 194

    Forward to the Next Hop (4.2.1.3) 195

    Packet Routing (4.2.1.4) 196

    Reach the Destination (4.2.1.5) 197

Path Determination (4.2.2) 198

    Routing Decisions (4.2.2.1) 198

    Best Path (4.2.2.2) 199

    Load Balancing (4.2.2.3) 200

    Administrative Distance (4.2.2.4) 200

Analyze the Routing Table (4.3.1) 202

    The Routing Table (4.3.1.1) 202

    Routing Table Sources (4.3.1.2) 203

    Remote Network Routing Entries (4.3.1.3) 204

Directly Connected Routes (4.3.2) 205

    Directly Connected Interfaces (4.3.2.1) 205

    Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (4.3.2.2) 206

    Directly Connected Examples (4.3.2.3) 207

    Directly Connected IPv6 Example (4.3.2.4) 210

Statically Learned Routes (4.3.3) 214

    Static Routes (4.3.3.1) 214

    Static Route Examples (4.3.3.2) 214

    Static IPv6 Route Examples (4.3.3.3) 216

Dynamic Routing Protocols (4.3.4) 219

    Dynamic Routing (4.3.4.1) 219

    IPv4 Routing Protocols (4.3.4.2) 220

    IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples (4.3.4.3) 221

    IPv6 Routing Protocols (4.3.4.4) 222

    IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples (4.3.4.5) 223

Summary (4.4) 224

Practice 225

Class Activities 225

Labs 226

Packet Tracer Activities 226

Check Your Understanding Questions 226

Chapter 5 Inter-VLAN Routing 231

Objectives 231

Key Terms 231

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 232

Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration (5.1) 232

    What Is Inter-VLAN Routing? (5.1.1.1) 233

    Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.1.2) 233

    Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.1.3) 235

    Multilayer Switch Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.1.4) 237

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.2) 239

    Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Preparation (5.1.2.1) 239

    Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Switch Configuration (5.1.2.2) 240

    Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Router Interface Configuration (5.1.2.3) 241

Configure Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.3) 244

    Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Preparation (5.1.3.1) 244

    Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Switch Configuration (5.1.3.2) 245

    Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Router Subinterface Configuration (5.1.3.3) 246

    Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Subinterfaces (5.1.3.4) 248

    Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Routing (5.1.3.5) 250

        Ping Test 251

        Tracert Test 251

Troubleshoot Inter-VLAN Routing (5.2) 252

    Inter-VLAN Configuration Issues (5.2.1) 252

        Switch Port Issues (5.2.1.1) 252

        Verify Switch Configuration (5.2.1.2) 254

        Interface Issues (5.2.1.3) 255

        Verify Router Configuration (5.2.1.4) 256

    IP Addressing Issues (5.2.2) 258

        Errors with IP Addresses and Subnet Masks (5.2.2.1) 258

        Verifying IP Address and Subnet Mask Configuration Issues (5.2.2.2) 260

Layer 3 Switching (5.3) 261

    Introduction to Layer 3 Switching (5.3.1.1) 261

    Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (5.3.1.2, 5.3.1.3) 263

    Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports (5.3.1.4) 265

        Routed Ports and Access Ports on a Switch 265

    Configuring Static Routes on a Catalyst 2960 (5.3.1.5) 266

Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching (5.3.2) 274

    Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues (5.3.2.1) 274

    Example: Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching (5.3.2.2) 275

Summary (5.4) 278

Practice 279

Class Activities 279

Labs 279

Packet Tracer Activities 279

Check Your Understanding Questions 280

Chapter 6 Static Routing 283

Objectives 283

Key Terms 283

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 285

Static Routing (6.1.1) 286

    Reach Remote Networks (6.1.1.1) 286

    Why Use Static Routing? (6.1.1.2) 286

    When to Use Static Routes (6.1.1.3) 288

Types of Static Routes 289

    Static Route Applications (6.1.2.1) 289

    Standard Static Route (6.1.2.2) 289

    Default Static Route (6.1.2.3) 290

    Summary Static Route (6.1.2.4) 290

    Floating Static Route (6.1.2.5) 291

Configure IPv4 Static Routes (6.2.1) 292

    ip route Command (6.2.1.1) 292

    Next-Hop Options (6.2.1.2) 293

    Configure a Next-Hop Static Route (6.2.1.3) 297

    Configure a Directly Connected Static Route (6.2.1.4) 299

    Configure a Fully Specified Static Route (6.2.1.5) 301

    Verify a Static Route (6.2.1.6) 304

Configure IPv4 Default Routes (6.2.2) 306

    Default Static Route (6.2.2.1) 306

    Configure a Default Static Route (6.2.2.2) 307

    Verify a Default Static Route (6.2.2.3) 308

Configure IPv6 Static Routes (6.2.3) 310

    The ipv6 route Command (6.2.3.1) 310

    Next-Hop Options (6.2.3.2) 311

    Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route (6.2.3.3) 315

    Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route (6.2.3.4) 317

    Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route (6.2.3.5) 319

    Verify IPv6 Static Routes (6.2.3.6) 320

Configure IPv6 Default Routes (6.2.4) 322

    Default Static IPv6 Route (6.2.4.1) 322

    Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route (6.2.4.2) 323

    Verify a Default Static Route (6.2.4.3) 323

Review of CIDR and VLSM (6.3) 325

    Classful Network Addressing (6.3.1.1) 326

    Classful Subnet Masks (6.3.1.2) 327

    Classful Routing Protocol Example (6.3.1.3) 328

    Classful Addressing Waste (6.3.1.4) 329

CIDR (6.3.2) 331

    Classless Inter-Domain Routing (6.3.2.1) 331

    CIDR and Route Summarization (6.3.2.2) 332

    Static Routing CIDR Example (6.3.2.3) 333

    Classless Routing Protocol Example (6.3.2.4) 335

VLSM (6.3.3) 335

    Fixed-Length Subnet Masking (6.3.3.1) 336

    Variable-Length Subnet Masking (6.3.3.2) 337

    VLSM in Action (6.3.3.3) 338

    Subnetting Subnets (6.3.3.4) 339

    VLSM Example (6.3.3.5) 341

    Configure IPv4 Summary Routes (6.4.1) 346

    Route Summarization (6.4.1.1) 346

        Calculate a Summary Route (6.4.1.2) 346

    Summary Static Route Example (6.4.1.3) 348

Configure IPv6 Summary Routes (6.4.2) 352

    Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses (6.4.2.1) 352

    Calculate IPv6 Summary Addresses (6.4.2.2) 354

    Configure an IPv6 Summary Address (6.4.2.3) 356

Configure Floating Static Routes (6.4.3) 358

    Floating Static Routes (6.4.3.1) 358

    Configure a Floating Static Route (6.4.3.2) 359

    Test the Floating Static Route (6.4.3.3) 360

Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues (6.5) 363

    Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (6.5.1.1) 364

    Troubleshoot a Missing Route (6.5.2.1) 364

    Solve a Connectivity Problem (6.5.2.2) 368

Summary (6.6) 373

Practice 374

Class Activities 375

Labs 375

Packet Tracer Activities 375

Check Your Understanding Questions 376

Chapter 7 Routing Dynamically 379

Objectives 379

Key Terms 379

