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Systems Engineering and Analysis, 4th Edition

By Benjamin S. Blanchard, Wolter J. Fabrycky

Published by Pearson

Published Date: May 5, 2005

Table of Contents

Part 1                  Introduction to Systems 1

Chapter 1                  System Science and Engineering                  2

1.1 System Definitions and Elements                  3

1.2 A Classification of Systems                  6

1.3 Science and Systems Science    8

1.4 Technology and Technical Systems 11

1.5 Transition to the Systems Age         14

1.6 Systems Engineering                  17

1.7 Summary and Extensions                  19

Questions and Problems                  21

  Chapter 2                  Bringing Systems Into Being      22

2.1 The Engineered System    23

2.2 System Life-Cycle Engineering                  26

2.3 The Systems Engineering Process   30

2.4 System Design Considerations             32

2.5 System Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation                  38

2.6 Implementing Systems Engineering                  44

2.7 A Generic System Example                  49

2.8 Summary and Extensions                  50

Questions and Problems                  51

 

Part 2      The System Design Process   53

Chapter 3                  Conceptual System Design    54

3.1 Problem Definition and Need Identification                  55

3.2 Advanced System Planning                  56

3.3 System Feasibility Analysis                  58

3.4 System Operational Requirements               59

3.5 Maintenance and Support Concept 69

3.6 Technical Performance Measures                  75

3.7 Functional Analysis and Allocation                  78

3.8 System Trade-off Analyses                  86

3.9 System Specification                  86

3.10 Conceptual Design Review   89

3.11 Summary and Extensions                  90

Questions and Problems                  91

  Chapter 4                  Preliminary System Design    93

4.1 Subsystem Design Requirements               94

4.2 Development, Product, Process, and Material Specifications               94

4.3 Functional Analysis and Allocation (Subsystem)                  96

4.4 Detailed Design Requirements               103

4.5 Engineering Design Tools and Technologies                  107

4.6 Trade-off Studies and Design Definition                  111

4.7 Design Review, Evaluation, and Feedback                  111

4.8 Summary and Extensions                  116

Questions and Problems                  117

  Chapter 5                  Detail Design and Development               119

5.1 Detail Design Requirements               120

5.2 Design Engineering Activities                  121

5.3 Integrating System Elements and Activities                  123

5.4 Design Tools and AIDS                  126

5.5 Design Data, Information, and Integration                  128

5.6 Development of Engineering Models   130

5.7 System Prototype Development               133

5.8 Design Review, Evaluation, and Feedback                  133

5.9 Incorporation of Design Changes                  137

5.10 Summary and Extensions                  138

Questions and Problems                  140

  Chapter 6                  System Test, Evaluation, and Validation                  142

6.1 Requirements for System Test, Evaluation, and Validation                  143

6.2 Categories of System Test and Evaluation                  146

6.3 Planning for System Test and Evaluation                  149

6.4 Preparation for System Test and Evaluation                  152

6.5 Conducting System Test, Data Collection, and Test Reporting                  154

6.6 System Modifications               155

6.7 Summary and Extensions                  158

Questions and Problems                  159

 

Part 3                  Systems Analysis and Design Evaluation                  160

Chapter 7                  Alternatives and Models in Decision Making 162

7.1 Alternatives in Decision Making   163

7.2 Models in Decision Making   164

7.3 Decision Evaluation Theory    169

7.4 Decisions Involving Multiple Criteria   173

7.5 The Decision Evaluation Display   180

7.6 Decisions Under Risk and Uncertainty                  182

7.7 Summary and Extensions                  192

Questions and Problems                  194

  Chapter 8                  Models for Economic Evaluation                  199

8.1 Interest and Interest Formulas                  200

8.2 Determining Economic Equivalence                  205

8.3 Evaluating a Single Alternative                  209

8.4 Evaluating Multiple Alternatives                  217

8.5 Evaluation Involving Multiple Criteria   219

8.6 Multiple Alternatives with Multiple Futures   221

8.7 Break-Even Economic Evaluations                  224

8.8 Break-Even Evaluation Under Risk                  230

8.9 Summary and Extensions                  231

Questions and Problems                  232

  Chapter 9                  Optimization in Design and Operations                  236

9.1 Classical Optimization Theory    237

9.2 Unconstrained Classical Optimization                  244

9.3 Constrained Classical Optimization                  266

9.4 Optimization Involving Multiple Criteria   271

9.5 Constrained Optimization by Linear Programming              273

9.6 Summary and Extensions                  282

Questions and Problems                  284

  Chapter 10                  Queuing Theory and Analysis                  289

10.1 The Queuing System    290

10.2 Monte Carlo Analysis of Queuing                  293

10.3 Single-Channel Queuing Models   297

10.4 Multiple-Channel Queuing Models   307

10.5 Queuing with Nonexponential Service                  309

10.6 Finite Population Queuing Models   312

10.7 Summary and Extensions                  320

            Questions and Problems                  322

  Chapter 11                  Control Concepts and Methods                  325

11.1 Some Basic Control Concepts                  326

11.2 Statistical Process Control   328

11.3 Optimum Policy Control   340

11.4 Project Control with CPM and PERT      343

11.5 Total Quality Control Methods                  354

11.6 Summary and Extensions                  360

Questions and Problems                  361

 

