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Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: Motivating All Learners, 5th Edition

By Michael F. Graves, Connie F Juel, Bonnie B. Graves, Peter F Dewitz

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Nov 11, 2010


Informed by the latest research on topics ranging from phonemic awareness and phonics to teaching comprehension strategies, motivation, and assessment, this text provides the knowledge base, skills, and research-based strategies that you need to guide K-8 students successfully toward literacy for the 21st century—using reading and writing for thinking, problem solving, and communicating. Principal themes include balancing phonemic skills with more holistic approaches; fostering the love of reading; and successfully teaching all students to become able and eager readers.


  • Motivating Struggling Readers features provide real-life examples of research-based strategies in action that help make reading exciting for all learners.
  • Motivating Children with Technology features provide access to technological resources related to chapter concepts and explain why a technology-based approach can sometimes be more motivating for students than a traditional approach.
  • Differentiating Instruction for English Language Learners features provide guidance on how to successfully teach English language learners in a classroom of native speakers.

Table of Contents



Preface  xxvii

Acknowledgments  xxxiii

About the Authors  xxxv


The Reading Process  2

The Cognitive-Constructivist View of Reading  2

In the Classroom 1.1       Using Background Knowledge  3

The Cognitive Orientation  3

Schema  4

Constructivism  5

Reader-Response Theory  6

Sociocultural Theory  7

      Reflect and Apply  8

Concepts That Elaborate and Complement the Cognitive-Constructivist View  8

The Interactive Model of Reading  8

Automaticity  9

Fluency  10

Metacognition  11

The Reading Corner        Books to Help Build Automaticity and Fluency in Young Readers  12

      Reflect and Apply  13

The Reading Proficiency of U.S. Students  13

A Response to Current Criticisms  14

Literacy for Today’s and Tomorrow’s World  16

In the Classroom 1.2       Developing Present-Day Literacy in the Sixth Grade  17

      Reflect and Apply  18

A Literacy Curriculum for Today’s and Tomorrow’s World  18

Phonemic Awareness and Other Aspects of Emergent Literacy  19

Phonics and Other Word-Recognition Skills  20

Fluency and Matching Students with Appropriate Texts  20

Vocabulary Learning and Instruction  20

Scaffolding Students’ Comprehension of Text and Higher-Order Thinking  21

Teaching Comprehension Strategies  21

Encouraging Independent Reading and Reader Response  21

Fostering Higher-Order Thinking and Deep Understanding  22

Building Connections  23

      Reflect and Apply  23

An Overview of This Book  23

Chapter-by-Chapter Overview  24

The Components and Organization of the Chapters  24

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   25

Concluding Remarks  26

Extending Learning  26

Children’s Literature  27


Instructional Principles  30

Traditional Instructional Principles  30

The Reading Corner        Informational Books That Give Students Opportunities to Make Critical Responses  31

Focusing on Academically Relevant Tasks  32

Employing Active Teaching  32

Fostering Active Learning  33

In the Classroom 2.1       Actively Engaging Students in Reading and Responding to a Text  33

Distinguishing Between Instruction and Practice  33

Providing Sufficient and Timely Feedback  34

Teaching for Transfer  34

      Reflect and Apply  35

Constructivist and Sociocultural Perspectives on Instruction  35

Scaffolding  36

The Zone of Proximal Development  36

The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model  37

Cognitive Modeling  39

In the Classroom 2.2       Cognitive Modeling  39

Direct Explanation  40

Contextualizing, Reviewing, and Practicing What Is Learned  40

Teaching for Understanding  41

Cooperative Learning  41

      Reflect and Apply  42

A Brief History of Reading Instruction in the United States  42

The Colonial Period and the 19th Century  43

The Heyday of Basal Readers  44

The Challenge to Basal Readers: Whole-Language and Literature-Based Approaches  45

Massive Federal Intervention in Reading  47

Reading Instruction at Its Best  48

      Reflect and Apply  49

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   49

Concluding Remarks  51

Extending Learning  52

Children’s Literature  53


Making Motivation a Top Priority  56

The Critical Importance of Success  56

Creating a Literate Environment  58

Modeling  58

Time  58

The Classroom  60

Materials  60

In the Classroom 3.1       Assessing Students’ Reading Attitudes and Interests  62

