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Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers, 9th Edition

By Lynn Quitman Troyka, Doug Hesse

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Oct 27, 2008


The Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers, from trusted authors Lynn Troyka and Doug Hesse, provides you with the support you need to be successful. Providing the most balanced coverage of the writing process, grammar, research, and topics, Troyka and Hesse give you practical advice about the writing they you will do in composition courses, in other classes, and in the world beyond.

Table of Contents



PART ONE   Writing Situations and Processes

Chapter 1         Understanding College and Other Writing Situations

1a        What is the current scene for writers in college and beyond?

1b        What is a writing situation?

1c        What does “purpose” mean for writing?

1d        What does “audience” mean for writing?

1e        What should I know about writing in a digital age?

1f         What forms of writing do computers enable?

1g        What resources can help me with writing?

Chapter 2         Essential Processes for Academic Writing

2a        What processes do academic writers use?

2b        How do I begin a college writing project?

2c        How do I come up with ideas and information?

2d        What is a thesis statement?

2e        How do I plan and organize my ideas?

2f         What is outlining?

2g        What can help me write a first draft?

2h        How can I overcome writer’s block?

2i         How do I revise?

2j         How do I edit?

2k        How do I proofread?

2l         A student essay in three drafts

Chapter 3         Developing and Shaping Writing

3a        How do I shape essays?

3b        How do paragraphs work?

3c        How do I write effective introductory paragraphs?

3d        What are body paragraphs?

3e        What are topic sentences?

3f         How do I develop my body paragraphs?

3g        How do I create unity and coherence in paragraphs?

3h        How can I arrange a paragraph?

3i         How do rhetorical patterns help me write paragraphs?

3j         What is a transitional paragraph?

3k        What are effective concluding paragraphs?

Chapter 4         Critically Analyzing Images

4a        What is critical thinking?

4b        What are the elements of critical thinking?

4c        How do I read to comprehend?

4d        How do I analyze a reading?

4e        How do I draw inferences?

4f         How do I synthesize?

4g        How do I evaluate?

4h        How do I assess reasoning processes critically?

4i         How do I recognize and avoid writing logical fallacies?

4j         How do I view images with a critical eye?

4k        How do images persuade?

4l         How do I analyze words combined with images?

4m       What do images add to my writing?

Chapter 5         Writing Arguments

5a        What is a written argument?

5b        What are common types of arguments?

5c        How do I choose a topic for an argument?

5d        How do I develop a claim and a thesis statement for my argument?

5e        What is the structure of a classical argument?

5f         How do I support my argument?

5g        What types of appeals can provide support?

5h        What is the Toulmin model for argument?

5i         What part does audience play in my argument?

5j         How does Rogerian argument help me reach opposing audiences?

5k        What is a reasonable tone in an argument?

5l         How do I handle opposing arguments?

5m       How did one student draft and revise his argument essay?

5n        Final draft of a student’s argument essay in MLA style

Chapter 6         Writing with Others

6a        What is writing with others?

6b        How do I collaborate with other writers?

6c        How do I give useful feedback to others?

6d        How can I benefit from others’ help?

6e        How do I participate effectively in online discussions?

Chapter 7         Strategies for Writing Typical Kinds of Papers

7a        What are typical kinds of papers I’ll write in college?

7b        What sources will I use in college writing?

7c        How do I write about experiences?

7d        How do I write about observations?

7e        How do I write about quantitative data or information?

7f         How do I write about readings?

            PART TWO   Understanding Grammar and Writing Correct Sentences

Chapter 8         Style, Tone, and Voice

8a        What do style and tone in writing involve?

8b        How do style and tone operate in writing?

8c        How do I write with style?

8d        How do I write with appropriate tone?

Chapter 9         Sentence Variety and Style

9a        How do sentences affect style?

9b        What are variety and emphasis in writing?

9c        How do different sentence lengths create variety and emphasis?

9d        What are coordination and subordination?

9e        What is coordination of sentences?

9f         What is the structure of a coordinate sentence?

9g        What meaning does each coordinating conjunction convey?

9h        How do I use coordination effectively?

9i         What is subordination in sentences?

9j         What is the structure of a subordinate sentence?

9k        What meaning does each subordinating conjunction convey?

9l         How do I use subordination effectively?

9m       How do I effectively use subordination and coordination together?

9n        How do questions, commands, or exclamations create variety and emphasis?

9o        What are cumulative and periodic sentences?

9p        How do modifiers create variety and emphasis?

9q        How does repetition affect style?

9r         How else can I create variety and emphasis?

Chapter 10       Parallelism

10a      What is parallelism?

