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Single Case Experimental Designs: Strategies for Studying Behavior Change, 3rd Edition

By David H. Barlow, Matthew K. Nock, Michael Hersen

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 26, 2008

Description

Single Case Experimental Designs provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the use of single case experimental designs.   The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive sourcebook on single case experimental designs with practical guidelines for their use in a range of research and clinical settings.  It is suitable for use as a textbook for a course on research methodology or clinical assessment and treatment, or as a desk reference for seasoned researchers and practicing clinicians.


Table of Contents

    Preface                                                                                                                                                ix

    Epigram                                                                                                                                              xi

  1. The Single-case in Basic and Applied Research: A Historical Perspective                    1

            1.1    Introduction    1

            1.2    Beginnings in Experimental Physiology and Psychology    2

            1.3    Origins of the Group Comparison Approach     5

            1.4    Development of Applied Research: The Case Study Method   8

            1.5    Limitations of the Group Comparison Approach    14                                                

            1.6    Alternatives to the Group Comparison Approach    17                                              

            1.7    The Scientist-Practitioner  Split        21                                                                             

            1.8    A Return to the Individual       23                                                                                       

            1.9    The Experimental Analysis of Behavior        29

                                                                           

    2.    General Issues in a Single-case Approach     32                          

                                              

            2.1.   Introduction  32                                                                                                                   

            2.2    Variability       33                                                                                                                    

            2.3    Experimental Analysis of Sources of Variability Through Improvised

                      Designs        39                                                                                                                      

            2.4    Behavior Trends and Intrasubject Averaging    45                                                           

            2.5    Relation of Variability to Generality of Findings   49                                                          

            2.6    Generality of Findings       50                                                                                           

            2.7    Limitations of Group Designs in Establishing Generality of Findings     51

            2.8    Homogenous Groups Versus Replications of a Single-case Experiment      56

            2.9    Applied Research Questions Requiring Alternative Designs        62

            2.10  Blurring the Distinction Between Design Options         64                                              

 

3.        General Procedures in Single-case Research    67                                                                  

 

            3.1    Introduction    67                                                                                                                     

            3.2    Repeated Measurement        68                                                            

            3.3    Choosing a Baseline        71                                                                

            3.4    Changing One Variable at a Time   79                                                                        

            3.5    Reversal and Withdrawal       88                                                                                           

            3.6    Length of Phases      95                                                                                                          

            3.7    Evaluation of Irreversible Procedures     101                                                                        

            3.8    Assessing Response Maintenance        105                                                                           

 

4 .        Assessment Strategies           107                                                                                                        

            by Donald P. Hartman

 

            4.1    Introduction     107                                                                                                                     

            4.2    Selecting Target Behaviors       109                                                                                          

            4.3    Tracking the Target Behavior Using Repeated Measures    110                             

            4.4    Other Assessment Techniques    131                                                                                   

 

5.         Basic A-B-A Withdrawal Designs       140                                                                                          

 

            5.1    Introduction   140                                                                                

            5.2    A-B Design           142                                                                                                                 

            5.3    A-B-A Design      152                                                                                                                   

            5.4    A-B-A-B Design      157                                                                                                            

            5.5    B-A-B Design     166                                                                                                                   

            5.6    A-B-C-B Design    170                                                                                                               

 

6.        Extensions of the A-B-A Design, Uses in Drug Evaluation, and Interaction Design

            Strategies            174                                                                                                                            

 

            6.1    Extensions and Variations of the A-B-A Withdrawal Design     174                                      

            6.2    A-B-A-B-A-B Design     175                                                                                                        

            6.3    Comparing Separate Therapeutic Variables, or Treatments     177                                    

            6.4    Parametric Variations of the Basic Therapeutic Procedures A-B-A-B'-B"-B"'    179

            6.5    Drug Evaluations       183                                                                                                              

            6.6    Strategies for Studying Interaction Effects      193                                                                   

            6.7    Changing Criterion Design           205                                                                                         

 

7.        Multiple Baseline Designs          209                                                                                                        

 

            7.1    Introduction     209                                                                                                                         

            7.2    Multiple Baseline Designs       210                                                                                                 

            7.3    Variations of Multiple Baseline Designs        244                                                                        

            7.4    Issues in Drug Evaluation         249                                                                                               

 

8.        Alternating Treatments Design      252                                                                                                  

 

            8.1    Introduction            252                                                                                                                  

            8.2    Procedural Considerations       256                                                                                             

            8.3    Examples of Alternating Treatments Designs     265                                                               

            8.4    Advantages of the Alternating Treatments Design         280                                                   

            8.5    Visual Analysis of the Alternating Treatments Design         281                                             

            8.6    Simultaneous Treatment Design           282                                                                                

 

9.        Statistical Analyses for Single-case Experimental Designs            285                                            

            by Alan E. Kazdin

 

            9.1    Introduction     285                                                                                                                        

            9.2    Special Data Characteristics        287                                                                                          

            9.3    The Role of Statistical Evaluation in Single-Case Research        290                                      

            9.4    Specific Statistical Tests     293                                                                                                    

            9.5    Time Series Analysis          296                                                                                                     

            9.6    Randomization Tests      302                                                                                                        

            9.7    The Rn test of Ranks         312                                                                                                     

            9.8    The Split-Middle Technique      308                                                                                             

            9.9    Evaluations of Statistical Tests: General Issues     319                                                            

            9.10  Conclusions        321                                                                                                                   

 

10.       Beyond the Individual: Replication Procedures       325                                                                     

    

            10.1    Introduction       325                                                                                                                    

            10.2    Direct Replication         326                                                                                                         

            10.3    Systematic Replication        347                                                                                                 

            10.4    Clinical Replication           366                                                                                                    

            10.5    Advantages of Replication of Single-Case Experiments      370                                        

 

Hiwatha Designs an Experiment         372                                                                                                       

References            374                                                                                                                                         

Subject Index         405                                                                                                                                        

Name Index        409                                                                                                                                            

About the Authors        419                                                                                                                                

       

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