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Routing Protocols Companion Guide

By Cisco Networking Academy

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Feb 3, 2014

Description

Routing Protocols Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing Protocols course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

 

This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers, and explains the principles of routing and routing protocols. You learn how to configure a router for basic and advanced functionality. By the end of this course, you will be able to configure and troubleshoot routers and resolve common issues with RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF in both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

 

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

 

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

 

  • Chapter objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.
  • Key terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter. 
  • Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 150 terms.
  • Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.
  • Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.
  • How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.
  • Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics by doing all the exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.
  • Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.
  • Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters.
  • Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Lab Manual.

 

 

Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv

Chapter 1 Routing Concepts 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Initial Configuration of a Router (1.1) 4

    Characteristics of a Network (1.1.1.1) 4

    Why Routing? (1.1.1.2) 5

    Routers Are Computers (1.1.1.3) 6

    Routers Interconnect Networks (1.1.1.4) 7

    Routers Choose Best Paths (1.1.1.5) 9

    Packet Forwarding Mechanisms (1.1.1.6) 9

Connect Devices (1.1.2) 12

    Connect to a Network (1.1.2.1) 13

    Default Gateways (1.1.2.2) 14

    Document Network Addressing (1.1.2.3) 15

    Enable IP on a Host (1.1.2.4) 16

    Device LEDs (1.1.2.5) 18

    Console Access (1.1.2.6) 19

    Enable IP on a Switch (1.1.2.7) 20

Basic Settings on a Router (1.1.3) 22

    Configure Basic Router Settings (1.1.3.1) 22

    Configure an IPv4 Router Interface (1.1.3.2) 24

    Configure an IPv6 Router Interface (1.1.3.3) 25

    Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface (1.1.3.4) 28

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks (1.1.4) 29

    Verify Interface Settings (1.1.4.1) 29

    Verify IPv6 Interface Settings (1.1.4.2) 31

    Filter Show Command Output (1.1.4.3) 34

    Command History Feature (1.1.4.4) 36

Routing Decisions (1.2) 38

    Router Switching Function (1.2.1.1) 38

    Send a Packet (1.2.1.2) 39

    Forward to the Next Hop (1.2.1.3) 40

    Packet Routing (1.2.1.4) 41

    Reach the Destination (1.2.1.5) 42

Path Determination (1.2.2) 43

    Routing Decisions (1.2.2.1) 43

    Best Path (1.2.2.2) 44

    Load Balancing (1.2.2.3) 45

    Administrative Distance (1.2.2.4) 46

Router Operation (1.3) 47

    Analyze the Routing Table (1.3.1) 47

        The Routing Table (1.3.1.1) 47

        Routing Table Sources (1.3.1.2) 48

        Remote Network Routing Entries (1.3.1.3) 49

    Directly Connected Routes (1.3.2) 51

        Directly Connected Interfaces (1.3.2.1) 51

        Directly Connected Route Table Entries (1.3.2.2) 51

        Directly Connected Examples (1.3.2.3) 52

        Directly Connected IPv6 Example (1.3.2.4) 53

    Statically Learned Routes (1.3.3) 56

        Static Routes (1.3.3.1) 56

        Static Route Examples (1.3.3.2) 57

        Static IPv6 Route Examples (1.3.3.3) 59

    Dynamic Routing Protocols (1.3.4) 61

        Dynamic Routing (1.3.4.1) 61

        IPv4 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.2) 62

        IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.3) 63

        IPv6 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.4) 64

        IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.5) 64

Summary (1.4) 66

Practice 67

    Class Activities 67

    Labs 67

    Packet Tracer Activities 67

Check Your Understanding Questions 68

Chapter 2 Static Routing 73

Objectives 73

Key Terms 73

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 74

Static Routing Implementation (2.1) 75

    Reach Remote Networks (2.1.1.1) 75

    Why Use Static Routing? (2.1.1.2) 76

    When to Use Static Routes (2.1.1.3) 77

    Static Route Applications (2.1.2.1) 78

    Standard Static Route (2.1.2.2) 79

    Default Static Route (2.1.2.3) 79

    Summary Static Route (2.1.2.4) 80

    Floating Static Route (2.1.2.5) 81

Configure Static and Default Routes (2.2) 82

    Configure IPv4 Static Routes (2.2.1) 82

        ip route Command (2.2.1.1) 82

        Next-Hop Options (2.2.1.2) 84

        Configure a Next-Hop Static Route (2.2.1.3) 85

        Configure a Directly Connected Static Route (2.2.1.4) 87

        Configure a Fully Specified Static Route (2.2.1.5) 89

        Verify a Static Route (2.2.1.6) 91

    Configure IPv4 Default Routes (2.2.2) 93

        Default Static Route (2.2.2.1) 93

        Configure a Default Static Route (2.2.2.2) 94

        Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.2.3) 94

    Configure IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3) 96

        The ipv6 route Command (2.2.3.1) 96

        Next-Hop Options (2.2.3.2) 97

        Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.3) 100

        Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.4) 102

        Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.5) 104

        Verify IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3.6) 105

    Configure IPv6 Default Routes (2.2.4) 106

        Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.1) 106

        Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.2) 107

        Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.4.3) 108

Review of CIDR and VLSM (2.3) 109

    Classful Addressing (2.3.1) 109

        Classful Network Addressing (2.3.1.1) 109

        Classful Subnet Masks (2.3.1.2) 110

        Classful Routing Protocol Example (2.3.1.3) 112

        Classful Addressing Waste (2.3.1.4) 113

    CIDR (2.3.2) 114

        Classless Inter-Domain Routing (2.3.2.1) 114

        Classless Inter-Domain Routing (2.3.2.2) 115

        Static Routing CIDR Example (2.3.2.3) 117

        Classless Routing Protocol Example (2.3.2.4) 118

    VLSM (2.3.3) 119

        Fixed-Length Subnet Masking (2.3.3.1) 119

        Variable-Length Subnet Masking (2.3.3.2) 121

        VLSM in Action (2.3.3.3) 122

        Subnetting Subnets (2.3.3.4) 123

        VLSM Example (2.3.3.5) 125

Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes (2.4) 128

    Configure IPv4 Summary Routes (2.4.1) 128

        Route Summarization (2.4.1.1) 128

        Calculate a Summary Route (2.4.1.2) 129

        Summary Static Route Example (2.4.1.3) 130

    Configure IPv6 Summary Routes (2.4.1) 133

        Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses (2.4.2.1) 133

        Calculate IPv6 Network Addresses (2.4.2.2) 134

        Configure an IPv6 Summary Address (2.4.2.3) 137

    Configure Floating Static Routes (2.4.3) 138

        Floating Static Routes (2.4.3.1) 138

        Configure a Floating Static Route (2.4.3.2) 140

        Test the Floating Static Route (2.4.3.3) 141

Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues (2.5) 142

    Packet Processing with Static Routes (2.5.1) 143

        Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (2.5.1.1) 143

    Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration (2.5.2) 144

        Troubleshooting a Missing Route (2.5.2.1) 144