10b      How do words, phrases, and clauses work in parallel form?

10c      How does parallelism deliver impact?

10d      How do I avoid faulty parallelism?

10e      How does parallelism work in outlines and lists?

Chapter 11       Conciseness

11a      What is conciseness?

11b      What common expressions are not concise?

11c      What sentence structures usually work against conciseness?

11d      How else can I revise for conciseness?

11e      How do verbs affect conciseness?

Chapter 12       The Impact of Words

12a      What is American English?

12b      What is edited American English?

12c      What is figurative language?

12d      How does using exact diction enhance my writing?

12e      How does using specific words enhance my writing?

12f       What is gender-neutral language?

12g      What other types of language do I want to avoid?

12h      What is regional language?

12i       What are clichés?

12j       When is jargon unnecessary?

12k      What are euphemisms?

12l       What is bureaucratic language?

Chapter 13       Usage Glossary


            PART THREE   Writing Effectively, Writing with Style

Chapter 14       Parts of Speech and Sentence Structures

14a      Why learn the parts of speech?

14b      What is a noun?

14c      What is a pronoun?

14d      What is a verb?

14e      What is a verbal?

14f       What is an adjective?

14g      What is an adverb?

14h      What is a preposition?

14i       What is a conjunction?

14j       What is an interjection?

14k      How is a sentence defined?

14l       What are a subject and a predicate in a sentence?

14m     What are direct and indirect objects?

14n      What are complements, modifiers, and appositives?

14o      What is a phrase?

14p      What is a clause?

14q      What are the four sentence types?

Chapter 15       Verbs

15a      What do verbs do?

15b      What are the forms of main verbs?

15c      What is the -s, or -es, form of a verb?

15d      What is the difference between regular and irregular verbs?

15e      What are auxiliary verbs?

15f       What are intransitive and transitive verbs?

15g      What is verb tense?

15h      How do I use the simple present tense?

15i       How do I form and use the perfect tenses?

15j       How do I form and use progressive forms?

15k      How do I use tense sequences accurately?

15l       What is “mood” in verbs?

15m     What are subjunctive forms?

15n      What is “voice” in verbs?

15o      How do I write in the active, not passive, voice?

Chapter 16       Pronouns: Case and Reference

16a      What does “case” mean?

16b      What are personal pronouns?

16c      How do pronouns work in case?

16d      Which case is correct when and connects pronouns?

16e      How do I match cases with appositives?

16f       How does case work after linking verbs?

16g      When should I use who, whoever, whom, and whomever?

16h      What pronoun case comes after than or as?

16i       How do pronouns work before infinitives?

16j       How do pronouns work with -ing words?

16k      What case should I use for -self pronouns?

16l       What is pronoun reference?

16n      How do I avoid unclear pronoun reference?

16o      How do pronouns work with it, that, this, and which?

16p      How do I use they and it precisely?

16q      How do I use it to suit the situation?

16r       When do I use you for direct address?

16s       When do I use that, which, and who?

Chapter 17       Agreement

17a      What is agreement?

17b      What is subject-verb agreement?

17c      Why is a final -s or -es in a subject or verb so important?

17d      Do I ignore words between a subject and its verb?

17e      How do verbs work when subjects are connected by and?

17f       How do verbs work with each and every?

17g      How do verbs work when subjects are connected by or?

17h      How do verbs work with inverted word order?

17i       How do verbs work with indefinite pronouns?

17j       How do verbs work with collective nouns?

17k      Why does the linking verb agree with the subject, not the subject complement?

17l       What verbs agree with who, which, and that?

17m     How do verbs work with amounts, fields of study, and other special nouns?

17n      How do verbs work with titles, company names, and words as themselves?

17o      What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?

17p      How do pronouns work when and connects antecedents?

17q      How do pronouns work when or connects antecedents?

17r       How do pronouns work when antecedents are indefinite pronouns?

17s       How do I use nonsexist pronouns?

17t       How do pronouns work when antecedents are collective nouns?

Chapter 18       Adjectives and Adverbs

18a      What are the differences between adjectives and adverbs?

18b      When do I use adverbs—not adjectives— as modifiers?

18c      What is wrong with double negatives?

18d      Do adjectives or adverbs come after linking verbs?

18e      What are comparative and superlative forms?

18f       Why avoid a long string of nouns as modifiers?

Chapter 19       Sentence Fragments

19a      What is a sentence fragment?

19b      How do I recognize a sentence fragment?

19c      What are major ways of correcting fragments?

19d      how do I fix a fragment that is part of a compound

19e      What are the two special fragment problems?