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 381

Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (7.1.1) 382

    The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.1.1) 382

    Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.1.2) 383

    The Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.1.3) 384

Dynamic Versus Static Routing (7.1.2) 385

    Using Static Routing (7.1.2.1) 386

    Static Routing Scorecard (7.1.2.2) 386

    Using Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.2.3) 387

    Dynamic Routing Scorecard (7.1.2.4) 388

Routing Protocol Operating Fundamentals (7.1.3) 389

    Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (7.1.3.1) 389

    Cold Start (7.1.3.2) 390

    Network Discovery (7.1.3.3) 391

    Exchanging the Routing Information (7.1.3.4) 392

    Achieving Convergence (7.1.3.5) 394

Types of Routing Protocols (7.1.4) 396

    Classifying Routing Protocols (7.1.4.1) 396

    IGP and EGP Routing Protocols (7.1.4.2) 399

    Distance Vector Routing Protocols (7.1.4.3) 401

    Link-State Routing Protocols (7.1.4.4) 402

    Classful Routing Protocols (7.1.4.5) 402

    Classless Routing Protocols (7.1.4.6) 406

    Routing Protocol Characteristics (7.1.4.7) 409

    Routing Protocol Metrics (7.1.4.8) 410

Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation (7.2.1) 411

    Distance Vector Technologies (7.2.1.1) 411

    Distance Vector Algorithm (7.2.1.2) 412

Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols (7.2.2) 413

    Routing Information Protocol (7.2.2.1) 413

    Enhanced Interior-Gateway Routing Protocol (7.2.2.2) 415

RIP and RIPng Routing (7.3) 416

    Router RIP Configuration Mode (7.3.1.1) 416

    Advertising Networks (7.3.1.2) 418

    Examining Default RIP Settings (7.3.1.3) 419

    Enabling RIPv2 (7.3.1.4) 421

    Disabling Auto Summarization (7.3.1.5) 423

    Configuring Passive Interfaces (7.3.1.6) 425

    Propagating a Default Route (7.3.1.7) 427

Configuring the RIPng Protocol (7.3.2) 429

    Advertising IPv6 Networks (7.3.2.1) 429

    Examining the RIPng Configuration (7.3.2.2) 430

Link-State Dynamic Routing (7.4) 433

    Shortest Path First Protocols (7.4.1.1) 433

    Dijkstra’s Algorithm (7.4.1.2) 434

    SPF Example (7.4.1.3) 435

    Link-State Updates (7.4.2) 438

    Link-State Routing Process (7.4.2.1) 438

    Link and Link-State (7.4.2.2) 438

    Say Hello (7.4.2.3) 442

    Building the Link-State Packet (7.4.2.4) 442

    Flooding the LSP (7.4.2.5) 443

    Building the Link-State Database (7.4.2.6) 443

    Building the SPF Tree (7.4.2.7) 445

    Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table (7.4.2.8) 446

Why Use Link-State Routing Protocols (7.4.3) 447

    Why Use Link-State Protocols? (7.4.3.1) 447

    Disadvantages of Link-State Protocols (7.4.3.2) 448

    Protocols That Use Link-State (7.4.3.3) 449

Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry (7.5.1) 449

    Routing Table Entries (7.5.1.1) 449

    Directly Connected Entries (7.5.1.2) 451

    Remote Network Entries (7.5.1.3) 453

Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes (7.5.2) 454

    Routing Table Terms (7.5.2.1) 454

    Ultimate Route (7.5.2.2) 455

    Level 1 Route (7.5.2.3) 455

    Level 1 Parent Route (7.5.2.4) 456

    Level 2 Child Route (7.5.2.5) 458

The IPv4 Route Lookup Process (7.5.3) 460

    Route Lookup Process (7.5.3.1) 460

    Best Route = Longest Match (7.5.3.2) 462

Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table (7.5.4) 463

    IPv6 Routing Table Entries (7.5.4.1) 463

    Directly Connected Entries (7.5.4.2) 464

    Remote IPv6 Network Entries (7.5.4.3) 466

Summary (7.6) 469

Practice 470

Class Activities 470

Labs 471

Packet Tracer Activities 471

Check Your Understanding Questions 471

Chapter 8 Single-Area OSPF 475

Objectives 475

Key Terms 475

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 477

Characteristics of OSPF (8.1) 477

    Evolution of OSPF (8.1.1.1) 477

    Features of OSPF (8.1.1.2) 479

    Components of OSPF (8.1.1.3) 479

        Data Structures 479

        Routing Protocol Messages 480

        Algorithm 481

    Link-State Operation (8.1.1.4) 481

    Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF (8.1.1.5) 484

OSPF Messages (8.1.2) 487

    Encapsulating OSPF Messages (8.1.2.1) 487

    Types of OSPF Packets (8.1.2.2) 489

    Hello Packet (8.1.2.3) 489

    Hello Packet Intervals (8.1.2.4) 491

    Link-State Updates (8.1.2.5) 492

OSPF Operation (8.1.3) 493

    OSPF Operational States (8.1.3.1) 493

    Establish Neighbor Adjacencies (8.1.3.2) 494

    OSPF DR and BDR (8.1.3.3) 496

    Synchronizing OSPF Databases (8.1.3.4) 497