        Solve a Connectivity Problem (2.5.2.2) 147

Summary (2.6) 150

Practice 151

    Class Activities 151

    Labs 152

    Packet Tracer Activities 152

Check Your Understanding Questions 152

Chapter 3 Routing Dynamically 155

Objectives 155

Key Terms 155

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 157

Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1) 158

    The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.1.1) 158

    Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.1.2) 159

    The Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.1.3) 160

Dynamic versus Static Routing (3.1.2) 161

    Using Static Routing (3.1.2.1) 161

    Static Routing Scorecard (3.1.2.2) 162

    Using Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.2.3) 163

    Dynamic Routing Scorecard (3.1.2.4) 163

Routing Protocol Operating Fundamentals (3.1.3) 164

    Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (3.1.3.1) 165

    Cold Start (3.1.3.2) 165

    Network Discovery (3.1.3.3) 166

    Exchanging the Routing Information (3.1.3.4) 168

    Achieving Convergence (3.1.3.5) 170

Types of Routing Protocols (3.1.4) 171

    Classifying Routing Protocols (3.1.4.1) 171

        IGP and EGP Routing Protocols (3.1.4.2) 172

    Distance Vector Routing Protocols (3.1.4.3) 173

    Link-State Routing Protocols (3.1.4.4) 174

    Classful Routing Protocols (3.1.4.5) 175

    Classless Routing Protocols (3.1.4.6) 177

    Routing Protocol Characteristics (3.1.4.7) 179

    Routing Protocol Metrics (3.1.4.8) 180

Distance Vector Dynamic Routing (3.2) 181

    Distance Vector Technologies (3.2.1.1) 181

    Distance Vector Algorithm (3.2.1.2) 182

Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols (3.2.2) 183

    Routing Information Protocol (3.2.2.1) 183

    Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (3.2.2.2) 184

RIP and RIPng Routing (3.3) 186

    Configuring the RIP Protocol (3.3.1) 186

        Router RIP Configuration Mode (3.3.1.1) 186

        Advertising Networks (3.3.1.2) 188

        Examining Default RIP Settings (3.3.1.3) 189

        Enabling RIPv2 (3.3.1.4) 190

        Disabling Auto Summarization (3.3.1.5) 192

        Configuring Passive Interfaces (3.3.1.6) 193

        Propagating a Default Route (3.3.1.7) 195

    Configuring the RIPng Protocol (3.3.2) 196

        Advertising IPv6 Networks (3.3.2.1) 196

        Examining the RIPng Configuration (3.3.2.2) 198

Link-State Dynamic Routing (3.4) 200

    Link-State Routing Protocol Operation (3.4.1) 200

        Shortest Path First Protocols (3.4.1.1) 200

        Dijkstra’s Algorithm (3.4.1.2) 201

        SPF Example (3.4.1.3) 202

    Link-State Updates (3.4.2) 203

        Link-State Routing Process (3.4.2.1) 203

        Link and Link-State (3.4.2.2) 204

        Say Hello (3.4.2.3) 207

        Building the Link-State Packet (3.4.2.4) 208

        Flooding the LSP (3.4.2.5) 209

        Building the Link-State Database (3.4.2.6) 210

        Building the SPF Tree (3.4.2.7) 211

        Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table (3.4.2.8) 212

    Why Use Link-State Routing Protocols? (3.4.3) 213

        Why Use Link-State Protocols? (3.4.3.1) 213

        Link-State Protocols Support Multiple Areas (3.4.3.2) 214

        Protocols that Use Link-State (3.4.3.3) 214

The Routing Table (3.5) 215

    Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry (3.5.1) 215

        Routing Table Entries (3.5.1.1) 215

        Directly Connected Entries (3.5.1.2) 217

        Remote Network Entries (3.5.1.3) 218

    Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes (3.5.2) 219

        Routing Table Terms (3.5.2.1) 219

        Ultimate Route (3.5.2.2) 220

        Level 1 Route (3.5.2.3) 220

        Level 1 Parent Route (3.5.2.4) 221

        Level 2 Child Route (3.5.2.5) 222

    The IPv4 Route Lookup Process (3.5.3) 224

        Route Lookup Process (3.5.3.1) 224