Choice  63

The Reading Corner        Books About Food and Families in Many Cultures  65

In the Classroom 3.2       Poetry Browsing to Create Interest  66

Classroom Climate  67

      Reflect and Apply  67

The Importance of Positive Attributions  67

Attribution Theory  68

Learned Helplessness  68

The Importance of Appropriate Challenges  69

In the Classroom 3.3       Providing Both Challenges and Supports  69

Concrete Approaches to Motivating Students  71

Ensuring Student Success  71

In the Classroom 3.4       Creating a Book Review File  72

Promoting Academic Values and Goals  72

Fostering Higher-Order Thinking and Deep Understanding  73

Ensuring Active Participation, Using Cooperative Activities, and Including Variety  74

Making Connections to Students’ Cultures and Lives Outside of School  75

Praising Students, Rewarding Them, and Helping Them Set Goals  76

Factors That Undermine Motivation  76

      Reflect and Apply  77

Nancy Masters, a Superstar at Motivating Students  78

Grouping Students for Instruction  79

In the Classroom 3.5       Primary-Grade Cooperative Learning to Solve Story Problems  82

      Reflect and Apply  83

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   83

Concluding Remarks  84

Extending Learning  86

Children’s Literature  87



By Kathleen M. Wilson and Robert C. Calfee with contributions by Kathleen Clark 

Our Perspective on Assessment  428

An Emphasis on Inquiry  428

Three Themes of Assessment  429

Balanced Assessment  430

Teacher-Based Strategies  431

Features of Contemporary Assessment Methods  431

In the Classroom 4.1       The Roots Project  431

The Roots Project and Assessment  432

Some Answers to Our Opening Questions  434

What Does the Teacher Need to Know, Week by Week, and Why?  434

What About Students?  434

What About Parents?  435

What About Other Teachers?  435

What About the Principal?  436

A Final Word on the Roots Project  436

      Reflect and Apply  436

Assessment as Inquiry  436

Framing the Problem: What Is the Question?  437

Designing a Plan of Action  440

In the Classroom 4.2       Vocabulary Assessment in the Third Grade  440

Collecting Evidence  443

Observing  443

Discussing and Questioning  446

Interviewing  447

In the Classroom 4.3       The Funnel Approach  447

Student Work Samples: Performances and Portfolios  448

Scoring Rubrics  449

Models for Teacher-Made Tests  452

Analyzing and Summarizing the Data: The Teacher Logbook  454

Interpreting: Making Sense of the Results  457

In the Classroom 4.4       Interpreting Evidence in the Sixth Grade  457

In the Classroom 4.5       Collecting More Evidence  458

Reporting and Decision Making  459

      Reflect and Apply  460

Test-Based Strategies  461

Basal Reader Tests  461

Standardized Tests  463

Preparing Students for Standardized Tests  466

In the Classroom 4.6       Using “Simon Says” to Practice Test Taking  468

nReflect and Apply  471

Concluding Remarks  471

Extending Learning  472

Children’s Literature  473



Learning Disabilities  

Environmental Causes  

The Matthew Effect  

Differentiating Instruction in the General Education Classroom

Response to Intervention

In the Classroom 5.1       Differentiating Word Study Instruction

Differentiating Time, Tasks, and Texts

Planning Small-Group Instruction  434

In the Classroom 5.2       Differentiating Comprehension Instruction

In the Classroom 5.3       Planning for Differentiated Small-Group Instruction

In the Classroom 5.4       A Differentiated Historical Fiction Unit


What Does the Teacher Need to Know, Week by Week, and Why?  434

What About Students?  434

What About Parents?  435

What About Other Teachers?  435

What About the Principal?  436


      Reflect and Apply  436

Assessment as Inquiry  436

Framing the Problem: What Is the Question?  437

Designing a Plan of Action  440

In the Classroom 4.2       Vocabulary Assessment in the Third Grade  440

Collecting Evidence  443

Observing  443

Discussing and Questioning  446

Interviewing  447

In the Classroom 4.3       The Funnel Approach  447