19f       How do I recognize intentional fragments?

Chapter 20       Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences

20a      What are comma splices and run-on sentences?

20b      How do I recognize comma splices and run-on sentences?

20c      How do I correct comma splices and run-on sentences?

20d      How do I correctly use a conjunctive adverb or other transitional expression between independent clauses?

Chapter 21       Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

21a      What is a misplaced modifier?

21b      How do I avoid split infinitives?

21c      How do I avoid other splits in my sentences?

21d      How do I avoid dangling modifiers?

21e      How do I proofread successfully for misplaced and dangling modifiers?

Chapter 22       Shifting and Mixed Sentences

22a      What is a shifting sentence?

22b      How do I avoid shifts in person and number?

22c      How do I avoid shifts in subject and voice?

22d      How do I avoid shifts in tense and mood?

22e      How do I avoid shifts between indirect and direct discourse?

22f       What is a mixed sentence?

22g      How do I correct a mixed sentence due to faulty predication?

22h      What are correct elliptical constructions?

22i       What are correct comparisons?

22j       How do I proofread successfully for little words I forget to use?

            PART FOUR   Using Punctuation and Mechanics

Chapter 23       Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points

23a      When does a period end a sentence?

23b      How do I use periods with abbreviations?

23c      When do I use a question mark?

23d      When do I use a question mark in parentheses?

23e      When do I use an exclamation point?

23f       What is considered overuse of exclamation points?

Chapter 24       Commas

24a      What is the role of the comma?

24b      How do commas work with coordinating conjunctions?

24c      How do commas work with introductory clauses, phrases, and words?

24d      How do commas work with items in a series?

24e      How do commas work with coordinate adjectives?

24f       How do commas work with nonrestrictive elements?

24g      How do commas set off parentheticals, contrasts, words of address, and tag sentences?

24h      How do commas work with quoted words?

24i       How do commas work in dates, names, addresses, correspondence, and numbers?

24j       How do commas clarify meaning?

24k      How do I avoid misusing commas?

24l       How do I avoid comma errors?

Chapter 25       Semicolons

25a      What are the uses of a semicolon?

25b      When do I use a semicolon, instead of a period, between independent clauses?

25c      When else do I use a semicolon between independent clauses?

25d      How do semicolons work with coordinating conjunctions?

25e      When do I use semicolons between items in a series?

25f       How do I avoid misusing the semicolon?

Chapter 26       Colons

26a      What are the uses of a colon?

26b      When does a colon introduce a list, an appositive, or a quotation?

26c      When do I use a colon between two independent clauses?

26d      What standard formats require a colon?

26e      When is a colon wrong?

Chapter 27       Apostrophes

27a      What is the role of the apostrophe?

27b      How do I use an apostrophe to show a possessive noun?

27c      How do I use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns?

27d      How do I use an apostrophe with contractions?

27e      How do I use an apostrophe with possessive indefinite pronouns?

27f       How do I form the plural of miscellaneous elements?

27g      When is an apostrophe wrong?

Chapter 28       Quotation Marks

28a      What is the role of quotation marks?

28b      How do I use quotation marks with short direct quotations?

28c      Are quotation marks used with long quotations?

28d      How do I use quotation marks for quotations within quotations?

28e      How do I use quotation marks for quotations of poetry and dialogue?

28f       How do I use quotation marks with titles of short works?

28g      How do I use quotation marks for words used as words?

28h      How do I use quotation marks with other punctuation?

28i       When are quotation marks wrong?

Chapter 29       Other Punctuation Marks

29a      When can I use a dash in my writing?

29b      When can I use parentheses in my writing?

29c      When do I need to use brackets in my writing?

29d      How do I use ellipsis points in my writing?

29e      When can I use a slash in my writing?

29f       When do I need a hyphen in my writing?

29g      When do I use a hyphen at the end of a line?

29h      How do I use a hyphen with prefixes and suffixes?

29i       How do I use hyphens with compound words?

Chapter 30       Capitals, Italics, Abbreviations, and Numbers

30a      When do I capitalize a “first” word?

30b      When do I use capitals with listed items?

30c      When do I use capitals with sentences in parentheses?

30d      When do I use capitals with quotations?

30e      When do I capitalize nouns and adjectives?

30f       What are italics?

30g      How do I choose between using italics and quotation marks?

30h      Can I use italics for special emphasis?

30i       What are standard practices for using abbreviations?

30j       How do I use abbreviations with months, time, eras, and symbols?

30k      How do I use abbreviations for other elements?

30l       When do I use etc.?

30m     When do I use spelled-out numbers?

30n      What are standard practices for writing numbers?