Configuring Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2.1) 500

    OSPF Network Topology (8.2.1.1) 500

    Router OSPF Configuration Mode (8.2.1.2) 501

    Router IDs (8.2.1.3) 502

    Configuring an OSPF Router ID (8.2.1.4) 503

    Modifying a Router ID (8.2.1.5) 505

    Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID (8.2.1.6) 507

Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2.2) 507

    Enabling OSPF on Interfaces (8.2.2.1) 507

    Wildcard Mask (8.2.2.2) 508

    The network Command (8.2.2.3) 509

    Passive Interface (8.2.2.4) 510

    Configuring Passive Interfaces (8.2.2.5) 511

OSPF Cost (8.2.3) 512

    OSPF Metric = Cost (8.2.3.1) 513

    OSPF Accumulates Costs (8.2.3.2) 514

    Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth (8.2.3.3) 515

        Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth 515

    Default Interface Bandwidths (8.2.3.4) 519

    Adjusting the Interface Bandwidths (8.2.3.5) 521

    Manually Setting the OSPF Cost (8.2.3.6) 522

Verify OSPF (8.2.4) 523

    Verify OSPF Neighbors (8.2.4.1) 523

    Verify OSPF Protocol Settings (8.2.4.2) 525

    Verify OSPF Process Information (8.2.4.3) 526

    Verify OSPF Interface Settings (8.2.4.4) 526

OSPFv2 vs. OSPFv3 (8.3.1) 527

    OSPFv3 (8.3.1.1) 528

    Similarities Between OSPFv2 to OSPFv3 (8.3.1.2) 529

    Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (8.3.1.3) 529

    Link-Local Addresses (8.3.1.4) 530

Configuring OSPFv3 (8.3.2) 531

    OSPFv3 Network Topology (8.3.2.1) 531

    Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.2) 533

    Assigning Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.3) 534

    Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.4) 535

    Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.5) 538

    Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces (8.3.2.6) 539

Verify OSPFv3 (8.3.3) 540

    Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors (8.3.3.1) 540

    Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings (8.3.3.2) 541

    Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces (8.3.3.3) 542

    Verify the IPv6 Routing Table (8.3.3.4) 543

Summary (8.4) 544

Practice 545

Class Activities 545

Labs 545

Packet Tracer Activities 546

Check Your Understanding Questions 546

Chapter 9 Access Control Lists 549

Objectives 549

Key Terms 549

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 550

IP ACL Operation (9.1) 551

    What Is an ACL? (9.1.1.1) 551

    A TCP Conversation (9.1.1.2) 552

        TCP Communication 552

    Packet Filtering (9.1.1.3, 9.1.1.4) 555

    ACL Operation (9.1.1.5) 557

Standard Versus Extended IPv4 ACLS (9.1.2) 558

    Types of Cisco IPv4 ACLs (9.1.2.1) 558

        Standard ACLs 558

        Extended ACLs 559

    Numbering and Naming ACLs (9.1.2.2) 559

Wildcard Masks in ACLs (9.1.3) 560

    Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking (9.1.3.1) 560

        Wildcard Masking 560

        Using a Wildcard Mask 562

        Wildcard Mask Examples (9.1.3.2) 562

        Wildcard Masks to Match IPv4 Subnets 562

        Wildcard Masks to Match Ranges 563

    Calculating the Wildcard Mask (9.1.3.3) 564

    Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.4) 565

        Wildcard Bit Mask Keywords 566

    Examples Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.5) 567

        The any and host Keywords 567

Guidelines for ACL Creation (9.1.4) 568

    General Guidelines for Creating ACLs (9.1.4.1) 568

        ACL Best Practices (9.1.4.2) 569

Guidelines for ACL Placement (9.1.5) 570

    Where to Place ACLs (9.1.5.1) 570

    Standard ACL Placement (9.1.5.2) 571

    Extended ACL Placement (9.1.5.3) 573

Standard IPv4 ACLs (9.2) 574

    Entering Criteria Statements (9.2.1.1) 574

    Configuring a Standard ACL – Standard ACL Logic (9.2.1.2) 575

    Configuring a Standard ACL – Configuring Standard ACLs (9.2.1.3) 576

    Internal Logic (9.2.1.4) 578

    Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces – Standard ACL

    Configuration Procedures (9.2.1.5, 9.2.1.6) 579

    Creating Named Standard ACLs (9.2.1.7) 582

    Commenting ACLs (9.2.1.8) 584

Modify IPv4 ACLs (9.2.2) 586

    Editing Standard Numbered ACLs (9.2.2.1, 9.2.2.2) 586

        Method 1: Using a Text Editor 586

        Method 2: Using the Sequence Number 587

    Editing Standard Named ACLs (9.2.2.3) 589

    Verifying ACLs (9.2.2.4) 590

    ACL Statistics (9.2.2.5) 591

    Standard ACL Sequence Numbers (9.2.2.6) 592

Securing VTY Ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL (9.2.3) 595

    Configuring a Standard ACL to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.1) 595