Student Work Samples: Performances and Portfolios  448

Scoring Rubrics  449

Models for Teacher-Made Tests  452

Analyzing and Summarizing the Data: The Teacher Logbook  454

Interpreting: Making Sense of the Results  457

In the Classroom 4.4       Interpreting Evidence in the Sixth Grade  457

In the Classroom 4.5       Collecting More Evidence  458

Reporting and Decision Making  459

      Reflect and Apply  460

Test-Based Strategies  461

Basal Reader Tests  461

Standardized Tests  463

Preparing Students for Standardized Tests  466

In the Classroom 4.6       Using “Simon Says” to Practice Test Taking  468

nReflect and Apply  471

Concluding Remarks  471

Extending Learning  472

Children’s Literature  473




Emerging Knowledge About Text Structures  90

In the Classroom 6.1       Using Wordless Picture Books in a Kindergarten Classroom  91

Emerging Knowledge About Word Structures  92

In the Classroom 6.2       Kindergartners and the P Words  93

Phonemic Awareness and Alphabet Recognition  94

What Is Phonemic Awareness?  95

In the Classroom 6.3       Phonemic Awareness (Segmenting and Blending Sounds)  96

Why Do Phonemic Awareness and Alphabet Recognition So Strongly Predict Success in Reading?  96

      Reflect and Apply  97

Learning to Identify Words  97

Some Early Understandings About Print  98

In the Classroom 6.4       Using Letter Puppets to Help Children Understand the Connection Between Phonemes and Letters  99

Connecting Letters and Phonemes  100

Linking Letters and Phonemes: The Alphabetic Principle  100

      Reflect and Apply  102

Instruction That Facilitates Children’s Growing Literacy  102

Creating a Literate Environment  102

Reading Opportunities  103

The Morning Meeting  103

Free “Reading”  104

Selecting Books for Specific Purposes  104

In the Classroom 6.5       Developing Phonemic Awareness  105

Writing Opportunities  106

The Reading Corner        Big Books  107

Journals  107

Language-Experience Activities  108

Shared Reading and Writing Experience  108

In the Classroom 6.6       Reading and Writing Rhymes  109

Making Books  109

Mailboxes  110

Play Centers  110

Listening and Speaking Opportunities  110

Reading Aloud  111

Choral Reading  111

Tape Recordings  111

Sing-Alongs  111

A Kindergarten Scenario -   112

By Jonnie Wolskee

      Reflect and Apply  117

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   117

Concluding Remarks  118

Extending Learning  119

Children’s Literature  121


CHAPTER 7   WORD RECOGNITION with contributions by Kathleen Clark

The Importance of Recognizing Printed Words  124

Why Listening Is Easier Than Reading  125

Shared Background Knowledge  125

Immediate Feedback  125

Visual Cues from the Speaker  125

More Common Words  125

Contextualized Meaning  125

No Translation Needed  126

Skilled Readers Automatically Recognize Words  126

The Structure of Spoken and Printed Words  127

The Makeup of Spoken and Written English  127

Phonemes: Vowels and Consonants  128

Syllables, Onsets, and Rimes  129

Word Families and Phonograms  130

Morphemes  130

Affixes: Prefixes and Suffixes  130

The Alphabetic Principle  132

The Structure of Printed Words: The Good News  133

      Reflect and Apply  134

Our Position on Phonics Instruction and Related Matters  134

Word-Study Instruction  135

Five General Principles of Word-Study Instruction  135

Teaching Children to Recognize Words  137

Getting Started: Sight Words and Word Banks  138

Language Experience  140

Read, Read, Read  140

Teaching Children About Letter-Sound Correspondences  141

Phase 1: Learning the Alphabet, Beginning Word Study, and Initial Blending Instruction  142

The Reading Corner        Alphabet Books  142

In the Classroom 7.1       Alphabet Activities  143

In the Classroom 7.2       Work with Onsets (Initial Consonants)  145

In the Classroom 7.3       Working with the Rime at and Some Individual Phonemes  147

In the Classroom 7.4       Steps in Blending  148

Phase 2: Short Vowels, Final Consonants, Consonant Blends, Consonant Digraphs, and Formal Blending Instruction  149