30o      How do I use hyphens with spelled-out numbers?

Chapter 31       Spelling

31a      What makes a good speller?

31b      How do I proofread for errors in spelling and hyphen use?

31c      How are plurals spelled?

31d      How are suffixes spelled?

31e      What is the ie, ei rule?

31f       How are homonyms and other frequently confused words spelled?

31g      What are compound words?

            PART FIVE   Research and Writing

Chapter 32       Types and Uses of Research in Writing

32a      What is the role of research in writing?

32b      What are reasons for doing research?

32c      What is the process of doing research?

32d      What kinds of sources do writers use?

32e      What is field research?

Chapter 33       Writing Research Papers

33a      What is a research paper?

33b      How do I plan a research project?

33c      What is a research log?

33d      How do I choose and narrow a research topic?

33e      What is a research question?

33f       How does the writing situation shape my research paper?

33g      What practical steps can help me work efficiently?

33h      What documentation style should I use?

33i       What is a working bibliography?

33j       What is an annotated bibliography?

33k      How do I take content notes?

31l       How do I draft a thesis statement for a research paper?

33m     How do I outline a research paper?

33n      How do I draft a research paper?

33o      How do I revise a research paper?

Chapter 34       Finding and Evaluating Published Sources

34a      What is a published source?

34b      What is a search strategy?

34c      What are library-based sources?

34d      How do I use catalogs and databases?

34e      How do I find books?

34f       How do I find periodicals?

34g      How do I use reference works?

34h      How do I find government publications?

34i       What if my library doesn’t have a source I need?

34j       How do I evaluate sources?

34k      What should I know about searching the web?

34l       How do I search the web?

34m     How do I evaluate web sources?

Chapter 35 Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

35a   How do I use sources well?

35b   What is plagiarism?

35c   How do I avoid plagiarism?

35d   How do I work with internet sources to avoid plagiarism?

35e   What don’t I have to document?

35f   What must I document?

35g   How do I effectively integrate sources into my writing?

35h   How do I use quotations effectively?

35i   How do I write good paraphrases?

35j   How do I write good summaries?

35k   Which verbs can help me weave source material into my sentences?

Chapter 36 MLA Documentation with Case Study

36a   What is MLA style?

36b   What is MLA in-text parenthetical documentation?

36c   What are MLA guidelines for parenthetical documentation?

36d   What are MLA guidelines for a works cited list?

36e   A student’s MLA -style research paper

Chapter 37 APA Documentation with Case Study

37a   What is APA documentation style?

37b  What are APA parenthetical in-text citations?

37c  What are APA guidelines for in-text citations?

37d  What are APA guidelines for writing an abstract?

37e  What are APA guidelines for content notes?

37f  What are APA guidelines for a references list?

37g   What are APA format guidelines for research papers?

37h   a student’s APA-style research paper

Chapter 38 Chicago Manual (CM) and Council of Science Editors (CSE) Documentation

38a   What is CM-style documentation?

38b   What are CM guidelines for bibliographic notes?

38c   What is CSE-style documentation?

38d   What are CSE guidelines for sources on a list of references?

PART SIX   Writing Across the Curriculum - and Beyond

Chapter 39 Comparing the Disciplines

39a   What is writing across the curriculum?

39b   What are primary research and secondary research in the disciplines?

39c   What can help me write assignments in various disciplines?

39d  How do I use documentation in the disciplines?

Chapter 40    Writing About the Humanities and Literature

40a  What are the humanities?

40b   What types of sources do I use in the humanities?

40c   What types of papers do I write in the humanities?

40d   Which documentation style do I use to write about the humanities?

40e   What is literature and why write about it?

40f   What general strategies can help me write about literature?

40g   How do I write different types of papers about literature?

40h   What special rules apply to writing about literature?

40i   sample student essays

Chapter 41  Writing in the Social Sciences and Natural Sciences

41a   What are the social sciences?

41b   What kinds of sources do I use in the social sciences?

41c   What are writing purposes and practices in the social sciences?

41d   What are different types of papers in the social sciences?

41e   What documentation style should I use in the social sciences?

41f   What are the natural sciences?

41g   What are writing purposes and practices in the natural sciences?

41h   What documentation style should I use in the natural sciences?

41i   How do I write different types of papers in the natural sciences?

Chapter 42  Making Presentations and Using Multimedia

42a  What are presentations?

42b  How does my situation focus my presentation?

42c  How do I adapt my message to my audience?

42d  How do I organize my presentation?

42e  How do I research and write a presentation?

42f  How do I incorporate multimedia into my presentation?

