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Social Psychology, CourseSmart eTextbook, 11th Edition

By Robert A. Baron, Donn R. Byrne, Nyla R. Branscombe

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jun 21, 2005

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Description

Baron/Byrne/Branscombe's Social Psychology–a text that has motivated students to take social psychology out of the classroom and into their lives for over four decades–has gone through its most major revision to date! Welcoming Nyla Branscombe to the author team has been a key addition to the 11th edition.

This classic text retains the hallmark of its own past success: up-to-date coverage of the quickly evolving subject matter written in a lively manner that has been embraced by hundreds of thousands of students around the world. This book continues to balance its coverage of fundamentals with current research.

Table of Contents

Special Features.

Preface.


Acknowledgments.


About the Authors.


1. The Field of Social Psychology: How We Think about and Interact with Others.

Social Psychology: A Working Definition.

Social Psychology Is Scientific in Nature.

Social Psychology Focuses on the Behavior of Individuals.

Social Psychology Seeks to Understand the Causes of Social Behavior and Social Thought.

Social Psychology: Summing Up.

Social Psychology: It’s Cutting Edge.

Cognition and Behavior: Two Sides of the Same Social Coin.

Social Neuroscience: Where Social Psychology and Neuroscience Meet.

The Role of Implicit (Nonconscious) Processes.

Taking Full Account of Social Diversity.

Answering Questions about Social Behavior and Social Thought: Research Methods in Social

Psychology.

Understanding Research Methods: What’s in It for You.

Systematic Observation: Describing the World around Us.

Correlation: The Search for Relationships.

The Experimental Method: Knowledge through Systematic Intervention.

Interpreting Research Results: The Use of Statistics, and Social Psychologists as Perennial

Skeptics.

The Role of Theory in Social Psychology.

The Quest for Knowledge and Rights of Individuals: Seeking an Appropriate Balance.

Using This Book: A Fugitive Preface.

Summary and Review of Key Points.

Ideas to Take with You–and Use!

Key Terms.

For More Information.

2. Social Cognition: Thinking about the Social World.

Schemas: Mental Frameworks for Organizing–and Using–Social Information.

The Impact of Schemas on Social Cognition: Attention, Encoding, Retrieval.

The Self-Confirming Nature of Schemas: When–and Why–Beliefs Shape Reality.

Heuristics and Automatic Processing: How We Reduce Our Effort in Social Cognition.

Representativeness: Judging by Resemblance.

Availability: “If I Can Think of It, It Must Be Important.”

Anchoring and Adjustment: Where You Begin Makes a Difference.

Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Unsafe at Any Size?

Automatic Processing in Social Thought: Saving Effort–But at a Cost!

Controlled versus Automatic Processing in Evaluating the Social World: Evidence from Social

Neuroscience.

Potential Sources of Error in Social Cognition: Why Total Rationality is Rarer than You Think.

Negativity Bias: The Tendency to Pay Extra Attention to Negative Information.

The Optimistic Bias: Our Tendency to See the World through Rose-Colored Glasses.

Counterfactual Thinking: The Effects of Considering What Might Have Been.

Thought Suppression: Why Efforts to Avoid Thinking Certain Thoughts Sometimes Backfire.

Limits on Our Ability to Reason about the Social World: Magical Thinking and Ignoring

Moderating Variables.

Social Cognition: Some Words of Optimism.

Affect and Cognition: How Feelings Shape Thought and Thought Shapes Feelings.

The Influence of Affect on Cognition.

The Influence of Cognition on Affect.

The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Is Being in a Good Mood

Always a Plus?

The Potential Downside of Feeling “Up”.

Summary and Review of Key Points.

Connections.

Ideas to Take with You–and Use!

Key Terms.

For More Information.

3. Social Perception: Perceiving and Understanding Others.

Nonverbal Communication: The Language of Expressions, Gazes, and Gestures.

Nonverbal Communication: The Basic Channels.

Recognizing Deception: The Role of Nonverbal Cues.

The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Does “Women’s Intuition”

Exist? And If So, Is It Based on the Ability to Use and Interpret Nonverbal Cues?

Attribution: Understanding the Causes of Others’ Behavior.

Theories of Attribution: Frameworks for Understanding How We Attempt to Make Sense of the

Social World.

Attribution: Some Basic Sources of Error.

Applications of Attribution Theory: Insights and Interventions.

Impression Formation and Impression Management: How We Integrate Social Information.

A True Classic in Social Psychology: Asch’s Research on Central and Peripheral Traits.

Implicit Personality Theories: Schemas that Shape First Impressions.