    Verifying a Standard ACL Used to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.2) 596

Structure of an Extended IPv4 ACL (9.3.1) 598

    Extended ACLs – Testing Packets with Extended ACLs (9.3.1.1) 598

    Extended ACLs – Testing for Ports and Services (9.3.1.2) 599

    Configure Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.3.2) 601

    Configuring Extended ACLs (9.3.2.1) 601

    Applying Extended ACLs to Interfaces (9.3.2.2) 603

    Filtering Traffic with Extended ACLs (9.3.2.3) 605

    Creating Named Extended ACLs (9.3.2.4) 606

    Verifying Extended ACLs (9.3.2.5) 607

    Editing Extended ACLs (9.3.2.6) 608

Troubleshoot ACLs (9.4) 611

    Inbound and Outbound ACL Logic (9.4.1.1) 611

    ACL Logic Operations (9.4.1.2) 613

    Standard ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.3) 614

    Extended ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.4) 615

Common ACL Errors (9.4.2) 616

    Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 1 (9.4.2.1) 616

    Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 2 (9.4.2.2) 617

    Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 3 (9.4.2.3) 618

    Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 4 (9.4.2.4) 619

    Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 5 (9.4.2.5) 619

IPv6 ACLs (9.5) 621

    Type of IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.1) 621

    Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.2) 621

    Configuring IPv6 Topology (9.5.2.1) 623

    Configuring IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.2) 625

    Applying an IPv6 ACL to an Interface (9.5.2.3) 627

    IPv6 ACL Examples (9.5.2.4) 628

        Deny FTP 629

        Restricted Access 629

    Verifying IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.5) 630

Summary (9.6) 633

Practice 635

Class Activities 635

Labs 635

Packet Tracer Activities 635

Check Your Understanding Questions 636

Chapter 10 DHCP 639

Objectives 639

Key Terms 639

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 640

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol v4 (10.1) 641

    Introducing DHCPv4 (10.1.1.1) 641

    DHCPv4 Operation (10.1.1.2) 642

        Lease Origination 642

        Lease Renewal 644

    DHCPv4 Message Format (10.1.1.3) 645

    DHCPv4 Discover and Offer Messages (10.1.1.4) 646

Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (10.1.2) 648

    Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (10.1.2.1) 648

        DHCPv4 Example 651

        Disabling DHCPv4 651

    Verifying DHCPv4 (10.1.2.2) 651

    DHCPv4 Relay (10.1.2.3) 655

        What Is DHCP Relay? 655

Configure DHCPv4 Client (10.1.3) 659

    Configuring a Router as DHCPv4 Client (10.1.3.1) 659

    Configuring a SOHO Router as a DHCPv4 Client (10.1.3.2) 660

Troubleshoot DHCPv4 (10.1.4) 661

    Troubleshooting Tasks (10.1.4.1) 661

        Troubleshooting Task 1: Resolve IPv4 Address Conflicts 662

        Troubleshooting Task 2: Verify Physical Connectivity 662

        Troubleshooting Task 3: Test Connectivity Using a Static IP Address 662

        Troubleshooting Task 4: Verify Switch Port Configuration 662

        Troubleshooting Task 5: Test DHCPv4 Operation on the Same Subnet or VLAN 663

    Verify Router DHCPv4 Configuration (10.1.4.2) 663

    Debugging DHCPv4 (10.1.4.3) 664

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol v6 (10.2) 665

    Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) (10.2.1.1) 665

    SLAAC Operation (10.2.1.2) 666

    SLAAC and DHCPv6 (10.2.1.3) 668

    SLAAC Option (10.2.1.4) 669

    SLAAC Option (Router Advertisement Only) 669

    Stateless DHCPv6 Option (10.2.1.5) 670

        Stateless DHCPv6 Option (Router Advertisement and DHCPv6) 670

    Stateful DHCPv6 Option (10.2.1.6) 671

        Stateful DHCPv6 (DHCPv6 Only) 671