42g  How do I plan for multimedia in my presentation?

42h  What presentation styles can I use?

42i  How do I use my voice effectively?

42j  How do I use nonverbal communication?

42k  What can I do to practice for my oral presentation?

42l  How can I overcome stage fright?

42m  How do I make a collaborative presentation?

Chapter 43  Business and Professional Writing

43a  Who writes in the workplace?

43b  What are typical policies concerning business writing?

43c  What are legal considerations concerning business writing?

43d  What are special considerations concerning e-mail?

43e  How do I format and write memos?

43f  How do I write business letters?

43g  How do I prepare a meeting agenda?

43h  How do I write meeting minutes?

43i  How do I write a business report?

43j  How do I write a business proposal?

43k  How do I write a resume?

43l  How do I write a job application letter?

Chapter 44   Writing for the Public

44a  What is public writing?

44b  How can I understand public writing situations?

44c  How do I write reports for the public?

44d   How do I write arguments for my community or decision makers?

44e  What other types of public writing exist?

Chapter 45    Document and Visual Design

45a   What is visual design?

45b   What are basic principles of design?

45c   How do I design with text?

45d   How do I use headings?

45e   How do I use borders?

45f   How do I incorporate graphics?

45g   What is page layout?

Chapter 46 Multimodal Texts and Writing for the Web

46a  What are multimodal texts?

46b  What do I need to know about creating multimodal projects?

46c  What is writing for the web?

46d  How do I create a web site?

46e  How do I write in a blog?

46f  How do I write in a wiki?

46g  How do I create podcasts or videos?

46h  What do I need to know about writing in social networking sites?

Chapter 47 Creating a Writing Portfolio

47a   What is a writing portfolio?

47b   What do I need to collect for a portfolio?

47c   How do I choose works to include in a portfolio?

47d   How do I write a portfolio introduction, reflection, or analysis?

47e   How do I present a paper portfolio?

47f   How do I create a digital portfolio?

PART 7   Writing When English Is Not Your First Language

Chapter 48 Multilingual Students Writing in US Colleges and Universities

48a   How is writing taught in us colleges?

48b   How does my past writing experience affect my writing in English?

48c   How do I know what my instructor expects in my writing?

48d   How do I organize my writing?

48e   How can I use other writers’ work to improve my writing?

48f   What kind of dictionary do I use?

48g   What do I do with my classmates’ and instructor’s comments?

48h   Where do I find strategies for editing my work?

48i   How can I set long-term goals for my writing?

Chapter 49 Handling Sentence-Level Issues in English

49a   How can I improve the grammar and vocabulary in my writing?

49b   How can I improve my sentence structure?

49c   How can I improve my word choice (vocabulary)?

49d   How can I find and correct errors in my own writing?

49e   How can I correct verb form (tense) errors in my writing?

40f   How can I correct my errors in subject-verb agreement?

49g   How can I correct my singular/plural errors?

49h   How can I correct my preposition errors?

49i   What other kinds of errors might I make?

49j   How can I keep track of my most common errors?

49k   How can I improve my proofreading skills?

Chapter 50 Singulars and Plurals

50a  What are count and noncount nouns?

50b   How do I use determiners with singular and plural nouns?

50c   How do I use one of, nouns as adjectives, and states in names or titles?

50d   How do I use nouns with irregular plurals?

Chapter 51 Articles

51a   How do I use a, an, or the with singular count nouns?

51b   How do I use articles with plural nouns and with noncount nouns?

51c   How do I use the with proper nouns and with gerunds?

Chapter 52 Word Order

52a   How do I understand standard and inverted word order in sentences?

52b   How do I understand the placement of adjectives?

52c   How do I understand the placement of adverbs?

Chapter 53 Prepositions

53a  How do I recognize prepositions?

53b  How do I use prepositions with expressions of time and place?

53c  How do I use prepositions in phrasal verbs?

53d  How do I use prepositions with past participles?

53e  How do I use prepositions in expressions?

Chapter 54Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles

54a How do I use gerunds and infinitives as subjects?

54b When do I use a gerund, not an infinitive, as an object?

54c When do I use an infinitive, not a gerund, as an object?

54d How does meaning change when certain verbs are followed by a gerund or an infinitive?

54e  Why is the meaning unchanged whether a gerund or an infinitive follows sense verbs?

54f How do I choose between -ing and -ed forms for adjectives?

Chapter 55 Modal Auxiliary Verbs

55a How do I convey ability, necessity, advisability, possibility, and probability with modals?

55b How do I convey preferences, plans, and past habits with modals?

55c How do I recognize modals in the passive voice?


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