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Teaching and Learning K-8: A Guide to Methods and Resources, CourseSmart eTextbook, 9th Edition

By Richard D. Kellough, John D. Jarolimek

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Dec 20, 2007

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Description

 

For General Elementary Methods courses.

Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School is built on the most current research and "best" practice. It thoroughly examines all of the fundamental teaching skill categories - planning for instruction, assessing student learning, grouping for instruction, and creating a safe and effective learning environment - while constantly reinforcing the idea that effective elementary school teaching requires continual, thoughtful, and reflective decision-making. In this popular volume, three well-known authors paint a realistic portrait of elementary school teaching as a call to motivate, to encourage, to simulate, to build self-esteem, and to care for elementary school children.

 

Table of Contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Elementary School Teaching Today: An Overview of Influences and Challenges

Chapter 2

The Teacher’s Professional Responsibilities

Chapter 3

Developing Thinking and Questioning Skills

Chapter 4

Planning and Managing the Classroom Learning Environment

Chapter 5

Planning the Curriculum

Chapter 6

Planning the Instruction

Chapter 7

Assessing and Evaluating Student Performance

Chapter 8

Organizing and Grouping Children for Quality Learning

Chapter 9

Additional Strategies and Strategy Integration

 

Glossary

References

Index

 
 

DETAILED CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING TODAY: AN OVERVIEW OF INFLUENCES AND CHALLENGES

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

FUNDAMENTAL PURPOSES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

      Literacy

      Citizenship Education

      Personal Development

      Quality Education for Each and Every Child

DIVERSITY IN THE CLASSROOM

FAMILY LIFE

SOCIOECONOMIC INFLUENCES

EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY

      Student Rights

Activity 1.1 Teach but Don’t Touch

      Learning Styles

      Race and Racism

      Gender Equity

      Inclusion

      Newcomers to the English Language

      School Choice and Organizational Change

      Grade-Level Organization

      The Graded School Concept

Activity 1.2 Graded vs. Nongraded School: Study, Debate, and Vote

CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND ACHIEVEMENT TESTING

      Preparing Students for High-Stakes Achievement Testing

SOCIAL TRAGEDIES

      Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): The Threat Continues

      Illicit Drug Use

      Child Abuse and Neglect

      Youth Gangs

      Bullying and Violence

PARENTS, GUARDIANS, AND THE COMMUNITY

Activity 1.3 Neighborhood Violence

SERVICE LEARNING

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 2 THE TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Activity 2.1 Is This a Typical Day for a Fifth-Grade Teacher?

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

THE TEACHER AS A REFLECTIVE DECISION MAKER

      Decision-Making Phases of Instruction

      Reflection, Locus of Control, Sense of Self-Efficacy, and Teacher 
     Responsibility

COMMITMENT AND PROFESSIONALISM

IDENTIFYING AND BUILDING YOUR INSTRUCTIONAL COMPETENCES

      Fundamental Assumptions

      Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification

      Structuring the Learning Environment

      Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability

      Demonstrate Withitness and Overlapping

      Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities

      Modeling Appropriate Behaviors

      Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data

      Creating and Maintaining a Psychologically Safe Environment

      Clarifying Whenever Necessary

      Using Periods of Silence

      Questioning Thoughtfully

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPETENT CLASSROOM TEACHER: AN ANNOTATED LIST

Activity 2.2 Are Teachers Prepared to Deal with the Severe Social and
  Emotional Problems Many Children Bring to School? If Not, Who Is?

SELECTING AND USING MEDIA AND OTHER RESOURCES AND TOOLS FOR INSTRUCTION

Activity 2.3 Is Technology Changing the Role of the Classroom Teacher?