    DHCPv6 Operations (10.2.1.7) 671

        DHCPv6 Communications 672

Stateless DHCPv6 (10.2.2) 673

    Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server (10.2.2.1) 673

        DHCPv6 Stateless Server Example 674

    Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Client (10.2.2.2) 675

    Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 (10.2.2.3) 675

        Verifying the Stateless DHCPv6 Server 675

        Verifying the Stateless DHCPv6 Client 676

Stateful DHCPv6 Server (10.2.3) 678

    Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server (10.2.3.1) 678

        DHCPv6 Stateful Server Example 679

    Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Client (10.2.3.2) 679

    Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 (10.2.3.3) 680

        Verifying the Stateful DHCPv6 Client 681

    Configuring a Router as a DHCPv6 Relay Agent (10.2.3.4) 682

        Configuring the DHCPv6 Relay Agent 683

Troubleshoot DHCPv6 (10.2.4) 683

    Troubleshooting Tasks (10.2.4.1) 683

        Troubleshooting Task 1. Resolve Conflicts 684

        Troubleshooting Task 2. Verify Allocation Method 684

        Troubleshooting Task 3. Test with a Static IPv6 Address 684

        Troubleshooting Task 4. Verify Switch Port Configuration 684

        Troubleshooting Task 5. Test DHCPv6 Operation on the Same Subnet or VLAN 684

    Verify Router DHCPv6 Configuration (10.2.4.2) 685

        Stateful DHCPv6 685

        Stateless DHCPv6 685

    Debugging DHCPv6 (10.2.4.3) 686

Summary (10.3) 688

Practice 690

Class Activities 690

Packet Tracer Activities 690

Check Your Understanding Questions 691

Chapter 11 Network Address Translation for IPv4 695

Objectives 695

Key Terms 695

Introduction (11.0.1.1) 696

NAT Operation (11.1) 697

    IPv4 Private Address Space (11.1.1.1) 697

    What Is NAT? (11.1.1.2) 698

    NAT Terminology (11.1.1.3, 11.1.1.4) 699

    How NAT Works (11.1.1.5) 702

Types of NAT (11.1.2) 703

    Static NAT (11.1.2.1) 703

    Dynamic NAT (11.1.2.2) 704

    Port Address Translation (PAT) (11.1.2.3) 705

    Next Available Port (11.1.2.4) 706

    Comparing NAT and PAT (11.1.2.5) 707

        Packets Without a Layer 4 Segment 708

Benefits of NAT (11.1.3) 709

    Benefits of NAT (11.1.3.1) 709

        Disadvantages of NAT (11.1.3.2) 710

Configuring NAT (11.2) 710

    Configuring Static NAT (11.2.1.1) 711

    Analyzing Static NAT (11.2.1.2) 713

    Verifying Static NAT (11.2.1.3) 714

Configuring Dynamic NAT (11.2.2) 716

    Dynamic NAT Operation (11.2.2.1) 716

    Configuring Dynamic NAT (11.2.2.2) 717

    Analyzing Dynamic NAT (11.2.2.3) 719

    Verifying Dynamic NAT (11.2.2.4) 721

Configuring Port Address Translation (PAT) (11.2.3) 724

    Configuring PAT: Address Pool (11.2.3.1) 724

        Configuring PAT for a Pool of Public IP Addresses 724

    Configuring PAT: Single Address (11.2.3.2) 726

    Analyzing PAT (11.2.3.3) 727

        PC to Server Process 728

        Server to PC Process 729

    Verifying PAT (11.2.3.4) 730

Port Forwarding (11.2.4) 731

    SOHO Example (11.2.4.2) 733

    Configuring Port Forwarding with IOS (11.2.4.3) 734

Configuring NAT and IPv6 (11.2.5) 736

    NAT for IPv6? (11.2.5.1) 737

    IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (11.2.5.2) 738

    NAT for IPv6 (11.2.5.3) 739

Troubleshooting NAT (11.3) 740

    Troubleshooting NAT: show Commands (11.3.1.1) 740

    Troubleshooting NAT: debug Command (11.3.1.2) 742

    Case Study (11.3.1.3) 744

        Case Study 1 744

Summary (11.4) 747

Practice 748

Class Activities 748

Labs 748

Packet Tracer Activities 749

Check Your Understanding Questions 749

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 755

Glossary 771

TOC, 9781587133183, 1/21/2014

 

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