## Description

**Statistical Reasoning for Everyday Life, Fourth Edition**, provides students with a clear understanding of statistical concepts and ideas so they can become better critical thinkers and decision makers, whether they decide to start a business, plan for their financial future, or just watch the news. The authors bring statistics to life by applying statistical concepts to the real world situations, taken from news sources, the internet, and individual experiences.

## Table of Contents

Preface

Supplements

To the Student: How to Succeed in Your Statistics Course

Applications Index

**1. Speaking of Statistics**

1.1 What Is/Are Statistics?

1.2 Sampling

1.3 Types of Statistical Studies

1.4 Should You Believe a Statistical Study?

Focus on Psychology: Are You Driving "Drunk" on Your Cell Phone?

Focus on Public Health: Is Your Lifestyle Healthy?

**2. Measurement in Statistics**

2.1 Data Types and Levels of Measurement

2.2 Dealing with Errors

2.3 Uses of Percentages in Statistics

2.4 Index Numbers

Using Technology: Inflation Calculator

Focus on Politics: Who Benefited Most from Lower Tax Rates?

Focus on Economics: Can a Redefined CPI Help Solve the Budget Crisis?

**3. Visual Displays of Data**

3.1 Frequency Tables

Using Technology: Frequency Tables

3.2 Picturing Distributions of Data

Using Technology: Bar Graphs

Using Technology: Pie Charts

Using Technology: Line Charts and Histograms

3.3 Graphics in the Media

Using Technology: Graphs with Multiple Data Sets

3.4 A Few Cautions About Graphics

Focus on History: Can War Be Described with a Graph?

Focus on Environment: Are We Changing Earth's Atmosphere?

**4. Describing Data**

4.1 What Is Average?

Using Technology: Mean, Median, and Mode

4.2 Shapes of Distributions

4.3 Measures of Variation

Using Technology: Boxplots

Using Technology: Standard Deviation

4.4 Statistical Paradoxes

Focus on the Stock Market: What's Average About the Dow?

Focus on Economics: Are the Rich Getting Richer?

**5. A Normal World**

5.1 What Is Normal?

5.2 Properties of the Normal Distribution

Using Technology: Standard Scores in Excel

Using Technology: Standard Scores and Percentiles

5.3 The Central Limit Theorem

Focus on Education: What Can We Learn from SAT Trends?

Focus on Psychology: Are We Smarter than Our Parents?

**6. Probability in Statistics**

6.1 The Role of Probability in Statistics: Statistical Significance

6.2 Basics of Probability

6.3 The Law of Large Numbers

6.4 Ideas of Risk and Life Expectancy

6.5 Combining Probabilities (Supplementary Section)

Focus on Social Science: Do Lotteries Harm the Poor?

Focus on Law: Is DNA Fingerprinting Reliable?

**7. Correlation and Causality**

7.1 Seeking Correlation

Using Technology: Scatterplots and Correlation Coefficients

7.2 Interpreting Correlations

7.3 Best-Fit Lines and Prediction

7.4 The Search for Causality

Focus on Education: What Helps Children Learn to Read?

Focus on Environment: What Is Causing Global Warming?

**8. From Samples to Populations**

8.1 Sampling Distributions

8.2 Estimating Population Means

Using Technology: Confidence Interval Estimate of a Population Mean

8.3 Estimating Population Proportions

Using Technology: Confidence Interval Estimate of a Population

Proportion

Focus on History: Where Did Statistics Begin?

Focus on Literature: How Many Words Did Shakespeare Know?

**9. Hypothesis Testing**

9.1 Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing

9.2 Hypothesis Tests for Population Means

Using Technology: Hypothesis Test for a Population Mean

9.3 Hypothesis Tests for Population Proportions

Using Technology: Hypothesis Test for a Population Proportion

Focus on Health and Education: Will Your Education Help You Live Longer?

Focus on Agriculture: Are Genetically Modified Foods Safe?

**10. t Tests, Two-Way Tables, and ANOVA**

10.1 *t* Distribution for Inferences about a Mean

Using Technology: The *t* Distribution

10.2 Hypothesis Testing with Two-Way Tables

Using Technology: Hypothesis Testing with Two-Way Tables

10.3 Analysis of Variance (One-Way Anova)

Using Technology: Analysis of Variance

Focus on Criminology: Can You Tell a Fraud When You See One?

Focus on Education: What Can a Fourth-Grader Do with Statistics?

Epilogue: A Perspective on Statistics

Appendix A: *z*-Score Tables

Appendix B: Table of Random Numbers

Suggested Readings

Credits

Glossary

Answers

Index
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