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Speech Science: An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition

By Carole T. Ferrand

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 21, 2013

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Description

For courses in speech and hearing science, and anatomy and physiology in the discipline of communication sciences and disorders.

 

Speech Science, 3/e, continues to highlight the close relationship between the scientific study of speech production and perception, and the application of this data to the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders by integrating scientific material on the acoustics, anatomy, and physiology of speech production and perception with state-of-the-art instrumental techniques used in clinical practice.

 

Each chapter presenting theoretical information is followed by a corresponding chapter on clinical application, clearly demonstrating the connections between scientific theory and clinical management of communication disorders. To reinforce this link, case studies and questions in each clinical application chapter help students focus on how scientific principles are applied in clinical contexts.

 

Call-out notes, summary points, and review questions help students consolidate material for improved retention. Schematic illustrations enhance the text and demonstrate anatomical and functional relationships between structures. With this student- and instructor-friendly text, students will find theoretical information meaningful, less intimidating, and more easily accessible.

Table of Contents

Foreword

Preface to Third Edition    

Acknowledgments              

Introduction                                                               

CHAPTER 1: The Nature of Sound

International System of Units

Basic Physics Concepts

     Mass, force, weight, volume, density

     Speed, velocity, momentum, acceleration, inertia

     Elasticity, stiffness

     Work, energy, power, intensity

     Pressure

Overview of Sound

Air

     Air pressure

     Air flow

     Air pressure, volume, and density

Sound: Changes in Air Pressure

     Elasticity, inertia, and friction

     Wave motion of sound

     Mass/spring system

     Simple harmonic motion

     Frequency, period, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude

Pure tones

     Visually depicting sound waves: waveforms

Complex Sounds

     Visually depicting sound waves: spectra

Sound Absorption, Reflection, Refraction, and Diffraction

Constructive and Destructive Interference

Attributes of Sounds

     Frequency and pitch

     Human range of hearing

     Amplitude, intensity, and loudness

     Decibel scale

     Advantages of the decibel scale

     Applications of the decibel scale

Summary

Review Exercises

 

CHAPTER 2: Resonance

Acoustic Resonance

     Tube resonators and standing waves

     Acoustic resonators as filters

     Bandwidth

     Cutoff frequencies

     Resonance curves

     Parameters of a filter

     Types of filters

Vocal Tract Resonance

     Characteristics of the vocal tract resonator

     Source-filter theory of vowel production

     Formant frequencies related to oral and pharyngeal volumes

     Vowel formant frequencies

     F1/F2 plots

Summary

Review Exercises

 

CHAPTER 3: The Articulatory System

Articulators of the Vocal Tract

     Oral cavity

     Lips

     Mandible

     Teeth

          Dental occlusion

     Hard palate

     Soft palate

          Muscles of the velum

          Velopharyngeal closure

     Tongue

          Muscles of the tongue

          Tongue movements for speech and swallowing

     Pharynx

          Muscles of the pharynx

     Nasal cavities

     Valves of the vocal tract

Traditional Classification System of Consonants and Vowels

     Place of articulation of English consonants

     Manner of articulation of English consonants

          Stops

          Fricatives

          Affricates

          Nasals

          Glides

          Liquids

     Voicing

     Vowel classification

Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels and Consonants

     Spectrographic analysis

     Narrowband and wideband spectrograms

     Vowels

     Diphthongs

     Nasals

     Glides

     Liquids

     Stops

          Silent gap

          Release burst

          Voice onset time

          Formant transitions

     Fricatives

     Affricates

The Production of Speech Sounds in Context

     Coarticulation

     Suprasegmentals

          Intonation

          Stress

          Duration

Summary

Review Exercises

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4:Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders Related to Articulation