        Best Route = Longest Match (3.5.3.2) 226

    Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table (3.5.4) 227

        IPv6 Routing Table Entries (3.5.4.1) 227

        Directly Connected Entries (3.5.4.2) 228

        Remote IPv6 Network Entries (3.5.4.3) 230

Summary (3.6) 232

Practice 233

    Class Activities 233

    Lab 233

    Packet Tracer Activities 234

Check Your Understanding Questions 234

Chapter 4 EIGRP 239

Objectives 239

Key Terms 239

Introduction (4.0.1) 240

Characteristics of EIGRP (4.1) 240

    Basic Features of EIGRP (4.1.1) 240

        Features of EIGRP (4.1.1.1) 241

        Protocol-Dependent Modules (4.1.1.2) 242

        Reliable Transport Protocol (4.1.1.3) 243

        Authentication (4.1.1.4) 244

    Types of EIGRP Packets (4.1.2) 245

        EIGRP Packet Types (4.1.2.1) 245

        EIGRP Hello Packets (4.1.2.2) 247

        EIGRP Update and Acknowledgment Packets (4.1.2.3) 248

        EIGRP Query and Reply Packets (4.1.2.4) 249

    EIGRP Messages (4.1.3) 251

        Encapsulating EIGRP Messages (4.1.3.1) 251

        EIGRP Packet Header and TLV (4.1.3.2) 252

Configuring EIGRP for IPv4 (4.2) 255

    Configuring EIGRP with IPv4 (4.2.1) 255

        EIGRP Network Topology (4.2.1.1) 255

        Autonomous System Numbers (4.2.1.2) 257

        The Router EIGRP Command (4.2.1.3) 259

        EIGRP Router ID (4.2.1.4) 261

        Configuring the EIGRP Router ID (4.2.1.5) 262

        The Network Command (4.2.1.6) 264

        The Network Command and Wildcard Mask (4.2.1.7) 266

        Passive Interface (4.2.1.8) 268

        Verifying EIGRP with IPv4 (4.2.2) 270

        Verifying EIGRP: Examining Neighbors (4.2.2.1) 270

        Verifying EIGRP: show ip protocols Command (4.2.2.2) 272

        Verifying EIGRP: Examine the IPv4 Routing Table (4.2.2.3) 273

Operation of EIGRP (4.3) 277

    EIGRP Initial Route Discover (4.3.1) 277

        EIGRP Neighbor Adjacency (4.3.1.1) 277

        EIGRP Topology Table (4.3.1.2) 278

        EIGRP Convergence (4.3.1.3) 280

    Metrics (4.3.2) 280

        EIGRP Composite Metric (4.3.2.1) 281

        Examining Interface Values (4.3.2.2) 283

        Bandwidth Metric (4.3.2.3) 284

        Delay Metric (4.3.2.4) 286

        Calculating the EIGRP Metric (4.3.2.5) 287

        Calculating the EIGRP Metric: Example (4.3.2.6) 288

    DUAL and the Topology Table (4.3.3) 290

        DUAL Concepts (4.3.3.1) 291

        Introduction to DUAL (4.3.3.2) 291

        Successor and Feasible Distance (4.3.3.3) 293

        Feasible Successors, Feasibility Condition, and Reported Distance (4.3.3.4) 295

        Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (4.3.3.5) 297

        Topology Table: No Feasible Successor (4.3.3.7) 300

    DUAL and Convergence (4.3.4) 302

        DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM) (4.3.4.1) 302

        DUAL: Feasible Successor (4.3.4.2) 304

        DUAL: No Feasible Successor (4.3.4.3) 306

Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4) 308

    EIGRP for IPv4 vs. IPv6 (4.4.1) 308

        EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4.1.1) 308

        Comparing EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 (4.4.1.2) 310

        IPv6 Link-local Addresses (4.4.1.3) 311

    Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4.2) 312

        EIGRP for IPv6 Network Topology (4.4.2.1) 312

        Configuring IPv6 Link-local Addresses (4.4.2.2) 314

        Configuring the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Process (4.4.2.3) 316

    ipv6 eigrp Interface Command (4.4.2.4) 318

        Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4.3) 319

        Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: Examining Neighbors (4.4.3.1) 319

        Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: show ip protocols Command (4.4.3.2) 321

        Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: Examine the IPv6 Routing Table (4.4.3.3) 322