Impression Formation: A Cognitive Perspective.

Other Aspects of Impression Formation: The Nature of First Impressions and Our Motives for Forming Them.

Impression Management: The Fine Art of Looking Good.

Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–First Impressions on the Run: Speed

Dating.

Summary and Review of Key Points.

Connections.

Ideas to Take with You–and Use!

Key Terms.

For More Information.

4. Attitudes: Evaluating the Social World.

Attitude Formation: How Attitudes Develop.

Social Learning: Acquiring Attitudes from Others.

Classical Conditioning: Learning Based on Association.

Instrumental Conditioning: Rewards for the “Right” Views.

Observational Learning: Learning by Example.

Role of Social Comparison.

Attitude Functions: Why We Form Attitudes in the First Place.

The Knowledge Function of Attitudes.

The Identity Function of Attitudes.

The Self-Esteem Function of Attitudes.

The Ego-Defensive Function of Attitudes.

The Impression Motivation Function of Attitudes.

Role of the Social Context in the Link between Attitudes and Behavior.

When and Why Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?

Situational Constraints that Affect Attitude Expression.

Strength of Attitudes.

Attitude Extremity.

Role of Personal Experience.

How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior?

Attitudes Based on Reasoned Thought.

Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavioral Reactions.

The Fine Art of Persuasion: How Attitudes Are Changed.

Persuasion: Communicators and Audiences.

The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Fear Appeals: Do They

Really Work?

The Cognitive Processes Underlying Persuasion.

Resisting Persuasion Attempts.

Reactance: Protecting Our Personal Freedom.

Forewarning: Prior Knowledge of Persuasive Intent.

Selective Avoidance of Persuasion Attempts.

Actively Defending Our Attitudes: Counterarguing against the Competition.

Inoculation against “Bad Ideas”.

Cognitive Dissonance: What It Is and How We Reduce It.

Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–How TV Affects Attitudes toward Same

Sex Marriage: The Will & Grace Effect.

Is Dissonance Really Unpleasant?

Is Dissonance a Universal Human Experience?

Dissonance and Attitude Change: The Effects of Induced or Forced Compliance.

When Dissonance Is a Tool for Beneficial Changes in Behavior.

Summary and Review of Key Points.

Connections.

Ideas to Take with You–and Use!

Key Terms.

For More Information.

5. The Self: Understanding “Who Am I?”

Thinking about the Self: Personal versus Social Identity.

Who I Am Depends on the Situation.

Who I Am Depends on Others’ Treatment.

Self-Awareness: Terror Management.

Possible Selves: The Self over Time.

Self-Esteem: Attitudes toward the Self.

The Measurement of Self-Esteem.

Self-Serving Biases.

Is High Self-Esteem Always Positive?

Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–When Complaining Runs Headlong into

Self-Serving Biases.

Do Women and Men Differ in Their Levels of Self-Esteem?

Social Comparison: Knowing the Self.

Self-Presentation and Self-Regulation.

The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Is Looking Inwardly the

Best Route to Self-Insight?

The Self as Target of Prejudice.

Emotional Consequences: How Well-Being Can Suffer.

Cognitive Consequences: Performance Deficits.

Behavioral Consequences: Stereotype Threat.

Summary and Review of Key Points.

Connections.

Ideas to Take with You–and Use!

Key Terms.

For More Information.

6. Prejudice: Its Causes, Effects, and Cures.

The Nature and Origins of Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

Stereotyping: Beliefs about Social Groups.

The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Shifting Standards: Does

No Difference in Evaluations Indicate No Difference in Meaning?

Why Do People Form and Use Stereotypes?
Prejudice and Discrimination: Feelings and Actions toward Social Groups.
The Origins of Prejudice: Contrasting Perspectives.
Discrimination: Prejudice in Action.
Consequences of Exposure to Others’ Prejudice.
Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Reactions to the Harmful Actions of Members of Our Own National Group.
Why Prejudice Is Not Inevitable: Techniques for Countering Its Effects.
On Learning Not to Hate.
The Potential Benefits of Contact.
Recategorization: Changing the Boundaries.
The Benefits of Guilt for Prejudice Reduction.
Can We Learn to “Just Say No” to Stereotypes?
Social Influence as a Means of Reducing Prejudice.
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Ideas to Take with You–and Use!
Key Terms.

For More Information.

7. Interpersonal Attraction: Meeting, Liking, Becoming Acquainted.

Internal Determinants of Attraction: The Need to Affiliate and the Basic Role of Affect.