      The Internet

      Professional Journals and Periodicals

      Copying Printed Materials

      The Classroom Writing Board

      The Classroom Bulletin Board

      Community Resources

      Media Tools

      Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools

      Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPING THINKING AND QUESTIONING SKILLS

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

TEACHING THINKING

      Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior

      Direct Teaching for Thinking and Intelligent Behavior

      Direct Teaching of Skills Used in Thinking

DEVELOPING SKILL IN USING QUESTIONS

      Framing and Stating Questions

      Sequencing Questions

      Pacing the Questioning

Activity 3.1 Create a Story

THE TEACHER’S RESPONSES TO STUDENTS

      Passive (Nonjudgmental) Acceptance Response

      Evaluative (Judgmental) Response

Activity 3.2 How Would You Say It?

      Restating and Clarifying

      Probing

      Cueing

SOCRATIC QUESTIONING

QUESTIONS THAT FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PURPOSES

      Procedural Questions

      Questions That Check Literal Comprehension

      Reflective or “Thought” Questions

QUESTIONS FROM STUDENTS

Activity 3.3 And Then You Said . . .

Activity 3.4 And Elliot Eisner Said . . .

      The Question-Driven Classroom

      Questioning: The Cornerstone of Critical Thinking, Real-World Problem
     Solving, and Meaningful Learning

Activity 3.5 Think Time and the Art of Questioning

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 4 PLANNING AND MANAGING THE CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

A VALUES-BASED MANAGEMENT PLAN

A CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

      Classroom Management: Contributions of Leading Experts

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVELY MANAGED CLASSROOM

      Enhancing Mental and Social Development

      Facilitating the Achievement of Instructional Goals

      Providing Boundaries of Intellectual and Physical Freedom

      Thinking in Terms of Procedures Rather Than Rules; Consequences Rather
     Than Punishment

      Developing Skills of Self-Direction and Responsible Involvement

      Working Toward Warm Human Relations

SERIOUSNESS OF PROBLEMS

      Goofing Off

      Disruptions to Learning

      Defiance, Cheating, Lying, and Stealing

      Bullying and Violence

Activity 4.1 Shouldn’t Punishment Fit the Crime?

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

      Minimizing Conflict and Encouraging Harmonious Social Relations

      Resolving Conflicts Immediately, with a Plan for Longer-Range Solutions

      Providing Instruction on Conflict and Conflict Resolution

ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

      Starting the School Term Well

Activity 4.2 My Emerging Plan for Classroom Management

      Schedule and Routines

Activity 4.3 Ms. Badger’s Effort to Empower Children

      Clarity of Directions and Goals

      Physical Arrangements

Activity 4.4 First Day of Spring—What Would You Have Done?

      Transitions

Activity 4.5 What’s Wrong Here?

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 5 PLANNING THE CURRICULUM

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

HELPING CHILDREN MAKE SUCCESSFUL TRANSITIONS

CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION: CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

Activity 5.1 What Really is Being Learned?

      Curriculum Components

PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION: THREE LEVELS

      Teacher-Student Collaborative Planning

      Reasons for Planning

COMPONENTS OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN

CURRICULUM CONTENT SELECTION: DOCUMENTS THAT PROVIDE GUIDANCE

Curriculum Standards

Curriculum Standards and High Stakes Testing

Activity 5.2 Examining Curriculum Documents and Standards

Student Textbooks

Activity 5.3 Examining Student Textbooks and Teacher’s Editions

BEGINNING TO THINK ABOUT THE SEQUENCING OF CONTENT

Activity 5.4 Preparing a Full Semester Content Outline

PREPARING FOR AND DEALING WITH CONTROVERSY

AIMS, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES: THE ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

      Instructional Objectives and Their Relationship to Aligned Curriculum and
     Authentic Assessment

      Learning Targets and Goal Indicators: Meaning of “Quality Learning”

            Overt and Overt Performance Outcomes

      Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism

TEACHING TOWARD MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND APPRECIATIONS: THE
  REALITY OF MODERN CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION

PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECIVES

      Components of a Complete Objective

Activity 5.5 Recognizing Verbs That Are Acceptable for Overt Objectives

Activity 5.6 Recognizing the Parts of Criterion-Referenced Instructional
  Objectives