Summary (4.5) 326

Practice 327

    Class Activities 328

    Labs 328

    Packet Tracer Activities 328

Check Your Understanding Questions 328

Chapter 5 EIGRP Advanced Configurations and Troubleshooting 333

Objectives 333

Key Terms 333

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 334

Advanced EIGRP Configurations (5.1) 334

    Auto-summarization (5.1.1) 335

        Network Topology (5.1.1.1) 335

        EIGRP Auto-summarization (5.1.1.2) 337

        Configuring EIGRP Auto-summarization (5.1.1.3) 338

        Verifying Auto-Summary: show ip protocols (5.1.1.4) 340

        Verifying Auto-Summary: Topology Table (5.1.1.5) 342

        Verifying Auto-Summary: Routing Table (5.1.1.6) 343

        Summary Route (5.1.1.7, 5.1.1.8) 345

    Manual Summarization (5.1.2) 347

        Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.1) 347

        Configuring EIGRP Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.2) 349

        Verifying Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.3) 351

        EIGRP for IPv6: Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.4) 351

    Default Route Propagation (5.1.3) 353

        Propagating a Default Static Route (5.1.3.1) 353

        Verifying the Propagated Default Route (5.1.3.2) 355

        EIGRP for IPv6: Default Route (5.1.3.3) 355

    Fine-tuning EIGRP Interfaces (5.1.4) 357

        EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization (5.1.4.1) 357

        Hello and Hold Timers (5.1.4.2) 359

        Load Balancing IPv4 (5.1.4.3) 361

        Load Balancing IPv6 (5.1.4.4) 363

    Secure EIGRP (5.1.5) 364

        Routing Protocol Authentication Overview (5.1.5.1) 364

        Configuring EIGRP with MD5 Authentication (5.1.5.2) 365

        EIGRP Authentication Example (5.1.5.3) 366

        Verify Authentication (5.1.5.4) 369

Troubleshoot EIGRP (5.2) 370

    Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP (5.2.1) 370

        Basic EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands (5.2.1.1) 370

        Components (5.2.1.2) 372

    Troubleshoot EIGRP Neighbor Issues (5.2.2) 374

        Layer 3 Connectivity (5.2.2.1) 374

        EIGRP Parameters (5.2.2.2) 375

        EIGRP Interfaces (5.2.2.3) 376

    Troubleshooting EIGRP Routing Table Issues (5.2.3) 378

        Passive Interface (5.2.3.1) 378

        Missing Network Statement (5.2.3.2) 380

        Auto-summarization (5.2.3.3) 382

Summary (5.3) 386

Practice 388

    Class Activities 388

    Labs 388

    Packet Tracer Activities 388

Check Your Understanding Questions 389

Chapter 6 Single-Area OSPF 393

Objectives 393

Key Terms 393

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 394

Characteristics of OSPF (6.1) 394

    Evolution of OSPF (6.1.1.1) 394

    Features of OSPF (6.1.1.2) 395

    Components of OSPF (6.1.1.3) 396

    Link-State Operation (6.1.1.4) 398

    Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF (6.1.1.5) 399

OSPF Messages (6.1.2) 401

    Encapsulating OSPF Messages (6.1.2.1) 402

    Types of OSPF Packets (6.1.2.2) 402

    Hello Packet (6.1.2.3) 403

    Hello Packet Intervals (6.1.2.4) 404

    Link-State Updates (6.1.2.5) 405

OSPF Operation (6.1.3) 406

    OSPF Operational States (6.1.3.1) 406

    Establish Neighbor Adjacencies (6.1.3.2) 407

    OSPF DR and BDR (6.1.3.3) 408

    Synchronizing OSPF Databases (6.1.3.4) 411

Configuring Single-Area OSPFv2 (6.2) 414

    OSPF Network Topology (6.2.1.1) 414

    Router OSPF Configuration Mode (6.2.1.2) 415

    Router IDs (6.2.1.3) 415

    Configuring an OSPF Router ID (6.2.1.4) 417

    Modifying a Router ID (6.2.1.5) 418

        Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID (6.2.1.6) 419

Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 (6.2.2) 420