The Importance of Affiliation for Human Existence.
Affect as a Basic Response System.
Affect and Attraction.
Additional Implications of the Affect—Attraction Relationship.
External Determinants of Attraction: Proximity and Observable Characteristics.
The Power of Proximity: Unplanned Contacts.
Observable Characteristics: Instant Evaluations.
Beyond The Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Voting for the Candidate Who Looks Like a President.
Interactive Determinants of Attraction: Similarity and Mutual Liking.
Similarity: Birds of a Feather Actually Do Flock Together.
The Science o Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Complementarity: Do Opposites Attract?
Attraction: Progressing from Bits and Pieces to an Overall Picture.

Mutual Evaluations: Reciprocal Liking or Disliking.

Summary and Review of Key Points.

Connections.

Ideas to Take with You–and Use!

Key Terms.

For More Information.

8. Close Relationships: Family, Friends, Lovers, and Spouses.

Interdependent Relationships with Family and Friends versus Loneliness.
Family: Where Relationships and Attachment Styles Begin.
Beyond the Family: Friendships.
Loneliness: Life without Close Relationships.

Romantic Relationships and Falling in Love.
Romance: Moving beyond Friendship.
Selecting a Potential Mate: Different Criteria for Men and Women.
Love: Who Can Explain It? Who Can Tell You Why? Just Maybe, Social Psychologists.
The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Written in the Stars or We Met on the Internet?
Marriage: Happily Ever After–and Otherwise.
Marital Success and Satisfaction: Similarity, Personality, and Sexuality.
Beyond The Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Gay Marriage, Civil Unions, and Family Values.

Love and Marriage: Careers, Parenthood, and Family Composition.
When Relationships Fail: Causes, Preventives, and Consequences.
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Ideas to Take with You–and Use!
Key Terms.
For More Information.

9. Social Influence: Changing Others’ Behavior.

Conformity: Group Influence in Action.
Asch’s Research on Conformity: Social Pressure–The Irresistible Force?
Factors Affecting Conformity: Variables that Determine the Extent to Which We “Go Along”.
Situational Norms: Automaticity in Normative Behavior.
The Bases of Conformity: Why We Often Choose to “Go Along”.
Beyond The Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–The Rocky Road to Social Acceptance?
Resisting Pressures to Conform: Why, Sometimes, We Choose Not to “Go Along”.
The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Do Women and Men Differ in the Tendency to Conform?
Minority Influence: Does the Majority Always Rule?
Compliance: To Ask–Sometimes–Is to Receive.
Compliance: The Underlying Principles.
Tactics Based on Friendship or Liking: Ingratiation.
Tactics Based on Commitment or Consistency: The Foot-in-the-Door and the Lowball.
Tactics Based on Reciprocity: The Door-in-the-Face and the That’s-Not-All Techniques.
Tactics Based on Scarcity: Playing Hard to Get and the Fast-Approaching-Deadline Technique.
Symbolic Social Influence: How We Are Influenced by Others Even When They Are Not There.
Obedience to Authority: Would You Harm an Innocent Stranger if Ordered to Do So?
Obedience in the Laboratory.
Destructive Obedience: Why It Occurs.
Destructive Obedience: Resisting Its Effects.
Social Influence Goes to Work: Influence Tactics in Work Settings.
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Ideas to Take with You–and Use!
Key Terms.
For More Information.

10. Prosocial Behavior: Helping Others.

Responding to an Emergency: Will Bystanders Help?
When a Stranger Is Distressed: Heroism or Apathy?
Five Crucial Steps Determine Helping versus Not Helping.

The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Do More Witnesses to an Emergency Mean that More Help Is Given?
External and Internal Influences on Helping Behavior.
Situational Factors that Enhance or Inhibit Helping.
Emotions and Prosocial Behavior.
Empathy and Other Personality Dispositions Associated with Helping.
Long-Term Commitment to Prosocial Action and the Effects of Being Helped.

Volunteering.
Self-Interest, Moral Integrity, and Moral Hypocrisy.
How Does It Feel to Be Helped?
The Basic Motivation for Engaging in Prosocial Acts.
Empathy—Altruism: It Feels Good to Help Others.
Negative-State Relief: Helping Makes You Feel Less Bad.
Empathic Joy: Helping as an Accomplishment.
Genetic Determinism: Helping as an Adaptive Response.
Beyond The Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Is Helping as Joyful as Eating Ice Cream?
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Ideas to Take with You–and Use!
Key Terms.
For More Information.