Kinematic Measures of Articulatory Variables

     Cineradiography

     Strain gauge

     X-ray microbeam

     Ultrasound

     Electropalatography and glossography

     Magnetic resonance imaging

     Electromagnetic articulography

Articulation and Intelligibility

Dysarthria/Apraxia

     Acoustic measures

          Vowel formant analysis

          Spectral analysis of consonants

     Kinematic measures

          Cineradiography

          Strain gauge

          Electropalatography

          Electromagnetic articulography

Hearing Impairment

     Acoustic measures

     Kinematic measures

          Electropalatography and glossography

     Cochlear implantation

          Acoustic measures

          Kinematic measures

Phonological/Articulatory Disorders

     Acoustic measures

     Kinematic measures

          Ultrasound

          Electropalatography

Cleft Palate

Summary

Review Exercises

Integrative Case Studies

 

CHAPTER 5:The Phonatory system

Laryngeal Skeleton

     Bones and cartilages

     Joints of the larynx

Valves within the Larynx

     Aryepiglottic folds

     False vocal folds

     True vocal folds

     Cover-body model

     Glottis

Muscles of the Larynx

     Extrinsic muscles

     Intrinsic muscles

Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation

     Mucosal wave

     Phonation threshold pressure

     Glottal spectrum

     Harmonic spacing

     Nearly periodic nature of the human voice

Vocal Quality

     Normal vocal quality

     Abnormal vocal qualities

          Breathy voice

          Rough/hoarse voice

Vocal Registers

     Physiological and acoustic characteristics of modal, pulse, and falsetto registers

     Use of different registers in singing and speaking

Acoustic Measures of Phonatory Variables

     Frequency and intensity variables

          Average fundamental frequency

          Frequency variability

          Maximum phonation frequency range

     Voice amplitude/intensity

          Average amplitude level

          Amplitude variability

          Dynamic range

          Voice range profile

     Perturbation measures

     Noise measures

Summary

Review Exercises

 

CHAPTER 6: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Phonatory Disorders

Electroglottography

     EGG and registers

     EGG slope quotients

Endoscopy and Videostroboscopy

High speed Digital Imaging

Videokymography

Advantages of Acoustic and Visual Analysis of Phonatory Function

Laryngeal Aging

     Acoustic changes over the lifespan

Neurological Disorders

     Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

     Parkinson’s disease

     Unilateral vocal fold paresis/paralysis

     Spasmodic dysphonia

     Paradoxical vocal fold motion

     Benign mucosal lesions, muscle tension dysphonia, and/or GERD

Laryngeal Cancer

Hearing Impairment

Transsexual Voice

Summary

Review Exercises

Integrative Case Studies

 

CHAPTER 7: The Respiratory System

Pulmonary Apparatus

     Bronchial tree

     Chest wall

Muscles of Respiration

     Accessory muscles of respiration

     Muscles of the abdomen

Pleural Linkage

Moving Air Into and Out of the Lungs

     Inhalation

     Exhalation

     Rate of breathing

Lung Volumes and Capacities

     Resting expiratory level

     Lung volumes

          Tidal volume

          Inspiratory reserve volume

          Expiratory reserve volume

          Residual volume

          Dead air

     Lung capacities

          Vital capacity

          Functional residual capacity

          Inspiratory capacity

          Total lung capacity

Differences between Breathing for Life and Breathing for Speech

     Location of air intake

     Ratio of time for inhalation versus exhalation

     Volume of air inhaled and exhaled per cycle

     Muscle activity for exhalation

     Chest wall shape

Speech Breathing for Isolated Vowels and Connected Speech

     Breathing patterns for speech

     Changes in speech breathing over the lifespan

     Features of speech breathing in children

     Features of speech breathing in older adults

Summary

Review Exercises

 

CHAPTER 8: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Respiratory Disorders

Measurement of Respiratory Variables

     Pulmonary function testing

     Respiratory kinematic analysis

          Plethysmography

          Linearized magnetometers

     Air pressures

     Airflow

Respiratory Function and Speech Production

     Classification of respiratory problems

     Symptoms of respiratory disorders

Principles of Clinical Management of Speech Breathing Disorders

     Neurological disorders

          Parkinson’s disease

          Cerebellar disease

          Cervical spinal cord injury

          Cerebral palsy

     Mechanical ventilation

     Voice disorders

     Asthma

     Paradoxical vocal fold motion

Summary

Review Exercises

Integrative Case Studies

 