    Enabling OSPF on Interfaces (6.2.2.1) 420

    Wildcard Mask (6.2.2.2) 420

    The network Command (6.2.2.3) 421

    Passive Interface (6.2.2.4) 422

    Configuring Passive Interfaces (6.2.2.5) 423

    OSPF Cost (6.2.3) 425

        OSPF Metric = Cost (6.2.3.1) 425

    OSPF Accumulates Costs (6.2.3.2) 426

    Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth (6.2.3.3) 427

    Default Interface Bandwidths (6.2.3.4) 430

    Adjusting the Interface Bandwidths (6.2.3.5) 433

    Manually Setting the OSPF Cost (6.2.3.6) 434

Verify OSPF (6.2.4) 435

    Verify OSPF Neighbors (6.2.4.1) 435

        Verify OSPF Protocol Settings (6.2.4.2) 436

        Verify OSPF Process Information (6.2.4.3) 437

        Verify OSPF Interface Settings (6.2.4.4) 438

Configure Single-Area OSPFv3 (6.3) 439

    OSPFv3 (6.3.1.1) 439

    Similarities Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (6.3.1.2) 440

    Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (6.3.1.3) 441

    Link-Local Addresses (6.3.1.4) 442

Configuring OSPFv3 (6.3.2) 443

    OSPFv3 Network Topology (6.3.2.1) 443

    Link-Local Addresses (6.3.2.2) 444

    Assigning Link-Local Addresses (6.3.2.3) 445

    Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID (6.3.2.4) 446

    Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID (6.3.2.5) 449

    Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces (6.3.2.6) 450

Verify OSPFv3 (6.3.3) 451

    Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors (6.3.3.1) 451

    Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings (6.3.3.2) 452

    Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces (6.3.3.3) 453

    Verify the IPv6 Routing Table (6.3.3.4) 453

Summary (6.4) 455

    Practice 456

    Class Activities 456

    Labs 456

    Packet Tracer Activities 456

Check Your Understanding Questions 457

Chapter 7 Adjust and Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPF 461

Objectives 461

Key Terms 461

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 462

Advanced Single-Area OSPF Configurations (7.1) 462

    OSPF Network Types (7.1.1.1) 462

    Challenges in Multiaccess Networks (7.1.1.2) 465

    OSPF Designated Router (7.1.1.3) 467

    Verifying DR/BDR Roles (7.1.1.4) 469

    Verifying DR/BDR Adjacencies (7.1.1.5) 472

    Default DR/BDR Election Process (7.1.1.6) 474

    DR/BDR Election Process (7.1.1.7) 475

    The OSPF Priority (7.1.1.8) 477

    Changing the OSPF Priority (7.1.1.9) 478

Default Route Propagation (7.1.2) 480

    Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv2 (7.1.2.1) 480

    Verifying the Propagated Default Route (7.1.2.2) 481

    Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv3 (7.1.2.3) 482

    Verifying the Propagated IPv6 Default Route (7.1.2.4) 484

Fine-tuning OSPF Interfaces (7.1.3) 485

    OSPF Hello and Dead Intervals (7.1.3.1) 485

    Modifying OSPFv2 Intervals (7.1.3.2) 486

    Modifying OSPFv3 Intervals (7.1.3.3) 488

Secure OSPF (7.1.4) 489

    Routers Are Targets (7.1.4.1) 489

    Secure Routing Updates (7.1.4.2) 492

    MD5 Authentication (7.1.4.3) 495

    Configuring OSPF MD5 Authentication (7.1.4.4) 496

    OSPF MD5 Authentication Example (7.1.4.5) 497

    Verifying OSPF MD5 Authentication (7.1.4.6) 499

Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF Implementations (7.2) 501

    OSPF States (7.2.1.2) 501

    OSPF Troubleshooting Commands (7.2.1.3) 502

    Components of Troubleshooting OSPF (7.2.1.4) 505

Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv2 Routing Issues (7.2.2) 508

    Troubleshooting Neighbor Issues (7.2.2.1) 508

    Troubleshooting OSPF Routing Table Issues (7.2.2.2) 511

Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv3 Routing Issues (7.2.3) 514