11. Aggression: Its Nature, Causes, and Control.

Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression: In Search of the Roots of Violence.
The Role of Biological Factors: From Instincts to the Evolutionary Perspective.
Drive Theories: The Motive to Harm Others.
Modern Theories of Aggression: The Social Learning Perspective and the General Aggression Model.
Causes of Human Aggression: Social, Cultural, Personal, Situational.
Social Causes of Aggression: Frustration, Provocation, and Heightened Arousal.
Exposure to Media Violence: The Effects of Witnessing Aggression.
Violent Pornography: When Sex and Aggression Mix–and Perhaps Explode.

Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Children as Sexual Predators: Does Violent Pornography Play a Role?
Cultural Factors in Aggression: “Cultures of Honor” and Sexual Jealousy.
Personal Causes of Aggression: Type A, Narcissism, Sensation Seeking, and Gender Differences.
Situational Determinants of Aggression: The Effects of High Temperatures and Alcohol Consumption.
Aggression in Long-Term Relationships: Bullying and Workplace Violence.
Bullying: Singling Out Others for Repeated Abuse.
Workplace Violence: Aggression on the Job.
The Prevention and Control of Aggression: Some Useful Techniques.
Punishment: Just Desserts versus Deterrence.
Cognitive Interventions: Apologies and Overcoming Cognitive Deficits.
The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Catharsis: Does Getting It Out of Your System Really Help?
Forgiveness: Compassion Instead of Revenge.
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Ideas to Take with You–and Use!
Key Terms.
For More Information.

12. Groups and Individuals: The Consequences of Belonging.

Groups: Why We Join . . . and Why We Leave Groups: Some Basic Aspects.
The Benefits–and Costs–of Joining.
Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Groups to Die For?
Effects of the Presence of Others: From Task Performance to Behavior in Crowds.
Social Facilitation: Performing in the Presence of Others.
Social Loafing: Letting Others Do the Work.
Deindividuation: Submerged in the Crowd.
Coordination in Groups: Cooperation or Conflict?
Cooperation: Working with Others to Achieve Shared Goals.
Conflict: Its Nature, Causes, and Effects.
Resolving Conflicts: Some Useful Techniques.
Perceived Fairness in Groups: Its Nature and Effects.
Basic Rules for Judging Fairness: Distributive, Procedural, and Transactional Justice.
Factors Affecting Judgments of Fairness.
Reactions to Perceived Unfairness: Tactics for Dealing with Injustice.
Decision Making by Groups: How It Occurs and the Pitfalls It Faces.
The Decision-Making Process: How Groups Attain Consensus.
Potential Dangers of Group Decision Making: Groupthink, Biased Processing, and Restricted Sharing of Information.
The Science of Social Psychology: Making Sense of Common Sense–Are Groups Really Less Likely than Individuals to “Go over the Edge”?
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Ideas to Take with You–and Use!
Key Terms.

For More Information.

A. Social Psychology in Action: Applications to Law and HealthSocial Psychology and the Legal System.

Before the Trial Begins: Effects of Police Interrogation.
Effects of Media Coverage on Perceptions of Defendants.
Eyewitnesses: Are They as Accurate as We’d Like to Believe?
Key Participants in a Trial: Effects of Attorneys, Judges, Defendants, and Jurors.
Social Psychology and Personal Health.
Stress: Its Causes, Effects, and Control.
Personal Characteristics and Health: Hostility, Perfectionism, and Socioeconomic Status.
Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: The Choice Is Ours.
Beyond The Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–Can Being a Happy Person Reduce the Odds of Catching a Cold?
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.
Key Terms.

B. Social Psychology Goes to Work: Applying Social Psychology to Work Settings and Entrepreneurship.

Work-Related Attitudes: The Nature and Effects of Job Satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction: Its Causes.
Job Satisfaction: Its Effects.
Beyond the Headlines: As Social Psychologists See It–When Employees No Longer Care: Effects of Low Job Satisfaction.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Prosocial Behavior at Work.
The Nature of Prosocial Behavior at Work: Some Basic Forms.
Helping at Work: What Factors Affect Its Occurrence?
Leadership: Influence in Group Settings.

Why do Some Persons, but Not Others, Become Leaders?
What Do Leaders Do? Basic Dimensions of Leader Behavior.
Transactional and Transformational Leaders: Different Approaches, Different Effects.
The Social Psychology of Entrepreneurship.
Why Do Some Persons Become Entrepreneurs? The Role of Social, Cognitive, and Personal Factors.
Why Are Some Entrepreneurs More Successful than Others?
Summary and Review of Key Points.
Connections.

Key Terms.

Glossary.


References.

Name Index.

Subject Index.

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Social Psychology, CourseSmart eTextbook, 11th Edition
Format: Safari Book

$75.00 | ISBN-13: 978-0-205-47306-9