Part 4                  Design for Operational Feasibility                  367

Chapter 12                  Design for Reliability                  369

12.1 Definition and Explanation of Reliability                  370

12.2 Measures of Reliability                  371

12.3 Reliability in the System Life Cycle                  382

12.4 Reliability Analysis Methods                  394

12.5 Reliability Test and Evaluation                  405

12.6 Summary and Extensions                  413

Questions and Problems                  414

  Chapter 13                  Design for Maintainability            418

13.1 Definition and Explanation of Maintainability             419

13.2 Measures of Maintainability             420

13.3 Availability and Effectiveness Measures                  434

13.4 Maintainability in the System Life Cycle       437

13.5 Maintainability Analysis Methods                  445

13.6 Maintainability Demonstration            467

13.7 Summary and Extensions                  474

Questions and Problems                  475

  Chapter 14                  Design for Usability (Human Factors)   479

14.1 Definition and Explanation of Human Factors    480

14.2 The Measures in Human Factors    493

14.3 Human Factors in the System Life Cycle       494

14.4 Human Factors Analysis Methods                  499

14.5 Personnel and Training Requirements               505

14.6 Personnel test and Evaluation                  507

14.7 Summary and Extensions                  507

Questions and Problems                  508

  Chapter 15                  Design for Supportability (Serviceability)             510

15.1 Definition and Explanation of Logistics and Supportability              511

15.2 The Elements of Logistics and System Support 516

15.3 The Measures of Logistics and Supportability              519

15.4 Logistics and Maintenance Support in the System Life Cycle                  538

15.5 Supportability Analysis (SA)         545

15.6 Supportability Test and Evaluation                  547

15.7 Summary and Extensions                  550

            Questions and Problems                  552

  Chapter 16                  Design for Producibility and Disposability              554

16.1 Introduction to Producibility and Disposability                  555

16.2 Producibility and Disposability in the System Life Cycle                  558

16.3 Design for Producibility and Manufacturability       562

16.4 Modeling Manufacturing Progress                  566

16.5 Design for Disposability                  570

16.6 A Life Cycle Value-Cost Diagram                  572

16.7 Summary and Extensions                  574

Questions and Problems                  577

  Chapter 17                  Design for Affordability (Life-cycle Costing)                  578

17.1 Introduction to Life-Cycle Costing   579

17.2 Cost Considerations in the System Life Cycle       582

17.3 The Generic Life-Cycle Costing Process   587

17.4 Life-Cycle Costing by Money Flow Modeling                  606

17.5 Life-Cycle Costing by Economic Optimization                  632

17.6 Applications and Benefits of Life-Cycle Costing   645

17.7 Summary and Extensions                  647

Questions and Problems                  649

 

Part 5                  Systems Engineering Management                  657

Chapter 18                  Systems Engineering Planning and Organization                  659

18.1 Systems Engineering Program Planning                  660

18.2 Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)                  660

18.3 Organization for Systems Engineering                  678

18.4 Summary and Extensions                  691

Questions and Problems                  692

  Chapter 19                  Program Management, Control, and Evaluation                  694

19.1 Organizational Goals and Objectives                  695

19.2 Outsourcing and the Identification of Suppliers                  696

19.3 Program Leadership and Direction                  698

19.4 Program Evaluation and Feedback                  701

19.5 Risk Management                  710

19.6 Summary and Extensions                  712

Questions and Problems                  713

 

Part 6                  Appendices                  715

Appendix A                  Functional Analysis                  716

A.1 Functional Flow Block Diagrams                  716

A.2 Some Examples of Application                  718

  Appendix B                  Design and Management Checklists                  726

B.1 Design Review Checklist                  727

B.2 Management Review Checklist                  728

  Appendix C                  Probability Theory and Analysis                  732

C.1 Probability Concepts and Theory                  732

C.2 Probability Distribution Models   735

C.3 Monte Carlo Analysis                  744

  Appendix D                  Probability and Statistical Tables    747

Table D.1 Random Rectangular Variates 747

Table D.2 Cumulative Poisson Probabilities                  747

Table D.3 Cumulative Normal Probabilities                  747

  Appendix E  Interest Factor Tables    755

Tables E.1 to E.10 Interest Factors for Annual Compounding              755

  Appendix F                  Finite Queuing Tables    766

Table F.1 to F.3 Finite Queuing Factors    766

  Appendix G                  Selected Bibliography              774

G.1 Systems, Systems Analysis, and Systems Engineering                  774

G.2 Concurrent and Simultaneous Engineering                  776

G.3 Software and Computer-Aided Systems 776

G.4 Reliability Engineering                  777

G.5 Maintainability Engineering and Maintenance                  777

G.6 Human Factors and Safety Engineering                  778

G.7 Production, Manufacturing, Quality Control and Assurance                  778

G.8 Logistics, Supply Chain Management, and Supportability              780

G.9 Operations Research and Operations Management                  781

G.10 Engineering Economy and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis                  781

G.11 Management and Supporting Areas      782

 

Appendix H                  Selected Web Sites        783

Index

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