    OSPFv3 Troubleshooting Commands (7.2.3.1) 514

    Troubleshooting OSPFv3 (7.2.3.2) 517

Summary (7.3) 521

Practice 523

    Class Activities 523

    Labs 523

    Packet Tracer Activities 523

Check Your Understanding Questions 524

Chapter 8 Multiarea OSPF 527

Objectives 527

Key Terms 527

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 528

Multiarea OSPF Operation (8.1) 528

    Single-Area OSPF (8.1.1.1) 528

    Multiarea OSPF (8.1.1.2) 529

    OSPF Two-Layer Area Hierarchy (8.1.1.3) 530

    Types of OSPF Routers (8.1.1.4) 532

Multiarea OSPF LSA Operation (8.1.2) 534

    OSPF LSA Types (8.1.2.1) 534

    OSPF LSA Type 1 (8.1.2.2) 535

    OSPF LSA Type 2 (8.1.2.3) 536

    OSPF LSA Type 3 (8.1.2.4) 536

    OSPF LSA Type 4 (8.1.2.5) 537

    OSPF LSA Type 5 (8.1.2.6) 538

OSPF Routing Table and Types of Routes (8.1.3) 539

    OSPF Routing Table Entries (8.1.3.1) 539

    OSPF Route Calculation (8.1.3.2) 540

Configuring Multiarea OSPF (8.2) 541

    Implementing Multiarea OSPF (8.2.1.1) 541

    Configuring Multiarea OSPF (8.2.1.2) 542

    Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 (8.2.1.3) 544

OSPF Route Summarization (8.2.2.1) 545

Interarea and External Route Summarization (8.2.2.2) 546

Interarea Route Summarization (8.2.2.3) 548

Calculating the Summary Route (8.2.2.4) 550

Configuring Interarea Route Summarization (8.2.2.5) 550

Verifying Multiarea OSPF (8.2.3.1) 552

Verify General Multiarea OSPF Settings (8.2.3.2) 553

Verify the OSPF Routes (8.2.3.3) 554

Verify the Multiarea OSPF LSDB (8.2.3.4) 555

Verify Multiarea OSPFv3 (8.2.3.5) 556

Summary (8.3) 560

Practice 562

    Class Activities 562

    Labs 562

    Packet Tracer Activities 562

Check Your Understanding Questions 562

Chapter 9 Access Control Lists 565

Objectives 565

Key Terms 565

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 566

IP ACL Operation (9.1) 567

    Purpose of ACLs (9.1.1) 567

        What Is an ACL? (9.1.1.1) 567

        A TCP Conversation (9.1.1.2) 568

        Packet Filtering (9.1.1.3) 572

        Packet Filtering Example (9.1.1.4) 573

        ACL Operation (9.1.1.5) 574

    Standard Versus Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.1.2) 575

        Types of Cisco IPv4 ACLs (9.1.2.1) 575

        Numbering and Naming ACLs (9.1.2.2) 576

    Wildcard Masks in ACLs (9.1.3) 577

        Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking (9.1.3.1) 577

        Wildcard Mask Examples (9.1.3.2) 579

        Calculating the Wildcard Mask (9.1.3.3) 581

        Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.4) 582

        Examples Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.5) 584

    Guidelines for ACL Creation (9.1.4) 584

        General Guidelines for Creating ACLs (9.1.4.1) 585

        ACL Best Practices (9.1.4.2) 586

    Guidelines for ACL Placement (9.1.5) 587

        Where to Place ACLs (9.1.5.1) 587

        Standard ACL Placement (9.1.5.2) 588

        Extended ACL Placement (9.1.5.3) 589

Standard IPv4 ACLs (9.2) 591

    Configure Standard IPv4 ACLs (9.2.1) 591

        Entering Criteria Statements (9.2.1.1) 591

        Standard ACL Logic (9.2.1.2) 592

        Configuring a Standard ACL (9.2.1.3) 593

        Internal Logic (9.2.1.4) 595

        Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces: Permit a Specific Subnet (9.2.1.5) 596

        Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces: Deny a Specific Host (9.2.1.6) 598

        Creating Named Standard ACLs (9.2.1.7) 600

        Commenting ACLs (9.2.1.8) 601

    Modifying IPv4 ACLs (9.2.2) 603

        Editing Standard Numbered ACLs: Using a Text Editor (9.2.2.1) 603

        Editing Standard Numbered ACLs: Using the Sequence Number (9.2.2.2) 604

        Editing Standard Named ACLs (9.2.2.3) 605

        Verifying ACLs (9.2.2.4) 606

        ACL Statistics (9.2.2.5) 607

        Standard ACL Sequence Numbers (9.2.2.6) 608

    Securing VTY Ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL (9.2.3) 611

        Configuring a Standard ACL to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.1) 611