In the Classroom 7.5       Making New Words  150

In the Classroom 7.6       Word-Study Instruction on Consonant Blends  151

In the Classroom 5.7       What First-Graders Should Know  152

Phase 3: Short Vowels, Long-Vowel Patterns, Multisyllabic Words, and Prefixes and Suffixes  153

In the Classroom 7.8       Short-Vowel Work in the First Grade  154

In the Classroom 7.9       Contrasting Short- and Long-Vowel Patterns  155

In the Classroom 7.10     Multisyllabic Words  157

In the Classroom 7.11     Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes  158

      Reflect and Apply  158

About Reading a Lot  159

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   161

Concluding Remarks  162

Extending Learning  162

Children’s Literature  163



Fluency and Its Importance  172

      Reflect and Apply  174

Approaches to Building Fluency  174

Some Generalizations About Fluency Instruction  174

The Original Method of Repeated Reading  175

In the Classroom 8.1       The Original Method of Repeated Reading  176

Simultaneous Repeated Reading  178

Echo Reading  179

Tape-Assisted Repeated Reading  179

In the Classroom 8.2       Tape-Assisted Repeated Reading  180

Partner Reading  180

In the Classroom 8.3       Partner Reading  181

Choral Reading  181

Readers Theater  182

In the Classroom 8.4       Schedule for a Week of Readers Theater  182

Radio Reading  182

In the Classroom 8.5       Plan for a Radio-Reading Session  183

Fluency-Oriented Oral Reading  184

In the Classroom 8.6       Fluency-Oriented Oral Reading  184

Commercial Fluency Programs  185

Read Naturally Masters Edition  185

Renaissance Learning’s Fluent Reader  186

Wide Reading in Appropriate Texts  186

      Reflect and Apply  187

Assessing Readers’ Fluency  187

In the Classroom 8.7       Procedures for Measuring Rate and Accuracy  188

The Reading Corner        Books to Build Fluency in Developing Readers  191

Choosing Among the Approaches to Fluency  192

Matching Students and Texts  192

Assessing Students’ Reading Proficiency and Motivation  193

In the Classroom 8.8       Constructing an Informal Reading Inventory  193

Assessing Text Difficulty and Accessibility  195

In the Classroom 8.9       Using the Fry Readability Formula  196

Your Personal and Professional Knowledge  198

      Reflect and Apply  199

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   200

Concluding Remarks  201

Extending Learning  202

Children’s Literature  203


The Vocabulary-Learning Task  206

Frequent, Extensive, and Varied Language Experiences  207

In the Classroom 9.1       Interactive Oral Reading as Described by Biemiller  209

      Reflect and Apply  210

Teaching Individual Words  210

Word-Learning Tasks  210

Learning a Basic Vocabulary  210

Learning to Read Known Words  210

Learning New Words That Represent Known Concepts  211

Learning New Words That Represent New Concepts  211

Clarifying and Enriching the Meanings of Known Words  212

Identifying Vocabulary to Teach  212

Methods of Teaching Individual Words  213

Learning a Basic Vocabulary  213

Learning to Read Known Words  215

Learning New Words That Represent Known Concepts  215

In the Classroom 9.2       Two Ways to Introduce New Words Representing Known Concepts  216

Learning New Words That Represent New Concepts  217

In the Classroom 9.3       Introducing New Words That Represent New Concepts  217

Clarifying and Enriching the Meanings of Known Words  217

In the Classroom 9.4       Semantic Mapping and Semantic Feature Analysis  218

      Reflect and Apply  220

Teaching Word-Learning Strategies  220

Using Context Clues  220

In the Classroom 9.5       Balanced Strategies Instruction  221

In the Classroom 9.6       Teaching Context Clues  222

Using Word Parts  222

In the Classroom 9.7       Teaching Prefixes  224

Using the Dictionary  224

      Reflect and Apply  226

Fostering Word Consciousness  226

The Reading Corner        Books About Words and Word Games  227

Modeling and Encouraging Adept Diction  227

Providing Intensive and Expressive Instruction  229

      Reflect and Apply  230

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   230

Concluding Remarks  232

Extending Learning  232

Children’s Literature  233


Instructional Frameworks and Procedures  236

The Roles of Purpose, Selection, and Reader in Planning a Successful Reading Experience  236