CHAPTER 9: The Auditory System

Outer Ear

Tympanic Membrane

Middle Ear

     Eustachian tube

     Ossicles

     Muscles

     Functions of the middle ear

Inner Ear

     Cochlea

     Basilar membrane

     Cochlear function

Perception of Speech

     Segmentation problem

     The role of redundancy in speech perception

     Instrumental analysis of vowel and consonant perception

Perception of Vowels and Diphthongs

     Diphthongs

Consonants

     Categorical perception

     Multiple acoustic cues

     Influence of coarticulation

Perception of Consonants

     Liquids
     Glides

     Nasals

     Stops

     Fricatives

     Affricates

Hearing Loss

     Hearing loss and speech perception

Summary

Review Exercises

 

CHAPTER 10:Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders Related to Hearing Impairment

Measurement of Auditory Variables

     Immittance audiometry

     Tympanometry

          Tympanometric procedures

          Tympanogram shapes

          Advantages of tympanometry

     Static-acoustic middle ear admittance

     Acoustic reflex testing

     Otoacoustic emissions testing

          Spontaneous and evoked otoacoustic emissions

     Auditory brainstem response testing

Evaluation of Speech Perception

Cochlear Implants

     Training for cochlear implant users

Otitis Media and Speech Perception

Language and Reading Disability and Speech Perception

Articulatory Problems and Speech Perception

Summary

Review Exercises

Integrative Case Study

 

CHAPTER 11: The Nervous System

Brain tissue

     Glial cells

     Neurons

          Types of neurons

          Sensory receptors

          Neuronal function

          Conduction velocity

Central and Peripheral Nervous System

     Central nervous system

     Meninges

     Ventricles

     Functional brain anatomy

     Cortex

     Lobes of the brain

          Frontal lobe

          Parietal lobes

          Temporal lobes

          Occipital lobe

          Limbic lobe

     Cortical connections

          Commissural fibers

          Association fibers

          Projection fibers

Subcortical Areas of the Brain

     Basal nuclei

     Thalamus

     Hypothalamus

Brainstem

     Midbrain

     Pons

     Medulla

Cerebellum

Spinal Cord

     Spinal nerves

Cranial Nerves

     CN V: Trigeminal

     CN VII: Facial

     CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear

     CN IX: Glossopharyngeal

     CN X: Vagus

     CN XII: Hypoglossal

Blood Supply to the Brain

The Language Zone

Motor Control Systems Involved in Speech Production

     Motor cortex

     Upper and lower motor neurons

     Direct and indirect systems

     Motor units

Principles of Motor Control

     Feedback and feedforward

     Efference copy

Summary

Review Exercises

 

CHAPTER 12: Clinical Application: Brain Imaging in the Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders of the Nervous System

Techniques for Imaging Brain Structure

     Computerized tomography

     Magnetic resonance imaging

Techniques for Imaging Brain Function

     Functional magnetic resonance imaging

     Positron emission tomography

     Single photon emission computerized tomography

     Electroencephalography and evoked potentials

     Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Use of Brain Imaging Techniques in Communication Disorders

     Stuttering

     Stroke

     Parkinson’s disease

     Multiple sclerosis

     Alzheimer’s disease

Summary

Review Exercises

Integrative Case Study

 

CHAPTER 13: Models and Theories of Speech Production and Perception

Models

Theories

Speech Production

     Spatial and articulatory target models

     Feedback and feedforward models

     The DIVA model

     Action theory

Speech Perception

     Motor theory

Summary

Review Exercises

 

 Glossary                                                                    

References          

Index    

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Speech Science: An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook, 3rd Edition
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$67.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-291109-2