Activity 5.7 Recognizing Objectives That Are Measurable

      Classifying Instructional Objectives

The Domains Of Learning and the Developmental Characteristics Of Children

      Cognitive Domain Hierarchy

      Affective Domain Hierarchy

      Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy

Activity 5.8 Assessing Recognition of Objectives According to Domain

Activity 5.9 Preparing Instructional Objectives for Use in My Teaching

USING THE TAXONOMIES

      Observing for Connected (Meaningful) Learning: Logs, Portfolios, and
     Journals

      Character Education and the Domains of Learning

LEARNING THAT IS NOT IMMEDIATELY OBSERVABLE

INTEGRATED CURRICULUM

      Level 1 Curriculum Integration

      Level 2 Curriculum Integration

      Level 3 Curriculum Integration

      Level 4 Curriculum Integration

      Level 5 Curriculum Integration

      Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environment

PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION: A THREE-LEVEL AND SEVEN-STEP PROCESS

THE SYLLABUS

      Use and Development of a Syllabus

      Content of a Syllabus

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 6 PLANNING THE INSTRUCTION

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT

      Planning and Developing any Unit of Instruction

      Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Time Duration

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

      Decision Making and Strategy Selection

      Principles of Classroom Instruction and Learning: A Synopsis

      Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge

      Direct versus Indirect Instructional Modes: Strengths and Weaknesses of
     Each

SELECTING LEARNING ACTIVITIES THAT ARE DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE

STYLES OF LEARNING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING

      Learning Modality

      Learning Style

      The Three-Phase Learning Cycle

      Learning Capacities: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES LADDER

      Direct, Simulated, and Vicarious Experiences Help Connect Student Learning

PLANNING AND DEVELOPING AN INTERDISCIPLINARY THEMATIC UNIT

      Specific Guidelines for Developing an ITU

      Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of the ITU

      The Common Thread

      Initiating Activities

      Developmental Activities

      Culminating Activity

PREPARING THE LESSON PLANS: RATIONALE AND ASSUMPTIONS

      Rationale for Preparing Written Plans

      Assumptions About Lesson Planning

      A Continual Process

Activity 6.1 Was This Lesson “Set in Concrete”?

      Making Adjustments as Needed

      The Problem of Time

      The Pressure of Standards-Based and High-Stakes Testing and the Felt Need
     to “Cover” the Prescribed Curriculum

      Caution about “The Weekly Planning Book”

LESSON PLAN CONSTRUCTION: FORMAT, ELEMENTS, AND SAMPLES

      For Guidance, Reflection, and Reference

      Basic Elements of a Lesson Plan

Setting the Learning Objectives

Activity 6.2a Preparing a Lesson Plan

Activity 6.2b Self- and Peer-Assessment of My Lesson Plan
Activity 6.3 Bringing It All Together: Preparing an Instructional Unit

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 7 ASSESSING AND EVALUATING STUDENT PERFORMANCE

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

THE LANGUAGE OF ASSESSMENT

      Evaluation, Assessment, and Measurement

      Authentic and Performance Assessment

      Formative and Summative Assessment

      Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests

      Readiness Testing

      Validity and Reliability

ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF INSTRUCTION

Activity 7.1 Make It Right, Write!

ASSESSMENT IN THE CLASSROOM

      Helping Children Deal with Test Anxiety

STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN ASSESSMENT

      Using Student Portfolios

      Using Checklists and Scoring Rubrics

      Guidelines for Using Portfolios for Instruction and Assessment

DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT AND CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION

      The Teacher as Diagnostician

      Avoid Labeling

      Diagnostic and Corrective Procedures

      What Evidence is There That A Learning Problem Exists?

Activity 7.2 Selecting the Right One

      What Specific Learning Difficulty is the Child Encountering?

      What Level of Corrective Work is Required?