Purpose  237

The Function of Purposes  237

Matching Reading Purposes with the Text and the Reader  237

Selection  238

Types of Selections  238

Reader  240

      Reflect and Apply  240

Five Frameworks for Scaffolding Students’ Reading  241

Directed Reading Activity  241

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity  242

In the Classroom 10.1     Phase I of the DR-TA  243

Scaffolded Reading Experience  243

Prereading Activities  244

In the Classroom 10.2     Prereading Activity Relating the Reading to Students’ Lives  246

      Reflect and Apply  247

During-Reading Activities  247

      Reflect and Apply  249

Postreading Activities  249

In the Classroom 10.3     Sample Postreading Questions for Various Types of Thinking  250

In the Classroom 10.4     Students’ Postreading Dramatizations  252

The Reading Corner        Books That Invite Musical Connections  253

      Reflect and Apply  255

Comprehensive SREs  256

Guided Reading  256

Four Blocks  257

Individual Procedures for Fostering Comprehension of Text  258

Procedures for Narratives  259

Story Grammars  259

Story Maps  260

Procedures for Expository Texts  261

K-W-L  261

In the Classroom 10.5     Using K-W-L  262

Reading Guides  263

Procedures Appropriate for All Types of Text  264

Discussion Web  264

Semantic Webbing and Weaving  264

      Reflect and Apply  266

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   266

Concluding Remarks  268

Extending Learning  268

Children’s Literature  269


What Are Comprehension Strategies?  272

Characteristics of Comprehension Strategies  273

Strategies Are Conscious Efforts  273

Strategies Are Flexible  273

Strategies Should Be Applied Only When Appropriate  273

Strategies Are Widely Applicable  273

Strategies Can Be Overt or Covert  274

      Reflect and Apply  274

Key Comprehension Strategies  274

Establishing a Purpose for Reading  275

Using Prior Knowledge  275

Asking and Answering Questions  275

Making Inferences  276

Determining What Is Important  276

Summarizing  277

Dealing with Graphic Information  278

Imaging and Creating Graphic Representations  278

In the Classroom 11.1     Practicing Imaging with First-Graders  278

Being Metacognitive  279

In the Classroom 11.2     Fostering Metacognition  280

      Reflect and Apply  281

The Reading Corner        Books That Illustrate Strategic Behavior  282

A Powerful Approach to Teaching Strategies  282

The First Day’s Instruction on Determining What Is Important  284

Motivation and Interest Building  284

Teacher Explanation  284

Teacher Modeling  285

Large-Group Student Participation and Teacher Mediation  285

The Second Day’s Instruction on Determining What Is Important  287

More Large-Group Student Participation and Teacher Mediation  287

Cooperative Group Work  287

Sharing Group Work and Teacher Response and Mediation  287

Overview of a Unit  288

The Constructive Nature of Good Strategy Instruction  288

Transfer, Review, and Integration Activities  288

      Reflect and Apply  290

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   291

Concluding Remarks  291

Extending Learning  292

Children’s Literature  293


Independent Reading  296

Providing Time to Read  296

Providing a Rich Array of Reading Material, the Incentive to Read, and a Place to Read  297

In the Classroom 12.1     Guidelines for Choosing Books for Your Classroom Library  297

Assisting Students in Selecting Material  298

In the Classroom 12.2     Guidelines for Helping Students Select Reading Material  298

Establishing and Maintaining an Independent Reading Program  298

Encouraging Out-of-School Reading  299

Responding to Literature  300

Reader Response  300

In the Classroom 12.3     Students’ Artistic Responses After Reading About Animals  301

Literature Circles  302

In the Classroom 12.4     Establishing Literature Circles in a Fourth-Grade Classroom  302

Three Frameworks That Promote Literature and Reader Response  303

Book Club and Book Club Plus  304

Reading Workshop  306

In the Classroom 12.5     A Glimpse into a Reading Workshop in Action  308

Reflect and Apply  309

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   309

In the Classroom 12.6     Encouraging Reluctant Readers  310

Concluding Remarks  311

Extending Learning  311

Children’s Literature  312



The Reading-Writing Connection  358

A Positive Reading-Writing Environment  358

The Intellectual Climate  359

The Physical Environment  360

In the Classroom 13.1     Guidelines for Creating a Positive Writing Environment  360