        Verifying a Standard ACL Used to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.2) 612

Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.3) 614

    Structure of an Extended IPv4 ACL (9.3.1) 614

        Extended ACLs: Testing Packets (9.3.1.1) 614

        Extended ACLs: Testing Ports and Services (9.3.1.2) 615

    Configure Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.3.2) 616

        Configuring Extended ACLs (9.3.2.1) 616

        Applying Extended ACLs to Interfaces (9.3.2.2) 618

        Filtering Traffic with Extended ACLs (9.3.2.3) 620

        Creating Named Extended ACLs (9.3.2.4) 621

        Verifying Extended ACLs (9.3.2.5) 622

        Editing Extended ACLs (9.3.2.6) 623

Troubleshoot ACLs (9.4) 625

    Processing Packets with ACLs (9.4.1) 625

        Inbound and Outbound ACL Logic (9.4.1.1) 625

        ACL Logic Operations (9.4.1.2) 627

        Standard ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.3) 628

        Extended ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.4) 629

        Common ACL Errors (9.4.2) 629

        Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 1 (9.4.2.1) 629

        Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 2 (9.4.2.2) 630

        Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 3 (9.4.2.3) 632

        Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 4 (9.4.2.4) 632

        Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 5 (9.4.2.5) 633

IPv6 ACLs (9.5) 635

    IPv6 ACL Creation (9.5.1) 635

        Type of IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.1) 635

        Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.2) 636

    Configuring IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2) 637

        Configuring IPv6 Topology (9.5.2.1) 637

        Syntax for Configuring IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.2) 639

        Applying an IPv6 ACL to an Interface (9.5.2.3) 641

        IPv6 ACL Examples (9.5.2.4) 642

        Verifying IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.5) 643

Summary (9.6) 646

Practice 648

    Class Activities 648

    Labs 648

    Packet Tracer Activities 648

Check Your Understanding Questions 649

Chapter 10 IOS Images and Licensing 653

Objectives 653

Key Terms 653

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 654

Managing IOS System Files (10.1) 654

    Naming Conventions (10.1.1) 654

        Cisco IOS Software Release Families and Trains (10.1.1.1) 655

        Cisco IOS 12.4 Mainline and T Trains (10.1.1.2) 655

        Cisco IOS 12.4 Mainline and T Numbering (10.1.1.3) 657

        Cisco IOS 12.4 System Image Packaging (10.1.1.4) 658

        Cisco IOS 15.0 M and T Trains (10.1.1.5) 659

        Cisco IOS 15 Train Numbering (10.1.1.6) 661

        IOS 15 System Image Packaging (10.1.1.7) 662

        IOS Image Filenames (10.1.1.8) 663

    Managing Cisco IOS Images (10.1.2) 667

        TFTP Servers as a Backup Location (10.1.2.1) 667

        Creating Cisco IOS Image Backup (10.1.2.2) 667

        Copying a Cisco IOS Image (10.1.2.3) 669

        Boot System (10.1.2.4) 670

IOS Licensing (10.2) 672

    Software Licensing (10.2.1) 672

        Licensing Overview (10.2.1.1) 672

        Licensing Process (10.2.1.2) 674

        Step 1. Purchase the Software Package or Feature to Install (10.2.1.3) 675

        Step 2. Obtain a License (10.2.1.4) 675

        Step 3. Install the License (10.2.1.5) 677

    License Verification and Management (10.2.2) 678

        License Verification (10.2.2.1) 678

        Activate an Evaluation Right-To-Use License (10.2.2.2) 680

        Back Up the License (10.2.2.3) 682

        Uninstall the License (10.2.2.4) 682

Summary (10.3) 685

Practice 688

    Class Activities 688

    Packet Tracer Activities 688

Check Your Understanding Questions 688

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 693

Glossary 709

9781587133237, TOC, 1/24/2014

 

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