GRADING AND MARKING

      Determining Grades

      Assessment and Grading: Not Synonymous Terms

REPORTING STUDENT PROGRESS IN ACHIEVEMENT

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZING AND GROUPING CHILDREN FOR QUALITY LEARNING

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

MASTERY LEARNING AND PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION

      Today’s Emphasis: Quality Learning for Every Child

      Assumptions about Mastery, or Quality, Learning

      Elements of Any Mastery Learning Model: The Cycle of Teaching

      Strategies for Personalizing the Instruction Now!

ACCOMMODATING STUDENT DIFFERENCES: RECOGNIZING AND WORKING WITH SPECIFIC
  LEARNERS

      Children with Special Needs

      Children of Diversity and Differences

      Children Who Are Gifted

Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success

      Children Who Take More Time but Are Willing to Try

      Recalcitrant Learners

LEARNING ALONE

Activity 8.1 The Self-Instructional Module

LEARNING IN PAIRS

      The Learning Center

LEARNING IN SMALL GROUPS

      Purposes for Using Small Groups

COOPERATIVE LEARNING

      The Cooperative Learning Group (CLG)

      The Theory and Use of Cooperative Learning

      Roles Within the Cooperative Learning Group

      What Students and the Teacher Do When Using Cooperative Learning Grouops

      When to Use Cooperative Learning Groups

      Cooperative Group Learning, Assessment, and Grading

      Why Some Teachers Experience Difficulty Using CLGs

LEARNING IN LARGE GROUPS

      Student Presentations

      Whole-Class Discussion

Activity 8.2 Whole-Class Discussion as a Teaching Strategy

EQUALITY IN THE CLASSROOM

      Ensuring Equity

Activity 8.3 Teacher Interaction with Students According to Student Gender (or Other Student Difference)

LEARNING FROM ASSIGNMENTS AND HOMEWORK

      Purposes for Assignments

      Guidelines for Using Assignments

      Opportunities for Recovery

      How to Avoid Having So Many Papers to Grade That Time for Effective
     Planning is Restricted

PROJECT-CENTERED LEARNING: GUIDING LEARNING FROM INDEPENDENT AND GROUP
  INVESTIGATIONS, PAPERS, AND ORAL REPORTS

      Values and Purposes of Project-Centered Learning

      Guidelines for Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learning

      Writing as a Required Component of Project-Centered Learning

      Assessing the Final Product

WRITING: EVERY TEACHER’S RESPONSIBILITY

      Kinds of Writing

      Student Journals

A COLLECTION OF ANNOTATED MOTIVATIONAL TEACHING STRATEGIES WITH IDEAS FOR LESSONS, INTERDISCIPLINARY TEACHING, TRANSCULTURAL STUDIES, AND STUDENT PROJECTS

      The Visual and Performing Arts

      English, Languages, and the Language Arts

      Mathematics

      Physical Education

      Science

      Social Studies/History

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

 

CHAPTER 9 ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES AND STRATEGY INTEGRATION

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

TEACHER TALK: FORMAL AND INFORMAL

      Cautions in Using Teacher Talk

      Teacher Talk: General Guidelines

      Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines

DEMONSTRATIONS

      Reasons for Using Demonstrations

      Guidelines for Using Demonstrations

INQUIRY TEACHING AND DISCOVER LEARNING

      Problem Solving

      Inquiry versus Discovery

      True Inquiry

Activity 9.1 Does It Really Matter What It’s Called?

      The Critical Thinking Skills of Discovery and Inquiry

INTEGRATING STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATED LEARNING

Activity 9.2 A Study of Inquiry and Strategy Integration

EDUCATIONAL GAMES

      Classification of Educational Games

      Functions of Educational Games

Activity 9.3 Developing a Lesson Using Inquiry Level II, Thinking Skill Development, a Demonstration, or an Interactive Lecture

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

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Teaching and Learning K-8: A Guide to Methods and Resources, CourseSmart eTextbook, 9th Edition
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