The Process Approach to Writing  361

Informal Writing  364

nReflect and Apply  365

Some Writing Forms and Purposes  365

Writing to Learn and to Understand  366

Note Taking  366

In the Classroom 13.2     Sample Lesson on Note Taking  367

Brainstorming and Quickwriting  367

Semantic Mapping, the Venn Diagram, and K-W-L  368

Journals  370

In the Classroom 13.3     Introducing the Response Journal to Primary-Grade Students  372

In the Classroom 13.4     Guidelines for Journal Writing  375

      Reflect and Apply  375

Writing to Communicate  375

Letters  376

In the Classroom 13.5     Writing Letters to or from People Students Read About  376

Biographies and Autobiographies  377

Reports  378

The Reading Corner        Books by Exemplary Nonfiction Children’s Book Authors  379

Imaginative Writing  380

In the Classroom 13.6     Writing Imaginative Mathematics Scenarios and Questions  380

Fiction  382

Poetry  382

In the Classroom 13.7     Writing Poems Around a Theme  383

      Reflect and Apply  383

The Writing Workshop  383

Responding to Students’ Writing  385

Publishing and Celebrating Writing  387

      Reflect and Apply  388

Strengths and Challenges of Diversity   388

In the Classroom 12.8     Activities to Challenge Skillful Writers  389

Concluding Remarks  390

Extending Learning  390

Children’s Literature  391


Learning to Read English as a Second Language in the UnIted States  396

Fostering Reading Achievement in English-Language Learners  396

In the Classroom 14.1     Traditional Instructional Principles  396

In the Classroom 14.2     Instructional Principles Motivated by Constructivist and Sociocultural Theories  397

The U.S. Landscape  397

Some Challenges of Learning to Read in a Second Language  399

Challenges Faced by English-Language Learners  399

Challenges Faced by Teachers  401

What Light Does Research Shed on These Challenges?  402

The Importance of Language Knowledge  403

The Importance of Literacy in the First Language  404

Cross-Language Influences  405

Cross-Cultural Influences  405

      Reflect and Apply  406

Instructional Principles  406

Delpit’s Principles for Working with Poor Urban Children  406

Demand Critical Thinking  407

Ensure Access to the Basic Skills, Conventions, and Strategies Essential to Success in U.S. Education  407

Empower Students to Challenge Racist Views of Their Competence and Worthiness  408

In the Classroom 14.3     Using the Shared Reading Experience in a Sixth-Grade ESL Class  408

Recognize and Build on Strengths  409

Use Familiar Metaphors and Experiences from the Children’s World  409

Create a Sense of Family and Caring  409

Monitor and Assess Needs, and Then Address Them with a Wealth of Diverse Strategies  410

Honor and Respect Children’s Home Cultures  410

      Reflect and Apply  411

Kamil and Bernhardt’s Techniques for Working with English-Language Learners in Typical Classrooms  411

Take Advantage of the 20 Percent Rule  411

Give English-Language Learners and Yourself Plenty of Time  412

In the Classroom 14.4     Summarizing Part of a Selection  413

Use the Rosetta Stone Technique  414

Involve Parents, Siblings, and Other Speakers of the Children’s Languages  415

Use All the Available People Resources  416

In Assessing Students, Give Them the Freedom to Choose the Language in Which to Respond  417

The Reading Corner        Books Available in Bilingual Formats  418

Use Informational Texts as a Significant Part of Instruction  419

Use Alternative Assessment Strategies  420

Additional Suggestions for Working with English-Language Learners  420

In the Classroom 14.5     Gersten and Baker’s Suggestions for Working with English-Language Learners  420

In the Classroom 14.6     Jiménez’s Recommendations for Working with Latino and Latina Students  421

In the Classroom 14.7     Short and Echevarria’s SIOP Model  422

In the Classroom 14.8     AERA’s Recommendations  422

      Reflect and Apply  423

Concluding Remarks  423

Extending Learning  424

Children’s Literature  425


References  485

Photo Credits  503

Name Index  505

Subject Index  515


Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: Motivating All Learners, 5th Edition

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